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GUIDED INQUIRY
An Instructional Framework for Designing Effective
Inquiry Units

LYN HAY

Head of Professional Learning...
+

Educating for the now & next
n  How

to we educate our students to meet the high levels of
literacy in the technologic...
+

Seven Survival Skills
as defined by business leaders in their own words
CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
“The idea...
+

Seven Survival Skills
as defined by business leaders in their own words
INITIATIVE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP
“For our produc...
+

Visible Learning
Meta-analyses of educational
research shows that the most
significant impacts on student
learning & ac...
+

Qualities not measured by most tests

https://sphotos-b.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/p480x480/293198_495527183803939_17926...
+
Inquiry underpins 21C learning
n  Critical

thinking & problem solving
expert thinking

n  Communication

& collaborat...
+
Digital literacy
n  Information literacy
access information efficiently/effectively, evaluate information
critically/co...
+

Life & career skills
n  Flexibility & adaptability
adapt to varied roles/job responsibilities/schedules/ contexts,
und...
+
Life & career skills
n Productivity & accountability
manage projects, set/meet goals, deal with obstacles/pressures,
pr...
+

The challenge: frame schooling around
questions developed and shaped by kids
+

Inquiry underpins disciplinary
thinking

Inquiry is interdisciplinary
Keri Smith (2008) How to be an explorer of the wo...
+

Inquiry moves beyond
fact finding
+

Inquiry moves beyond
just fact finding tasks
Raises	
  standard	
  of	
  research	
  assignments	
  to	
  
higher	
  le...
+

Inquiry learning

§  Is an approach to learning whereby students find and use a
variety of sources of information and ...
+

Learning in the school library
Students	
  actively	
  engage	
  with	
  diverse	
  and	
  often	
  
conflicting	
  sour...
+ Information process models

See http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/schoollibraries/teachingideas/isp/docs...
The Big 6
§ 

a	
  6	
  step	
  problem-­‐solving	
  
model	
  devised	
  to	
  support	
  
students	
  when	
  dealing	
...
+
Inquiry Research by Carol Kuhlthau

Information Seeking
Process (ISP)
Affective Domain &
Uncertainty Principle
Guided In...
The Uncertainty Principle
§  a cognitive state
§  causes anxiety and lack of confidence
§  these affective symptoms can...
From Uncertainty to Understanding...
___________________________________________
uncertainty ------------- understanding
T...
+ ISP stages
n 

Initiation: Research task is given to the students

n 

Selection: Choice of topics within a curriculum...
 

Information Search Process
Tasks

 

Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Assessment

-...
+ Inquiry-centred pedagogy & ISP
Students develop capacity to:
§  think beyond the immediate situation to consider the ‘b...
+ Inquiry-centred pedagogy & ISP
Students develop capacity to:
§  generate and develop ideas and possibilities (Collectio...
+ The emotional rollercoaster
§  Very	
  dis7nc7ve	
  ebb	
  and	
  flow	
  of	
  emo7ons	
  
following	
  the	
  demands	...
Implications of Kuhlthau's ISP
n 

Learning is an individual process, even
though the same information process model
is u...
What we now know....
n 

No matter how many times we use an
information process, a certain level of
uncertainty will alwa...
+

Motivation & inspiration

http://www.inspirationstation.co.za/?page_id=112
Introducing Guided Inquiry....
“The	
  information	
  age	
  calls	
  for	
  transforming	
  
schools	
  to	
  meet	
  new...
+

Guided Inquiry...
“... is carefully planned, closely supervised
targeted intervention(s )of an instructional
team of sc...
+

Planning a guided
inquiry unit
+

GI stages of reflection &
intervention
Set	
  of	
  3	
  templates	
  for	
  monitoring	
  progress	
  in	
  the	
  Gui...
+

Teaching a
Guided
Inquiry
Approach

Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.., & Caspari, A.. (2012).
Guided inquiry design: A fram...
 

Information Search Process
Tasks

 

Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Assessment

-...
+

Teaching strategies for
Guided Inquiry

Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.., & Caspari, A.. (2012). Guided inquiry design: A ...
This	
  phase	
  engages	
  students,	
  gets	
  them	
  excited	
  
about	
  the	
  topic	
  /	
  curriculum	
  theme	
  ...
 
Students	
  choose	
  a	
  research	
  ques7on	
  and	
  focus	
  for	
  
their	
  research.	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
 ...
Students	
  have	
  the	
  opportunity	
  to	
  present	
  their	
  
ideas	
  to	
  others.	
  They	
  communicate	
  what...
Use this GI model with your students

Source: Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.K., & Caspari, A.K. (2012). Guided inquiry desig...
GI unit design template for
teacher/TL teams

Download PDF version from http://wp.me/aryyn-dv
+

QUESTIONS?
LYN HAY
Head of Professional Learning, Syba Academy &
Adjunct Lecturer, Charles Sturt University
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Guided Inquiry : An Instructional Framework for Designing Effective Inquiry Units

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Lecture by LYN HAY, Head of Professional Learning, Syba Academy and Adjunct Lecturer, Charles Sturt University

Presented to Librarian's Knowledge Sharing Workshop participants and teaching staff of Jerudong International School, Friday 21 February, 2014
Brunei Darussalam

Published in: Education

Transcript of "Guided Inquiry : An Instructional Framework for Designing Effective Inquiry Units"

  1. 1. + GUIDED INQUIRY An Instructional Framework for Designing Effective Inquiry Units LYN HAY Head of Professional Learning, Syba Academy & Adjunct Lecturer, Charles Sturt University
  2. 2. + Educating for the now & next n  How to we educate our students to meet the high levels of literacy in the technological workplace? n  How do we prepare our students to navigate and make sense of the global information environment? n  How do we enable our students to draw on the knowledge and wisdom of the past while using the technology of the present to advance new discoveries for the future? n  How do we prepare our students to think for themselves, make good decisions, develop expertise, and learn through life? Many teachers are turning to inquiry learning in subjects across the curriculum to meet the challenge of educating their students for lifelong learning
  3. 3. + Seven Survival Skills as defined by business leaders in their own words CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING “The idea that a company’s senior leaders have all the answers and can solve problems by themselves has gone completely by the wayside…The person who’s close to the work has to have strong analytic skills. You have to be rigorous: test your assumptions, don’t take things at face value, don’t go in with preconceived ideas that you’re trying to prove.” —Ellen Kumata, consultant to Fortune 200 companies COLLABORATION ACROSS NETWORKS AND LEADING BY INFLUENCE “The biggest problem we have in the company as a whole is finding people capable of exerting leadership across the board…Our mantra is that you lead by influence, rather than authority.” —Mark Chandler, Senior Vice President and General Counsel at Cisco AGILITY AND ADAPTABILITY “I’ve been here four years, and we’ve done fundamental reorganization every year because of changes in the business…I can guarantee the job I hire someone to do will change or may not exist in the future, so this is why adaptability and learning skills are more important than technical skills.” —Clay Parker, President of Chemical Management Division of BOC Edwards http://www.tonywagner.com/7-survival-skills
  4. 4. + Seven Survival Skills as defined by business leaders in their own words INITIATIVE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP “For our production and crafts staff, the hourly workers, we need self-directed people… who can find creative solutions to some very tough, challenging problems.” —Mark Maddox, Human Resources Manager at Unilever Foods North America EFFECTIVE ORAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION “The biggest skill people are missing is the ability to communicate: both written and oral presentations. It’s a huge problem for us.” —Annmarie Neal, Vice President for Talent Management at Cisco Systems ACCESSING AND ANALYZING INFORMATION “There is so much information available that it is almost too much, and if people aren’t prepared to process the information effectively, it almost freezes them in their steps.” —Mike Summers, Vice President for Global Talent Management at Dell http://www.tonywagner.com/7-survival-skills
  5. 5. + Visible Learning Meta-analyses of educational research shows that the most significant impacts on student learning & achievement are: n  role of teacher and quality of instruction n  developing a supportive learning environment n  engaging students in discovery, inquiry, thinking, metacognition and knowledge building     (Ha%e,  2009)        
  6. 6. + Qualities not measured by most tests https://sphotos-b.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/p480x480/293198_495527183803939_1792655796_n.png
  7. 7. + Inquiry underpins 21C learning n  Critical thinking & problem solving expert thinking n  Communication & collaboration complex communicating n  Creativity & innovation applied imagination & invention
  8. 8. + Digital literacy n  Information literacy access information efficiently/effectively, evaluate information critically/competently, use information accurately/creatively n  Media literacy analyse media, ethically/legally access & use media, create media products by effectively using media tools n  ICT literacy use technology as a tool to research, organise, evaluate, communicate, social networking, ethically/legally use technologies www.21stcenturyskills.org
  9. 9. + Life & career skills n  Flexibility & adaptability adapt to varied roles/job responsibilities/schedules/ contexts, understand, negotiate, balance diverse views/beliefs, find workable solutions n  Initiative & self-direction manage goals/time, work independently, be self-directed learners, go beyond basic mastery, reflect critically on past experiences to inform future progress n  Social & cross-cultural interaction know when to listen/when to speak, be respectful interacting with others, work effectively in diverse teams, be open-minded to different ideas/values, leverage social/cultural difference to create new ideas, innovate& improve quality of own/groups’ work www.21stcenturyskills.org
  10. 10. + Life & career skills n Productivity & accountability manage projects, set/meet goals, deal with obstacles/pressures, prioritise/plan/manage to achieve intended result, produce results through multitasking, managing time effectively, respect/appreciate team diversity n Leadership & responsibility project-based, studio model of work more prevalent now, guide & lead others, use interpersonal/problem-solving skills to influence/ guide others towards a goal, inspire other to accomplish, lead by example, selflessness, acting responsibly with interests of larger community in mind www.21stcenturyskills.org
  11. 11. + The challenge: frame schooling around questions developed and shaped by kids
  12. 12. + Inquiry underpins disciplinary thinking Inquiry is interdisciplinary Keri Smith (2008) How to be an explorer of the world. New York: Perigree
  13. 13. + Inquiry moves beyond fact finding
  14. 14. + Inquiry moves beyond just fact finding tasks Raises  standard  of  research  assignments  to   higher  level  by:   §  §  §  §  §  §  Drawing on life experiences Learning from a wide range of sources Forming deep understanding Gaining sense of accomplishment Developing competence and expertise Helps student consolidate learning across subject areas
  15. 15. + Inquiry learning §  Is an approach to learning whereby students find and use a variety of sources of information and ideas to increase their understanding of a problem, topic or issue §  It requires more than simply answering questions or getting a right answer §  It espouses investigation, exploration, search, quest, research, pursuit and study §  Inquiry does not stand alone; it engages, interests and challenges students to connect their world within the curriculum §  It is often an individual pursuit §  Can be enhanced by being part of a community of learning §  Without some guidance, inquiry learning can be daunting §  Inquiry is not an add-on to the curriculum, it is a way of learning content, skills and values within the curriculum through inquiry
  16. 16. + Learning in the school library Students  actively  engage  with  diverse  and  often   conflicting  sources  of  information  and  ideas  to  discover   new  ones,  to  build  new  understandings,  and  to  develop   personal  viewpoints  and  perspectives.   KNOWLEDGE  OUTCOME   -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐   It  is  underpinned  by  stimulating  encounters  with   information  –  encounters  which  capture  their  interest   and  attention,  and  which  motivate  and  direct  their   ongoing  inquiry.   INFORMATION  FOUNDATION   (Todd 2008)
  17. 17. + Information process models See http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/schoollibraries/teachingideas/isp/docs/infoskills.pdf
  18. 18. The Big 6 §  a  6  step  problem-­‐solving   model  devised  to  support   students  when  dealing   with  informa7on   §  addresses  physical  and   cogni7ve  steps     §  very  popular   interna7onally  with   professional  support   material  incl.  Books,   newsle>er,  website,   conference  and  listserv   support  –  see   h>p://www.big6.com    
  19. 19. + Inquiry Research by Carol Kuhlthau Information Seeking Process (ISP) Affective Domain & Uncertainty Principle Guided Inquiry
  20. 20. The Uncertainty Principle §  a cognitive state §  causes anxiety and lack of confidence §  these affective symptoms can be expected in the early stages of the ISP “…uncertainty, confusion and frustration are associated with vague, unclear thoughts about a topic or question”
  21. 21. From Uncertainty to Understanding... ___________________________________________ uncertainty ------------- understanding T vague clear F anxious confident A exploring documenting access ------------------- information ____________________________________________ 3 levels of experience: thinking (cognitive) feeling (affective) acting (physical)
  22. 22. + ISP stages n  Initiation: Research task is given to the students n  Selection: Choice of topics within a curriculum theme n  Exploration: Building background knowledge, encountering many perspectives n  Formulation: Selection of focus question n  Collection: Accessing and using complex information n  Presentation: Presenting outcome of research n  Assessment: Reflection on learning process and learning outcomes
  23. 23.   Information Search Process Tasks   Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Assessment --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion (affective) frustration doubt clarity sense of direction/ confidence satisfaction or disappointment Thoughts vague----------------------------------------→focused (cognitive) ---------------------------------------------------→ increased interest Actions seeking relevant information-------------------------------→seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting Zone of Intervention: the critical point / need for instruction GUIDED INQUIRY Kuhlthau, C, Caspari, A., & Maniotes, L. (2007) Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited
  24. 24. + Inquiry-centred pedagogy & ISP Students develop capacity to: §  think beyond the immediate situation to consider the ‘big picture’ before focusing on the detail (Exploration) §  suspend judgment about a situation to consider alternative pathways (Exploration) §  pose insightful and purposeful questions (Formulation) §  apply strategies to uncover meaning and make reasoned judgments (Collection) §  reflect on thinking, actions and processes (all stages, Assessment) (Todd, 2011)
  25. 25. + Inquiry-centred pedagogy & ISP Students develop capacity to: §  generate and develop ideas and possibilities (Collection) §  analyse information logically and make reasoned judgements (Collection) §  evaluate ideas and create solutions and draw conclusions (Collection) §  assess the feasibility, possible risks and benefits in the implementation of their ideas (Collection, Assessment) §  create meaningful representations of their deep knowledge (Presentation)   (Todd, 2011)
  26. 26. + The emotional rollercoaster §  Very  dis7nc7ve  ebb  and  flow  of  emo7ons   following  the  demands  of  the  research   process   §  Construc7vist  approach  to  learning:    staged,   guided   §  Students  are  not  ‘abandoned’  in  the   research  process   §  Focus  on  deep  learning,  competence,   mastery,  and  self  empowerment      
  27. 27. Implications of Kuhlthau's ISP n  Learning is an individual process, even though the same information process model is used n  Knowledge is constructed based on past experience n  TLs & teachers must develop expertise in dealing with individual student's affective concerns when completing information tasks
  28. 28. What we now know.... n  No matter how many times we use an information process, a certain level of uncertainty will always affect student's completion of information tasks when encountering new or 'unique' information n  TLs & teachers must employ a range of strategies during learning process to assist students to cope with the uncertainty principle
  29. 29. + Motivation & inspiration http://www.inspirationstation.co.za/?page_id=112
  30. 30. Introducing Guided Inquiry.... “The  information  age  calls  for  transforming   schools  to  meet  new  challenges”     n  Guided inquiry is a new learning and instructional model n  Occurs in a collaborative learning environment led by an instructional team n  Learning from a variety of sources n  Inquiry process for deep understanding 'unique' information
  31. 31. + Guided Inquiry... “... is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention(s )of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and gradually lead towards independent learning.” CISSL, Guided Inquiry (2009) http://cissl.scils.rutgers.edu/guided_inquiry.html
  32. 32. + Planning a guided inquiry unit
  33. 33. + GI stages of reflection & intervention Set  of  3  templates  for  monitoring  progress  in  the  Guided  Inquiry   process  can  be  downloaded  from   h>p://studentslearn.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/gi-­‐reflec7on-­‐ sheet-­‐templates.docx    
  34. 34. + Teaching a Guided Inquiry Approach Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.., & Caspari, A.. (2012). Guided inquiry design: A framework for inquiry in your school. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
  35. 35.   Information Search Process Tasks   Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Assessment --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion (affective) frustration doubt clarity sense of direction/ confidence satisfaction or disappointment Thoughts vague----------------------------------------→focused (cognitive) ---------------------------------------------------→ increased interest Actions seeking relevant information-------------------------------→seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting Zone of Intervention: the critical point / need for instruction Open Immerse Explore Identify Gather Create Share Evaluate Kuhlthau, C, Caspari, A., & Maniotes, L. (2007) Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited
  36. 36. + Teaching strategies for Guided Inquiry Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.., & Caspari, A.. (2012). Guided inquiry design: A framework for inquiry in your school. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
  37. 37. This  phase  engages  students,  gets  them  excited   about  the  topic  /  curriculum  theme  they  will  be   exploring,  and  encourages  them  to  begin  thinking   about  how  the  inquiry  unit  connects  to  pre-­‐exis7ng   knowledge.     Students  develop  background  knowledge  about  the   research  topic  as  a  community  without  focusing  on   “too  much  detail.”      Get  the  BIG  picture     Students  explore  their  topic,  find  new  informa7on   and  consider  different  perspec7ves,  and    develop   sufficient  knowledge  to  move  forward  in  the   research  process.    
  38. 38.   Students  choose  a  research  ques7on  and  focus  for   their  research.                                 Students  collect  detailed  informa7on  from  a  variety   of  sources.    They  evaluate  sources  and  record  key   ideas  from  the  sources.  They  take  detailed  notes  and   learn  how  to  organize,  quote,  and  use  informa7on   ethically.   Students  are  encouraged  to  go  beyond  lis7ng  a   collec7on  of  facts.    They  use  technology  tools  to   create  a  product  that  shows  what  they  have  learned  
  39. 39. Students  have  the  opportunity  to  present  their   ideas  to  others.  They  communicate  what  they   have  learned  to  others       Students,  teachers  and  school  librarians  assess   the  learning  outcomes  and  reflect  on  what   needs  to  be  done  
  40. 40. Use this GI model with your students Source: Kuhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.K., & Caspari, A.K. (2012). Guided inquiry design: A framework for inquiry in your school. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
  41. 41. GI unit design template for teacher/TL teams Download PDF version from http://wp.me/aryyn-dv
  42. 42. + QUESTIONS? LYN HAY Head of Professional Learning, Syba Academy & Adjunct Lecturer, Charles Sturt University

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