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الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
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الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
الموسوعة النفسية 02
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الموسوعة النفسية 02

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  • 1. i j I d I ,L;;- + + Y b* ++I JS j j ~,+iji *+ ;I!~d~j &3304f5il.,14&i;l&p FP*.+p ++I3 -+-;dl +' :( 7t o - o A Y ) Grotius p%jE P d+I ;li. +iij- .$dl +3k d"L 6 P 6 P $ c"E'+I d"L4 c"E@jJl P i j k r~ ++I3 .++I klL L d ~ ~ ~ji AM+I +&k;t 'War of words f i U l +p9%J& Psychological 2 I ; fl+JJ,+-fl ,Will war i j ~ , ~ y I+~,-j .warfare ++I3 ,Racial war-++ ++I3 j -+,l+Jl +&Ij ,Cold war ~ J ~ L J I ,Political diplomatic war k_lLIILLU-JI .- +jm.Class war i j l h l + ~ j ~ + ~ I j L S u r v i v a lwarsGI j k 9 1i-,+, ++13 .Sex war 41 d++I ,War between generations L j,War against poverty JLLill &j ,War against diseases $41 ++I ,War against crinie ++I ,War against war Lg- & fl , c l d l yL+d3 -41 oLM f j-
  • 2. sj LLJ@G G ~ I ~Jl>%l $LL 5 P JxG3.I& b;;(j&9* L 5 i + & ~ P ~ & + + l ~ ~ ~5Kb;llu y j J&Lgid &rjpq9 L t I+Y I3 -++I S&iL3 &&J~Lkll+L>;~I&J 6-1 5U3. p d I '&LuIj ;MI,IJ&l +-IJ3 Gamplovics &+l+ ,Treitischke 4 3 2 ~ 9 ~'Ratzenhofer ;I&J L L J ~'Steinmets &L3 I I I Ranan- +I- 2&!l &E+ pdic ++L + G I+3 Psychological purgation - 5 6 +3+1 ij3+3 L&l+ Ordeal .Moral degeneration & + d l ~pJ;ll- &+!dl ~ ~ 0 %+A GLd13 'Spencer & +Y> 3 3 6y1JLall G e S ;e-9 'Bagehot at& $1 j3 .Novkov &AWyIw+ >++I @ A 3 .Animal war L S L ; I ~ ~ - I I+* :e ++I3 'Primitive war kr;l+Jl++I3 Qd1++Ij 'Civilized war +&I Recent -&!MI ++I 3 Modern war
  • 3. ' ; J 9 d I +jSxfl &4 al+l LILA% ' ~ 1 - ~ y - ~ b l l U 1 3 -$I k l ; Y I &+3+13 - -&&J +jF2- &3 '&A1 I LJL1+ 3 - . y 3 L 4 3 w i,413 U~J-+& p i 3 4 1 3 b-+ +jpj' k _ L a L ) ? 331-11 +,+I &9 . b L$A- ++I &4 &i r !$4kLLL;Iy)?l +rd 3 ' ~ 4 - 3 *XC &L &$!+I Lp & JX;;1Yl'dl ++i - u 9 1 + d l 3 .,- ;1I&l + d l dS9li)9&lI dl2+2l+l +&I p ' q I A y l v J+LLI kjh1U W I ++I .3- i r !"3 g" i r ! ekrY J-+J&+ 3 d $ @3 'UacLU&a ++I a6LUiriJL - d3i- I g- 3i' b ~g . I ~- L ~ W IA l32i ip3. & ~ k ++I p a r +is@ 'Deutsch -2~ JJK9 'Almond id -3 .Bereison ir+* J J & 4 3 frl+Ij>+I (jj-i -11 G3 3i+sf%+! 3i &+dl OL& Heroic age crf@I- - LILA i;Lj .&A&%- dl+ & prWl &A 4' 5 4 w F gG & j I j +&I &Id ++I-. ;;Iy 3 . & d l &+dl LqJ+ii 3i-41 bki+ 3 ~ ~04 ;;Iar! ,+5 ,-WI- 3i~JUYI bGlJ3i r ~41- 41 ..;.',~i 3i L&f '"93'- v , L ) ? 1 3 'y ~ t l4&&11 >+I.. 'L&'+ &.dL y+!~~i&ilk19.+&4+-idl i;--$WI pU9S,7JI WrightolJ '&P TVA a : - ~ iII ++I-5 * A V bf 3 '63~31+.+ & L F ++g-.14~~~~ii4 Lr &-lty T o j ' k J k +&9 witpV A ~'WUI '91a1- ~6 ~ u - u 3i'-+d9+! tF703 '-41 i-41++ 3i 5 5 31 '*'a1 &sJI q- &L*+ .-.- - 3i'4 i;K kL;WI &JWl ++I -3
  • 4. - L +=cuJ j + l ilklji13ilGlyl13 Lgi+3)---J3 .~LLQ$I u3 J W l +L& ;it,,snill&Ll+ L Y +p 3 ,Combat neurosis ++I bi ~ - 4 9'Traumatic ns. L J U I ?+ ;P j l Y! iplkll I+! eg]L &L+J-.! ++l bSCC! i l p b 5 GYP 2k3-41GJ&)U ~ 1 3 2 &>I3 p&dI3 -1 j j ~& c u l .++I +-. pL;iJI pli ++ +pi41T ~ " - d ~L 9++13- Psychological & d l ++I c L d cpli dlj --I Y$19 .warfare ~ L u l 4 - ' g i l l +3pLJ1 &a .. L L Y l3 Propaganda -+LAJL SL-9J5 +Le t-3. Rumours dd >$Ij ijo! JL&+ ,A&Y AIG~+Y&~ L i j L p L U & i j d I ~FYJ ijb k ] h I jL- . .SIULI~ ,32-!b ,+Id1 + . d l. . .AL,&b ib>t :xi , 4 ~ ~ i++ ,A += J U ~ &~JAIL a 9 L & > . ;JIt2T--3 & 2 @ p _)=~~bcq;tflCL'(~LikJ-il J J J ~ ~bammel J++ ci.j+ +s+! .l S G ~ ~ ~,Cantrll JJ+U Dunn b~LL~AJJ~ ,Klineberg f l ~ I l jL3-5ouldingC &'I+ ipIALLAl &a +3-'1 JL~+.Political psychology ,&dl d ~ ~.~assweII&--a! f3jL G j - 3 ,Riesman b L & + l J C I ; I s 1 O S ~ O O ~ J ~j3i 5 J2I3 .West -2 2j&IJ9 ,Rapoport p- 'ki o ~ l ~J+LL~'G~ II , U I >I> GY+ &"'j '++I ,Fromm 3 . 4 L L - ~ <Alexander GYp9 .Waeidei jL3i j p ~ ~ j I ' cl j,jL L & . A i L~>'+LI lg*S! L G l d ld3L&l jY13 L F ~ l I .&l;Yyl, '&I 3 'Lbl+saf13 9 6% 19;K9. d l ;r &+dl ch;l;r;JI ;La- ,,%I &+dUI ++I 2 b i- . ! 9 ~ ~ in> ,Sheei-shoc~ ++I &I Cambat fatigue -6 & A i d 1- +L,L - & x i J l&suJl-_tdl &LY3 ' + d l Li+L+ 4-? ',tCIJ sLl13 L&iJl L:lL"!dL
  • 5. ,-,U!I.d ~~.LLLY',~&L--;j! .rL2+sL,,A . . JF;jj.II I*uj +J I ++'kw c3Al +J&.i3+I>&Y JX J K ~ Y ,A;-. - .M ~ a ispirit L d I- --c' : 0 LI,.J&L%X-!' 5 ,$+;9 L ~ ' A ~ . Y ~v ) 2 J .A. I,.;d!02-a, L L - A ~ - i j l q g .dpLul13 &A gs9 .Brainwashing ihlJi J+,L z - d i .++I 41izl;~p +lLF - C . ;-LC5 "&a" &xi -+ .$L I ( :...L 4 3 . j u &L3 A ~ 9, j l w i 3 - epLil -+Ldl i ,d19;.l~I JL bylj,yJ13 & L Y -C dl L(p-9~(& .pa3 3 $1 ,a- 4 1 cAK~ &Fh(&usL&J@I ee"llJLikr;iJ .egu.JJv'j-~. &(%+?4,+ J ~~ Y U Y '( % 3 + 4 3 p2+3 .a"$' p - e @ L i 3 L . G331;Lef&$ L P m :dJ--J VL+p l ~J,++ .&A&i+J . j d ! k & . L I +Iy3 +&i 2 L A . J ~ididjJL2LLIL d312fij ."dl p+.dLdl ',Lk3 .es--."L 2L.3 & &'I 20 . ; ; C J ~ l 3- . ~ l & J l >... -L+3,eiIJ &dlp .+A! c+-i&_~-dL i dI aL9L--Ji +...J ,+UILJWI 3i,++I -I . . L&L.zdl& J.+I V+&."i.$ L A j r& + d l ice+ , ~ l & l .L&alyiw13 ;$dl & L 3 j 9W W L. . +,F3 . j ~ l id J & i +&&Ij s@'I 5 4 VI Y L-LO;M Classical $@I ++I + Gl;; - " 5 o r tradit~onal war@ JL .- - z ,.4ud; .&>ti &!-% 4;: .-- &JJK &++*J b W l Lg?g LO* 3- i ~ l e 4 1 u3.>@Ij @&-L&kj +pj' k r J +F ++I9 - . . 4 -1 1 h - r & Ad-7 +-j b ~ l l ~ ! 4 l&Lj .kni'l al,^;''LJ J j U l &I.; ;& kcL.4+13 A l p 5 1 d+ &.=G(d+j . b L l j IL&Lij & i i J l ++I ;iJ+s3.l$jcoJ'&fl s+lj L c ~JS +ui w13A ~ J ~ - ~ + I ~J A I ~ +dlJ P C + &+i)l & k + i l - I : L s .+$IJ
  • 6. ;++I )LG?!cbfl~~j +h9sj ~.l,a,~& ; t ~ ~ e ] l-+I b L 3 L;++ a&AdL3z++ Jj2l Fifth wk Huy I&I& ~ 2 %31I3~k I_1lcolumn. F +p&i-!++I ij+j i 2 j L +, +I ijg&a @ +rj .++ d9 KI Cold war &.12+! +, 3j (War of ideas jki Y ;+if1 bt&Lij Ideological w. +l ZL;- +a j r 0 2 L I I ++I 1-39 &&j c a k a f n ~ b f - - -5 .War of nerves +LPC~+, +I3 +jpjcz+bgj G L 2 + i j +yjb ~ L 3 a L ; L x 3 3 a L c l _ 1 .z+L,L.~Lu~.- ji Z+L, klr.,tI +)XU d& &&.I1 ++I3 2 +, ip9 . ~ _ L L !9 3 W h &A bi bj2+j+~$L +, Gi+ AI GYr L L j b" &',id ++I3 &(.xLLAYl &2A p &&J;;;C,~U&J~I I L + & - &3-Qf(j &+'3 &+W' IYJ+ .&+A Ldd&4 akL+l1321$'13 -
  • 7. 4 (L, &4 a I t 8 ~ ~ ; ~ l+&I A JLI 14 .War by horns j19%ll +p?! , P P I &IJ9-!! 3 9 ~ :! * E da3 & L l d I a+-- . . & Pamphlets @ ~ ~ J ~ A U . L L & ~ ~ I- ~9xc& -p'kil;M3 '+kjL P ~ 5 +p?& tdl p SL~JI?,GLJI d-;i3wg ~ L a j L d l ~ j ~ j % l lJLj! +p412 2 ..,A ; 11 ++I eel- 3i Broadcasting war a l l ISdl C 'War by microphones aL$9&dl 'L9~j+fl- .. G & U L++I .+LLi+JI tut'3L s ; s ; ; S d k 3 LZ -'-1 !J3Lgll ejg;ll J!2 L 1 ~ 3 aYQ1 ;r .4;91 J.L ijh "aLsLAJ1.. ' & a i z l f w 9 L & i z d l ~I+-+L,-I~ & y j ~ f ~- .. 21m%l -&)CC! +!&jL ++I alu3& d l >+I -9 .&LA, l&~-bL>%& L+ C!!Js33 & ! I - ~ s 3 ~ l u ~ ; & 4 + g w ~ 9 w P ?&d- y&l ( r d g i l L l j Y d j u 3.s+ g k,.ln:j klsi +I +..,+J~.-~JILL+I +i '&dl3 A+l3+al L k L* . ~ G l d l- al+a)l& 'Jl Y l '++Lib '+$I ;-js 'fsrll b+@ ' l & u j i i 3 5 .Jpdl p+Jt&lFYl SL.;3 k?~k;ll++I bi GU42 u'+ &ZP J ~ Ye Jb LI +C~Sp- 0Jj3iL FullerA+++ isi, <<Tanks in the War>>bl+- p vi '((++ p.. L,LLJJI,,. . +p l d l lFj; J~YI &dWl ++I I I $+ Ijig& k k ~ - l l J+&~IG!& ~gi. +3 3 5 i . 3 L r ~ ,+L.+A .. g- wh3j3i &i ~JUYI ~ 1 ~ 3 1JP& + I ~ L Ibi3..WI-jk 3- A ~ J L+lri 31d&j e~yit~l+ 41b e $s9' J Y ~ Y I aLsLAJl i,3~&~+9 ' + U l L& lF:l,l L+Lld! 2 u J l &c l F ~ 1 3.p+j15i3e g ; L L A l 5 ~ e I - 3 J* dYIdll u3'@LL J+ b32& i$K3
  • 8. ilb@!+?WI.. p d 3 * Q k d l tlg;j f.. 'uilK;-13 .dl,, .&Ij ?,,,I1 w.ak&l13 & k Y 1 3 + d l ++I &.. k J U r l j "&j b b 9 L+pJJ&k d L L p+I ;J~-.J ~Li,'t"- 4hl$LfipJ13LgIsLJI (jL+J., e,;;3 41J;Lj S~~ +j .dil,'d +u"& dl3 I ++I &ij l l $ L d I j q@=JI +(+dl t& JI.. ~ c A I ~.. y+l +jig ~ ~ I A I+eJ1.. G.Lj %LA14 o h 3 L191U9l pg L a - LL .Defensive propaganda G b A I JrLCL;;3 Jl &Agressive p. + d l.. .. 5 ~Id-C'dlJ9-kxbA4u41 ~ L I b ~ 4 1.. ji L+~Fj .sl~sJAsbtlGIL, kLPj3& + U I &'J U I &Xi LLJl r ~ J c i e i j - i j N ~ ~ j L d ~ p p + ~ * 3s t-3 6 4 d b pbw sL~9&I- &GI tx+~~ ; ~ - ? i &LA3.,!-L~J~4 1 9 1 2 C a i i a a . 3 Strategic p. -++I+ ;& .Gi sli3+ulJ+&I L&y$3+u & d l -10 4; -'A79 JUJ t+ALd!&4& L p & & A d a ~kJ13 .&i +++I ;;u JI.. c g l ~ i d ~ JI>$I &&,(J&Jm!J-1 y a j WjJPJji g ~ adLkri13 &'dl x+'ll gL3.d&+.lL +ibY13 JA ++ Psycho10gical mobilization Ll&l &A i,&&I:, ++I t* I j I .'lp;d13 ;irkY13 &LA1 L;irlidl JM3 1 Ge4;;", J - - L - LP ~ - " v i ] n l n r i ~.. -91+ LL~:,~,hJbi.. ,+dl... 2Moral-guidancedepartment- 4 L -1 &J_! t9-k~ j J l ~ 3 +dl +$I "&Lap G J I r i A 1 3 21~ i ,.&$I -144 J ~ ~ 5 ,IJ~YI A, .. %+lj +I ejL d 1 2 U I &S+ , W I ;,& L W l co' b3JJ4 I . / . ; Y l ,-Id1 dL:-. ..., 2 . 31 ,&~ A,';tu=L+Y13 - .- 3 ?j--i - 6 3 - 0 &+Ij&.UdI L ~ U40i j i ~ j ~Lp~JijpjjJ&~
  • 9. 'u.. . WL;;;i+ di LLYI- 'Creeping r. ku-.Wl kcL4dl cfb o h 3- P L L b l l ) GsPfI ;,ti aJG! '(Divisive r. G ~ I z J ~ !3i '(Riot r. +LLII kk!) .(Curiosity r. J+I LL V - 4 - r I i A. - - ~ k ! )+L-.~I Z ~ U !3i LjY bl- i,&4 .(Agitating r. LC- 3iI ( B O ~ Y r. -bjY&LA!) *- 3i.( am aging r. L I ~Lk!) 5 w I, 3i '(Atrocity r. $ M I L h I ) r. of j L L l LL!)-6aLL;& +- -%sf9&- +I) .(wishful thinking .(,dl +LlI h L L Y I &Y - W. Daugberty: Psychological Warfare Casebook. - Farago et al: German Psychological Warfare. - Grotius, Hugo: De Jure belli ac Pacis. 5 & Tactical p. ;iI : ( ;j '3sLT1 Private p. L L ; 3i& I $41 J!pe+"G ;+Lurl QLW L p g . L*; jWhite p. +& 3i'L+-- 3i"h3GI, I.- J--3 jjrll &Y3 && JLZ Black p. + I J ~ &I i,-. hgi Grey p. &1LJ3i.i;G . d 1 3 J d I k f w & i 3 + d l g L L ~ I Li3- " -&3lk4 -63 wU I
  • 10. ?L~I ~1~ . ~ ~ r i l ~ ~ &+dl +I jY- db• ++dl! Prejuge3 . j&db Prejudice +-dl .2.'~p 3i ( G y J L ) Preconceito3 ;~-Iu%~LVorurteil $"3 3!I ; ; & l l.. (&lbJJL) L ~ ~ ~ + J L + + J ~ ~ + F &+& b J x 3 pL+ F A ' --3iO & . ~ J I +&3 .+I - 5 ~ ~ i . + ~ ~ i ; g ~ e ~ , + - , z + L (JJJ L d L + y I 31 F& ++ & &L++~.++ 3ia+++- d ip3.- 3i4 6 & . P &L9 L-+n-,Yl ijk11WlJb2 ,-I L b i +JLL L, 4.U@Ji,& Tribal &if - L C ;--*~I~JL(&)JFA~+~&> 4i)& .Racial prejudice wl+%l~- AA Aryan &K .+AA.. Crusade p. 4 1.- & d l 3 .&Ul.. &+iL b i ++3it ~ yAA .Ethnic p. & d l ' , :A* y I F! *jJ;y! - L e a :A* 7 IM pG &3 '+LA' I b j ."+I j - 1 Prejudice 6 . . :II , 6 3 1 hi 4 1 +.AM, -++If - +-'d13.G3&j +r~1&1+4i-J!G+ +L L & > d L GLCQ4t]!d,,A& P -3 L c ; a j l ++I 4 1 & 214-, i)& &.IJI-~- . + ~ i &3 4iu & ? d l 3 g + J l 3 !-I e i i'+-J .L3.& P : O J j i Nki41- 4j+ .. ~ 3 1 1 p Prejudiced d l j
  • 11. &4& 4+3y;J-19'+L-;rYl- +I .. 4 1 i r L a L Y 1 i r l w l j d l P &I3 'dl., d l & p 3 '*&.dl ILL- '+ii +I3&&!- +ki+;gdid i r U X c y W ! ipLLa&~gSj;;i G;Ekj &L+ 41&L;.9 '41&&j>- +j? +Zlj+l &- + d l 3 &&+I- ‘#I- L" - - . +*< - , I -- ' J A ~ ~ l + * i p +pji++w3.&ZI~+JI @ &J&'++I 293 p+ i I I +i (QB~41- +;dl 3i'LWI gieU,-!~ +p+ +3'~.9&+3~.9& J!uW' I+ j b i p n g 1 2 ~ b p t l p ~ ~ ~- , 55 2 , ,, 5 ,P + I - +I-, + :JL 49 ' ( T -1) , ,,e P ,9 P:: -Yl-- j-, L& 3Igl" p$ ;Lu;)P ‘d ilj+!I 99- .( V O i)l+ JT) Q#& c~+I) b::; : L ~ , l " j ~ ~ d - 1+ * i r . c ~ 3 A ~ + b a ; f ~ 3 . ( ~ ~ / ~ i bj&i+ Yj '.egk@+a+ Y '.&I
  • 12. ',3 'L44+,@l Z J - D J Liwlkfl .Q2LbAYl Y U L J l '+'.1 2 . 7 Il .. ,i + ij- g- i2I+dl3 iwpgI i)?jJli,uAid-. ,& +i 13& ;;1@bg - .. i+3 fl : l l ' ~c',.: -:p+ 1 3 j p ld3 p 4 A + J ~ L 3 ( 4 & + - 4 ~ @ +L+ dk3L@JI+.AA~ 9P ,A* .2+ sL3Ji3 +A egol&13 & i d 1 a&2?$l& I&& Racial discrimination;t#l G+ll E+yl&4 a ~ 9 l& d l b+L&-. - . - - LP &!?33,9'.al+ ir,kh+3,4b w G3 .Lgl p 3 g .+21Bell +LUuq & 2 U ! +'+i UYL +b pdj-p LA9. z & A & Y l jb3 3% ~+J&I r"d' u+ cr~1fl + A U K 4 & 4 j .aL&91 L;.' + L i d ! C . :Ae-dl &+ L+Lddi~+Ldl +.I! ++ 4 4 *&LI - C *&I+! 0- P . G U I JS+ .. ep9 A_LII;VJIJS 2 3;&?9 &-& L+wul (JGbjj +$191LYIJl F L 3cljyl-bLI- L
  • 13. b1411 I g.. d l &9jJ &El912&13 .+L 315 ULI-. + %-I Minority persecutionP c +U1+ dj2+dij'J91J;tI g3 &L+I -+LY -I ; L & & & ~ J & J C ~ & ~ $- &hij 'Ingroup L+LIJ ;-I3 -&-I +kj2~~i~+J&I T+ L 'Outgroup - J ~ ~ +&*'+L.%+ll&, jl+I L' &+I LLI~% L ~ ~ U J UiuLgi-J&I .+!A1 q&37 '5,;: dJ '.# , A * ?&jI'j'g3 5 zF1 + J& jhj L&L+I-&2.! . i,i j i j ;;L;ipq.2b ~ 4 ~ 9 1 +L&bl p +'dl aJF&ll y ~ ? s'&Iw+w +e'WI +J'i+uu J.,c ZpLdl +913 ,,,L-i .,+ ' ~ ~ a - d ~diicw d,& C9Jc09& L'=w 42* & IL +&i *j. ~ - ~ ~ j i l ~ I . 5 + I i .;5+1 P +L+oJ$j c13j p+j .c4;--JI&l .., d3''. :-*:11 ' ~ 1 2&b3 4 , "," 5 Y .. +d ijl M I TI" '&dl (dc &uL ,;A +&iwj i dj,.Fallacies & J L ~ I , +& .&.&A dlJp &k!-&- Fb9&I i)! G3 +&L+b Psycho-social epidemic d l Mental epidemics -1 k;g~l- +I +& .aL+d -( y L 3 u*:'1 L J 2 J! b+aid! - ,i 'LpO ~ L ; . ~ +I+YI u +I ;& d i i,3J>J'LI+I i.,& I+I~LIu!b~ iriA ,&UL . - i,i UL l ~ ~ ~ J P &.,-!I +jS-XfI p p & L c Lo, '*WI &+I 9 3- '+UI- j+I + 3 p - JY%& +LA JIji d U 1 3 -41 9 3- ' # I ~ L ~ Y I ',L+itl ckl;;.& A 3 'i,1; ,,,;;hf 9 &Jh3&L2 .A-10 $- &jL+ &&A$ & 4 3 +-j .$-'!' & J ~ J
  • 14. Social *&YI +!$I jlpI &J+ - &!I- &I+!! @ +J adjustment b l l + t l blL a 3 ,Psychological a. -I y &19 FlgillJ!irk+ -4- . 4 s 9 ~J O L ~ ~G~'0~1.49 !,LJ-d JI ; t r k ; b ( - ; i ~ l 1 LiC4 u'.,:,.;dl3 '6Cil;YL sI9;11 .i- .c(4fiki;l g G+. 4;i YI ei;.- &dl * L y &!L &N.-- - c+IS_S &- 4;- dS3'iYLi.+ &3 .&,MI fi-1 ~u a&GCk*&!+i d&u - p5 (p9 ',k+Y- ty+iJL &L~.J.J Y! .ei;r~-;s,O&I 3iJLI 4 ; i + + = + ~ ~ ~ , i + & 4 i i '-qhI&+&&dl$! +Lu& " ir,dj++.-]++M13 &a+ f i L , U l ' L , d I 5 $91 ' z $ k "+& $LJ3 * P +I+ bfi i ] l b! J2;3 .;$I+ i u j ~a ..-L 31J ~ i
  • 15. 'LSYJ- &I.LwLJ' 0 h L j Y I F L L &Ih Lij+l b 2 cd?g c L L Y 1 9. C &13d19 &k uJb3,&dG LMl i j U I 3q,i9l+ oLL+ J&YI C JL3 j*Y d_;b. Z + i ,AL.II U Authoritative 2 L I ..; A 11 ;i o L Y I I h J d l personality- $141LL+I +*L-i6 4 bJ ~i , J b ~ ~ ~ a L b L j Y I 3 u $ I + '&dl uJLJw 9 1 .ekJ~+i3,&I9 UI IL JL~-J+JI IL e~4J3 d O& GJ-Y -eJ&4 r&&hl 2%kJ,i '-91 k k &+ -1'4 Fb'&L+$I '. :A* ;I &Ylj! &&I&+I -Y-&I9x3 4 2 k J 9 ~ ~ ~ - l ~ ~ ~ - . . - I d i c b Jlpi *i: ;I; :: ,&JIIL t&i$l' & J - - * J ~ L ~ ' j i J - ; ; r s d i c b a ~ + ~ JI&t&L9 -L_LJ13alJGi,-3
  • 16. sJ3';I LgJ Stereotypes -1 &+I dK Lel- ijFc;LS sJFbi;d! (~_LG++JI - - . .ij-9 :JS;dlJ-lj '4- +b.~pij t + ~ d+k~ IL~W ++m*i&d& $ d l jh! w . w 1 3'i+913 &dl&I- , , wPB;ij&L 3i'iJu ' p + J k j(pejl~Gjp++b & G Y v J l z +~ L W IGjs~ L U S&J.. &I i j I L L ! I j ' p i J & pplEb '(-3kiJ (Q4Lu eg"&L;II ; r e L ; d I 3 +l+Y P P ee;!JL+ dip :+%I -lj p ~ ~ ; d .'b3'k~i Aj .&&dl ~ L L J J 3W l (pc -4 -, ,n; ,;JI cp'~ui; di cc; - 4 -I ,;JI(eu! a&f 2 L . 7 JJ 'Ethnocentric personalitykS-t I b + ~ + ~ i ~ ~ . f ; i , l ~ ~&;dlj +&;dl$ i ; d U & + d l +(dlj!.4;)9 L ~ I J ~ gi.~*iL!L S * ; ~@WIj,&I&$ &% & 45' d l 0s @ ' + L A
  • 17. JLL$~IJ- . f i L J U I o h & IL++ & k ~ ~ ~ ~ h &djkg Lk c ) ~ T ~ l 'La- &l+13 ++&dJL- +&...&I 2L3 >h2 -! p d_;i -. a ~ a ~- i , ~I ~ ; Kc i ~ ~jai bi j j Y $ t l . ; - ; . ? t l 4 I Gbi,&'S & d b j . + I 2 4 1 a+>~ +.Self-hatred a111 d1 -19A JULI i,i L = . ~-5 7 , L & i , 9 & A + 4 ~ 1 3 ~ 3 k J 3 .b+.?2.p&kkYp 4 4 .-4cL+ 2 L 9 L &+I (J-4 i,& A & L Y l. C &I &13dI o h j - jp3.upguk;ij ! ~ ~ - i d Lgir YL+ A L b i b ~ j &i kc-,, .w.L+~~.II fA-LA'J L Z ' d3.&L&s +I+-~I p ;+&I JI A d! ~ u $ t I& L a J w U I Ja iJ41 lj2 .p++&I3&! OL a w k& ;c;? J - A U ~ . (p$14(o&! dIJ2)11 i,K o%.+ db'Z'",,; ]I3- . . ;* ,A,,L - - .,-i I ; + I ' p ' I & L S 2 U l j- .fi&5!1 3 ( p L L d l3 Y ;+wi,jI '., I n - ;1'3 ,iu.JKAi 4jg;Li &L! a b k d I &j . ' . I LIh2'-*; . . L & k $1 +k;zd13 G3.a: ,--L 'Yl +k&+& cj-Lb+dl L~UI aL.41+ke,&I i,& ;L.;L?. 4i,& L'.:T! 4311-i d y l @ ;+a+,;; jLi+dL.uJj.+p ?4ls' &&l +UL; 3& 4J3' . k a ~ L . i 4 L J I -&&dl * U I ,y?jXJ J!&+)L~>L*IZLJI+~AJ- +I,, 4- '+* 22% $AilF 4?;lF3 c i & & di -++&I e ; ~ ~ ~.JGI di L,+ + 4 L 3.d+ ~iP.: % j>2'diJS ~ ! 1 4 ~ - a & i h l L-ll- t~;t13a U l ji .P+ .b3+h~ &+i&L +J .+;+I L&dI&JL
  • 18. Y dbwCk&3 L., a !I d ! j 2 ! ~b@$I c L 3 1 ~ ~ ~ 3&&I Y U-)d~ ~ 9 bg A 3 J!p-k!C1yLk3 +I+' 2 1 t 1 3 1 & ~ ~ l p L e l- : 7 11 .i,&&dI 9 . u+ oJ@b '.. --a 7 11 +.c3 d$I&I& c&+& &I oJ-t + Y Attitude 0t;il.S 9 3 f U Y L 1 a L a L ; Y I J+&LjC . e $L33% &a & L d 1 3 iJA4~ bi uuQ3.'A - : $ 7 113 I ' II - &iA 4 Anti-propaganda Z 2 k d I ;--!bi Y! .+* g +.ill * kL. 1- !- . .&I LSJYib~ YJLL+JI I , L L & . ~ ~ ) C C ~ I ~ ~ ~ + + ~ dl;b, J& ;ta9 a L J L+ I&& i,&3 Double bind L & b -&I jI 3i.+I J I , ~2N~3 2133p y lI - 'r - 4ir, L . U I (,*'dl &'IJ.+- +-Liki)i J - l ~ p ~ y ~ i ) ! ~ .-&tl - - 1 4 1 3;-C 'Algxll o h &j I& -1
  • 19. :&P - Adorno et al: The Authoritarian Personality. - Allport: The Nature of Prejudice. - K. Clark: The Dark Ghetto. - Saenger G.: The Social Psychology of Prejudice. - B. Olson: Faith and Prejudice. - Dollard et al: Frustration and Aggression.
  • 20. 4'+e;g)9 *pll +a Is+ ~ L l j d IO* - Li,-lr2YLpl+C;Jl ;i+l -a+- b i ji 2 ~ l-. LSLL-L :&lj - '+LiS!*- - Lk-"j.yll ~ 4 ~ 3b'9+*l1 @IF 9;JEY . h ~ ys;b iu1a12A-113 $ 1 1 &&.dl +As+ dGWl&AAj .r h Y l i,+9 .t .:1 . d l*+.& g. b+ alj&Cb & Lgi%kj , L.+ >formation JI>$ jljJ$ &!j .&kj ;g,le;ljLb. ~ 8 4 1 ~ i ~,& F j l '&&dl bMs3I &j!+13 ji .-+wIji . + b a l l ~hiYL1 .I& 2 4 1j ~ i i ,p i group -4 LLb~lpl~>LI-. a)Crld;J13.alrlrlLfl -LkAil -3 *. .-j ;+& ,face-to-face group +I+ secondary 'i$L ;trb-L,jJ-iefl F w Z ~ Y Ii , ~&+i+L +3 'group &I informal group -hJ+L k 'formal group hJ-LbLJ41 29 NOBILIS ( - -7 ) ~;jbj41+I> +I +- -1 - k p + l- -
  • 21. open group. L+dl LL+l b A 9 b- 'in-group &LldI - & M I 3 -3 out-group ;LLZJLjLJl LL&! continuous g. l LL+l 'ki u.'ullL+ ;ki J+ b 5 contingent GJLb (ji)953 ~2 5 L 3 ' temporary group 3l 'group -&I3 .permanent group L d l ~ LL+l bh small group ;;+.Jl - 3 b i g group ;;2&ll L L majority groupLJL51-. I& LCprll3 !minority group -;'dl ' homogenous group L A W ! L~~L U I 3+s9! a 2 U I 3 (j@ ~3 'imposed group g.L-I +)Cb5 .voted group @i piJLI p absolutism - -&4&e-"J+341&p-3 ~ f bblanket g. LglL yY&1 Lw13- - eY!,..+Y A hllpi &I- &'Jhdl3i. U l + blanket- r k & 43jY+& r ; i k L L + - . . + j s , , b i ~ ~ ~ 4 9 - group behavior LWl L!+~ LJlj-rlo b 'jA &icCQ;ICIl& G+(9 & j .+Jl LAp+3Gd;@2. 5 -1 t~3i.GL+l& -&+I 5 i L ~ Y L+ '(jI;cLis!(jLL+L J d l j anti- ;trl,',l Y Lbgang ; 4 U l 6 LCQ;ICIlj.@I A& 61social group" cblL 41d transitional g. &lkLY- +I -klolq .L +A & ~ e ; ~ ~ c i+J ~ I d we-g. " .. @ ' L L O & L & L C Q ; I C I l Y b *- LL, AX; LL+ hi p3'they-g. cfb vertical g. -141 .+dl + - 3 + 3 i + b ~ ~- ..+I b~ &9 ~ajs.+,illpi $1 p social g. +&Yl & M I 3 . ~ r i ' j ~ w ~ i ~ g l LgcLai+l (j& A3-Lw13 (%u! &> 'Jwd4 J L Y L.. < 3i'voluntary group hJL;iYl involuntary Qj-TI - a l l,,-ij closed -LiL Lb(j+ AJ group. - (jU'I& &+1 J.+iY 'group '-La& -&L+6bc5'9g."+I-
  • 22. p J ~ p ; d ~;ji~ ~ ~ ~ 1 4.kcw~ Y a G b J! i,+- b ~ L ~. +@I 0 1 6 0 1 J! G L Y l dl Y1 . Z u l 9 k hJ! 3 i A 3 ~ . k ; ; 1 p ~ ~ + + i 5 @ ;+I &K3 .+ +31 JJ+ AdiJI- +&WI.LYI JL.. - fi~kib+i;l-~+:;I- $ L l l l i j l S k ; ; 1 3 ~ ~.&I, 5 .&$I k c b ,y&&dlj &I+sflj A i4i-41.. . L _ L ~ ~ I9L+3 b i j i d ~ y i # + ~&dilJ~ @a& ai9.LLS++L 1e gsiJL ++i UL- . .- @LLYI ++,- ++i3.+ S lr L @ + Y & I Y l .+!I I ~ ~ l & ~ U l- 1 G & i k e j 4 L b b i J I ~ L I& i l ~ ~L4&4 .g. norm JL iAiiL'JI &k;Llj k L U '- . FCrell-- . L L ~ ~ * A ~ L WGE,- - i,-4--,!EJki)i+-ji .L,gx'Aci + JL LC&! C ~ l j k;, Hyman aLaLa.A** ZY J ~ Y k ; U I +496,, +LiS@ 4 1 Y " 1 & L & L ~ + l c t l s L . J I- .. JS w+p 3i.bJlpic t l g , &I-,+I &L~.JI>~I &+ ijj& i I i p group mind 9 5 41, bJ& gJ(b 4 9 J - J-5 group k c l - ? ~ I .T J ~ I3 - & d l?WI++!I p consciousness- - $sillJ&+* L 4 p 3 . @ i ) & 41- ,kt1t.g .hJlpid g ~ ~ $ 1 ~.9&L&ic Lgli,&i9 bj+G L ~ Iji .group superego LL+ &'dl ji ~ $ 1 ~I - +A! ./I &;dl- &.d WI Gpj &A .++I ~ U l 9+L W l k c w l j iZJ-uL~JKi .(- &hi)J ~ ~ L ~ reference group + d l L&IS 9 J d l U!y?A $1 LW'ip, k, L c ~ . r .P 3 .ek"6gL p; A b k l +5 L+u k c m l c+ LL ..;;,.&g,S L ~ ~ ~ L ~JIA~ C C C ,G;;Y h4 ++ b 31 .@ lrl(d3.43b- &*- JF9 o h JL~ J~~ iiI i-+++JI
  • 23. ;IppAljxUl &ilbLWl LWIi-TeL.j & ilL;.L JI.. LWI normative reference L J U I- - L A 1.. . Lw 2 4 1 k+ i,& 213 group. *+ L&+M i,Lb @ J * - - S , ~ + & & i ) ~ k b i --I; ;i 3, .L%=L. (JJ2 o * L "%-dl LMlJ1-9 &+I , , a - .... .d l ' , A u 9 1&I d3- J& +p i 3 4 reference individuals cj+l Jjd! +i J.= F~~ uk+! p ~ ~ 3 ~ i~lpill4&dl- role-model dlahd e l l d l- ~ b lJ.=~,+JI L P ~.tLJI k g 3 Y S i,14!"4 :: ;iJ I J L w A f I + ~ ~ + ~ i p e ~ ~ v ~ a .. .LB;b&13 .I3L k L J l xL p3- &JLJI 2 ~ p 9 ~3i3 . @ ~ ~ i ~ Le;I--&lcr~ i,Jl(j31L - - ;~rce;lrll+ i- ij3* 9&.9 f l L u J& p La,*Ls3 4 j U L IQBJ J+'=. - .-r o ~ L ~ .IdlC+b -%&I LC-1 & 3 ~ b 3- ;r +C ~ iN P S Y C ~ O I O ~ Yof Status frames of reference -41- . &$I I& tp+',A1 ;rj b i ~ 3 j u . i x;.(egir 'jj+ & d l *$I +g, ' 3 9 - 4 3 p&;IsJ&!3 b63S3 Y C Y ;+.I bl Yl5 idh- - c-Yl i,K $23 +A3-p;*u&1&! 3i-b~~+di~,+&Yl+l- ~ ~ i + . x + i , ~ e l r - b ~ + ,Hartley & J ~.. ,Newcomb -6% ,Stouffer ,Sherif -n3 Y C Y i,l Yl ,Cooley J$3- ,Sumner GY3 jot,&$ +'bpi, ;Ib ;@I 4 +6x1- c-YI ligr 2M I-. dL-.dl +J L- 41pk J&- L p d I- . L L d I Ay+ 2- ;I!j,J+ ,&- + ~i i,K i,!L9pJ LO* &+ i)_)L+ LJ-L b & ; r c p J & w L ; I l ~ t A ~ LWL----+L-4 3!~,,4+ comparativeG J U l -%+I J! ~ C F J (jll Ijb ,reference group
  • 24. 3+&*dl- tYI;II & b + k L & I ++dl I du3.-LLl&A*dI Z-tI LW"+-+k&'J.J-+ 5 aspired reference 'iJFUI +&I i,+ bi J& AI- &i- L group 4;i;d! ,&-+4;i +*~b b,L-3,454L@bJ-i L+ ~ ' k i14u3. ~ L L + I ~ P anticipative -+I ;iLi&JI +!+3+iLi i)i9 3 .socialization L ~ ! l j & * d ~ 21991++ kb LB;bL;I ;r JlG9l LLUh @ w S W wIJi.lIbI*dl.LgS9L,@~fi*d& bi JI hl;. wO&l- 3 L,U& I ~ ~ L ~~ L + IohF ~ i .bb w c (jl *+I L L + I L . ,(J&i3 L& ++i +.. ~ 9 9 1 ZJJLkS &f= 5%- L!+ . a ,imaginative sociability ;tl;;;- - Z + b l. c 9 +i J-- c~(j3J-1~ee;i &i- 1- bi ji3, i + ~ rjs2i +J .WL bi13* J3 bJl32;dlOL aLL.+i y s i 621 wkd31LL3- LL+ k - i rdL+ W S bl +j , positive r. g. &&!hP +ir13 .+&YL-c ~ l L i Y i& L+L negative r. g. L& -eP- L c ~ W S & S r ~ g L U & ~ d ~ d " + + A 2 G L(2&53. d l- 5 -dii L G L ~+:~:TH d a $ h 'id- a L L + I J! &bb-1 IL 41- 3i~ g lZ~UI .GJLLdl $ &Jk3 -41 t b L ! A 4 3 jj41;+!I c5i,referent power - - 14.'pi LI+J ~4 >+I ;+I O* l . 4 ~ 1 ~L,lLiYi + b,L3 ,2&A &!p& y&dl- 91- d l k L & I J& k.$b -+A k L & I LLUvj s3.&p uJb3.&Lk;l L&j i)+bi .;j;+vFj! L"J+L *p ~ ' ~ i 3peL L;* 4 s JL LLLYI~ .hJwi3 L l&L3L L & I a&&>cp* , w ~ ~ c id ~ ? gL ~ ; S ~ IJ 2 ~ 3 4&=i+ L3.eg;l,L&!1;1 ;-3
  • 25. 3iGLCZJI JI ,UYI J! w-ti J! b9++ C P ~ 3 1 I&+ bi 9! T G ~ + Y &I+ ~~iL i l ~ ~ ~ G ~ i Y (+- +&I LmIGIp l d I ill4lcolrI +I 4 j I j f g w A f +L -114 d l 3 . ~ b . ~ ~ p i ~&+31 I i +i +L I = ;;.. L w l (bJL;c& .pleasure principle si;!9i.+L +I . C + 41.. biJL;- L- reality p. $1911 iJ, ;, -114L3LL+J10hpBI+9jL& -%+eb9J L ~ J + 0 9 % &&I &;i% ;id+& &I: i, &3 .&LWI+pstr& 'similarity principle G U Ii- L i l L - I G U U I?- L Y O ~ L + ~ L . ~ J ~ ~ p Q 9 iL x ~ L j - 4 ,,,; ;$ 1: A ;; 0% L ' d l & L J G +&u& J ~ a n++..i i, . i W ~ ~ + A U ~ I ~ - ~ ~ * ~ ~ L ~ relevance principle. p LW'J!r y - f - 1 4 9 y +UY Lei.r! ?J+ $1 h.41 e+&d&.I& > L A 3 L& $ &L+ $41& ;ijJ.hl! & GI+ &9 .il>Lhb LL+ .&+Ij3&9 .ilLL&liy&I J I I I I;!y ' - d i u 9 L ~ ~ ( p ~ ~ i i u r ~ .&d i g L'+Ldl GI* ;,9s" dlIsszzf I',2 LL+YJ d~19J-A - - JI bl-1-1l>hl ~ e ; r L L C b Y l- I .+i J! &+I4 3 4 L-YI J!J~2n;r~LegC~i9 - i I I L k f j I g W F bIC,+p.su+bu,p eA uyGLdI++I LWI actual r. g.. L&A k c L kc-! &&I &a.. 3 4 1 9 L J U Y ! JL p ! d I 9 'UI~--d! J~~ J! -u i p u 9 ~3i + Y~ +a~~~ +i @LL+ +&L 41QLL+J bi3i.~b.+v -.. WIw ~ J s i+i bgL-- + 3 9 2 L ;, 4 b'!,-4UI3 r'd-!'(J$& kJ3.J k j 3
  • 26. +',kbs4 -is4S+34430&-4 .&I- 1.11. +.l&'d -is3 L& L+ iJ3- L + ~b~ s'l+i kJ3 ii3i.i++ LL+I F~- 61J2b b i r ~ ~ , ~ d ~ L i ~- ._g-+ojk;l i,3L+i L.!&&AI- ~ I L ~ Y I ~ & $ + ~ ~ ~ 5 5 F lyL5+I ;y+2l>l 4jLs .&@ ~ 3 i L C r C ~ ~.- - - - . ~ + ~ @ a J ~ ~ & b i j L & ~ f b- peer group GL+!lk r k 9 'L+i JL+ d3.a+-,. a.=k - .I~LII k r b3iL 2 ~ ~ h ~k r b L J S I ~ Cr;LQ!d 1 9 J I ~ t 1 3 i ) = l ~ ! 9 1 6 d l +~l>hlJz+ L i 2 L 3 d l + b 3 ~ - % 2 L * k Jp@9 ijj~u;..L * b Jw eeJg L G ;19;;L;tr - ;llz13 &Lo;z i l L b +I - 0 - 1 4 1 L~SI-ia ~ &- &SS; 3L 99.~aJl>i &L ?+j - b J 3 2 spJ U ~ I k-1 OL iyhI J32 dk2 k Le"i i,+ 4*l~Li3Jnt,11-' L ' - 1 p LJJJ~~ JAdI pAk.JJ.4SgLr~ 9 ' ~ L o ; z ~
  • 27. LL+I +* GJ&Ij .L+ Id '&Gj.dI-YIj l+Jl p.. delinquency zLLJI +& .LL bllpi J- 41.. JU~I a l i k .'&I-+ L ~ +ji LJU + ~ w ~ f i d ~ x - ~ i sj+., 4iaJh@.. C L 3 l @j'&LIs_fl s;r ;4rL&+?Y- (++-A 04*3i 41 L J u ! t ~ j i+LYI +t+ jui Jsxji41- c"I +J+iLg .-&-I + I + ~ G ~ I ~ Lj~bbi+@ & 4 3 @ ' 'FA'+=(4+ 2 ' +MI ~ ~ w k ~.'&&I + ~g;. ~ ~ ~ l p J L +&+!I Lw &dl- GWI t i 3.& di &I L&spL., +> ~ Igill - b U I '-J41pdI -ZAGp'"!~~! C L d.Jj +j 'adolescent culture a ~ b ~ ~jH ~ b & j.!,I+ 4; +& Loj &hippies4 6-.- L L J+~WI ji +i yiLbi &ki.!l Jl skLfb3.absurd literature
  • 28. s-.= &b34~ i,& solidarity group &I ~3 . L A G group 4'tblpll3j atmosphere .. l++qr~yJI LUI;CIWl+ climate.. F a b W l j+G 3 1 3 .bJI>l (j+J+j +L;;I sg3bJlpi+Z 41 group decision LGI~ 1 2 3.JI+! y ~ J3i.L+ J~+9~OJ+ LP F .p?)254j elGJ+ 3' .p%'.,a= group i j L - I +sj3-t1 3 &sJl+l L I J d differences LW13l i e ; Id1L L A T - 3 1 .L.,+l L13 .ktlpl*sl .natural group d -1 LWl3 &I. + &&..,..,*&LL &@ i,& 1 ~ J L+L9-i i ) g ~L.c-1 artificial ;it;L .--dl-&klLfl ,;I: 2 . 1 ~ LL+ clhzWlo-J+ & d l.. J;Lgll 3~ bJlgi.d+ +L+I i,* *WI- +i,&dI +... ALL+o L t L l J 1-1 aL12LYl p &Lalall.. wlc-1 p.. (JFJlk;, t . 2 -: *3& ~ l 3 ~ 3* ' A 3 @L L-&4 3 .+I +dl GIyY'J.. - ~ ~ - " ~ ~ ~ k t group psycho-+-I -L'U'll .. .. .g. therapy c W I 3i.therapy- S group boundary ~3.lr3 31 LLL ~ J ~ Uljdj s3l+LbsSj ~ ~ L L L L L ~ ~ ~ - L G ; ~ ~ L L ;& z L Y 1 3 jK;;Y13 .&+La &kt 31 J+ LwIJ+J &w!&b3 FjeL k - l * ~i+Ll +3 .group i,i QJSPgroup cohesion .experimental group j-+I aLL+JI i,+L&,% Llpi .control group ;ik?lhll - L U 3 group kr! flL3.kaj]-~ ijkLk&i L,+ &.,, &.- i,i & dill & d l & rigidity- co- ;I;gLiell LC4;rll .selected group LJ>-+i,+9 d(L.b GU;.L b4 3 acting group J G Y I &IF3 -+JMI al$+ll-* c i,l .shoulder-to-shoulder group group LC-I +Lj.t-iif13
  • 29. JAG J~+p3iL J ~ + ~4+kl91 +-? 3iL ~ ~ ~ z u ~LJl+i .* J! F+d+L4 C 4 u J+I 2 ~ I A I3iG~LGIII b3 am.w13J~+tlJ~3Ji & i l l- .p+ -&L+Yl group structure L U l GI&3sS;Ic9 + i I 1 3 L & 2 4 1 $!&I + +s &a S I y J l 0 . b +a# &dl" pL +J. j+lj @ b Y l.. edl &-I G& +A+Y.. wG!l V &I- i,~ 4 4 1 3 1 +L443 L -i J! isJk- (ji + c h ; k g l l ~ - d,L3;zFbhYl+ *Le;u+ ~-=3 Sl2-JA 3 K + A&- &J L Y l &a3 Lb* LwGI&?+J .ceL;.t.YI J h Y I v~~~3- bJlpi - 6 ' ~ i. - && A ;, ,+ ,-- -. - i,'Jl ,+L;S3 A ;JL;JI $1, JI 41&&I- - d;?sL%b I+& 31 ji3+iJ-+ G u &LIJdLF ?+I A ~ 9 1 4- +Z LL+I I i i - I stars.. .. I LL-&ISI;LQj& l * y a G b L l L L j.dXjsS;Y A3 +A kre d membership group- .++,i 3i,I;g.. GlhciJ~pt~ 9s;;6i LL L ~ +@ 1g- -LWl+ J+ J- @ & group acceptance LWl- (Y S ++ 2 9 k , . . '& +I$ LCQ?cll LkiJ3Jdyj! *93 W!p- #I3 .status &LLg,s 3t;,r djlrj 3i+A group identificationLw& LL&+23&l,.lxLJyJl& b.Mi3q+~~gble;i4 - 1 3 4 ~ group kr-I L e 3.LgjLLLj19 esprit de kr..-Jl bjJd morale- LL3G L+++iLJ.corps +L-+ +3 , Lag L*L;.t.! I &L+I tlJ+L&.j&hJl+ 3 " +3&b-.zs!- ubl3 G3&I - + J u l crlJ+dl group &I &t13 . G l & d l .L&3 '&G IgzLilpintegration p group Iocomotion LI.Lxfl - - "3 1 1 u C 9 : " - '4;L;$ldI
  • 30. &bJ3 '&$t1'7liCj *&& j 2 3 1 14%( J ~ - ~ L + L = . ~ - !- 1 ,.J .. +(J>-L+LL~ L * ~ ~ - ,(eg;*..3 @!el.i."9 e e ; ~ bp++-- (Ji J21991 .pj++ l ~ Z U l g 8 2 W l $Iy &?+ Ig a .A; -I .; j + ~3 ;J- ab' L I ~ ~ $p~+ ~l>kJ L I &iL!-3 * b ' d - dI+l p u b+I J! +&'dl & d l+kgsocial mobility &I b&mI>;$wl- & d l3 5 9141+LiL UL+ ~ 1 ~ 9 1l&JI- + +J G Y I (JK lib b - ~ & Y l ;+dl LL & J l $lpJl Jl C L A 1- $lpJl cjAlt9;+*Ts dj3~ b * & ~ l. &L!e&$t b k w L J ! 1 I I I j-i .. ALL+A- .J&I L&!& - ‘ , ~ k ; l t Y I- d l 4 1i,+ kz+I d L w l g- (*&& ki,-. ,iH (Ji9 ++YI- 2 L Y l 3 . a L d I &i- -jJJ~.. +&Y- dl+! '2e duL ~ I J + ~.&$I 41j i Y I + ,rejected ++&I9 1 A i j L w l 3 ,isolated &9+19 aL&l ,&I2 s~b-groups& d l A- marginal groups &huI- - L b l I L9E&LaCJ-LI=c,* - ethnic groups L+khl a L w l g . ~ U I J L+ +WI &I- 941,2kiaLIJA1 rLa -9 ,LL+LI +&YI J L U I p& &- ~ n u k ; ~ iJLUI++_CZ~ JS+ A* b & W -&&dl $ ! A & G+Z A &AI (,+y~,, ++- .aJ-. J L gkk+l~ &.. kwl* J h Y l ?Uh;~ 2 5 ~ ~ +u~kiL,~.j 1 9 1d(+ p9J3 ip&! i r ! 2 m ,d9 ;*,)LL+U3 .LC- &-I +;+dI .La LI,J3 ,((&&I , l g 2 k -. &A+ 9.+JS di;&A9.b&+'dl J>9~&+ib~ L'I~LLILL~.&+h - i ~ + 41- c j ~ ~L-i i 4 L pj&ic&- *u&- d& (J& djSjb k ~ l 39 NOBlLlS ( Y ) ~ + G I U ~"3 +lg+l +- -1 - h p ~ y 4 I - -
  • 31. '+L+YI- dl+I &-I &&I L U l lib3 .kl&13 ZjSAjL &- 2199lLU, a 2 1j U Li-i & e e ; L ~ & 13pA3LL+I +JS&p&jkijK klS3'LgrLhl5 +WI&LA)! j U3.+ Lhj 'L&I L l 4 j +G u~ ~ Y kr-1 >++I- + p d L l h i l ( g L L & yl;ug .@! 2lp;dl & J! -&I - J!b21+iJ I ~LUI +L+ b+ ji 2~'+;d~+h3-+ +ty" ~ l jU3S L W I &I- +&I 5 F &j '.&.*+I +2lpYl LkXld j ijK &i.kiUp wJ_I +L-%l2 I j &is3'+LA > L ~ l d j & L ~ ~ aLWIZ+j 'b"I..,,;tg k r W l a L U I 3.&q &QYI 4Sj'democratic gs. &.bl+d i j organized gs. L L l l ++ALI -G- pi 'LLI authoritative gs. dlalcL+ll &+isjanarchistic gs.. 2 . ~ ~ 4 1 arUL LL+ll2lJ3;d WLdjYl a w l
  • 32. &9~u+~o ~ + h9i' e e j b ~ 3 @ k L 3 @&+ Z J L fibL'd .LL+ l*g &2+a ijskt, L& J . c p A ~ & k L + l ~ ~ d ~ J+ upi &JLLI ++jk! Ilca,&Wl ~x;;dpldl p&-J C L;; LWI 2 p $59lib 'ddl dU I i I '&d >$I IL 31+'>$I l i b 'b~ l p !~JJL, kwL & I L&LJ w l p J-'d! kwIdJ> .. kwl+ L19. . 2 4 1 F-3 .>$I CO-Z g L i d l LcQI - Z 3 L&K l j l JUy +L9 'operative g. ~&iid-'ejgjdLhijlSl j l & J I & Z J U I lj3 ' 2 9 JS alJS +1-&91al~&l( A 21951&fii ?MI e b ~J ~ W I +i,&i j ~L ; . ~ - ! ~ W U IqsJSJ;S &Lyl +yj -241c --+(y'+I p.. Lg;cL g U l &-I g 2 4 competitive g.. LA;! t U l & ? 2 U I &kcl.Sxfl&l- &WI9 & ' L 2 ~i, e4b2pi &&d+Id' + &dld3Wl-
  • 33. bi&.a dynamic whole &&JJS K. Lewin: A Dynamic Theory of - +ej)lrb J! GLbYL JI+$I t w Personality. g i s l e +a&L;iJI 4~;iujL3 C. Homans: The Human Grours. - ill+4'-J3 . - S b 5 ' 1 & ~ $ 1 a&% White and Lippit: Autocracy and - Democracy. 3 group dynamicsL-1 A. Hase: Handbook of Small Group - ~b wk $1 Lul a k * d l- Research. 4 1 e3.+L.+YI 4 1 (%LC H. Hyman: Readings in Reference - 4'e3 EW13b & u I Group Theory and Research. - - Hare, A. P.: Handbook of Small Group - d'p J h(+3 ;r.y l d l 3 *$%A' Research. *3 .( 4Y7) Lewin Cartwright, D. and Zander, A.: Group - L-1 h _ L a k J + L
  • 34. p ~pleader y A l 3i OJjJ &I3.Lg5+"&3$p LCI,,rl.. +J ~ iO ~ L ; . ~ .&&$)Q~I- ~bd-biJ&..lL W ~b d - J Lk?Jl JS$ b $1 *sf b 9 9 .&L.Gj Id;*&&L;;9 &I> "J hl ilhll~ej? j L 3 . d . i k g j & + ~ ~ ~ i , ~ + ~ ; ,- ;J&U &l;iell - followship -I3 followers t l j % l3 .leadership
  • 35. surgency F9 +L+lj G9 illl~L_!b+lj ,dF+J3Lh;flj . . ; 3 s LB-!i,&2 S! : '-u A task Li jJyc9 .&xi+- Jk&dl9 dk!! d3 Jb- LL.ii!I&a>lg I i l'-L++dI- ;Irk& 'lsf blS -L&JlillLI;T;;;d- 1 1 , A , w';L;L 11 - 351 3 kJLc GJ-,Jc h i 0 Y S 21 3 N.- &jr & j ) o f j.. h i ~ + s ; , ~ i j i ~ - i u;-. I . J ~ ~.*L;GeLI%bi,&
  • 36. +&+1 9 3 W L --ks@$I J k J l 3 i +I 1631 l;irsJl jy L B , ~A‘U+&G u 3 4 L l - j p+--&3u ""s Aj6 J+ 9i'statesman 3iinstitutional statesman aLwl +3 'system builder ?Uhillj l J I- Y ~ $ 1&ax ;++ a- 'pL-A13 &u13ijl~)U(IgL?L;s +& bj@L; J ~ I$h ' ~ W J - c l l 3~ & % * 3 i gifted leader +9+1,L;kll& &.dl3 spgrb experienced I. &-dl J;l;rfl 3 Y S Y - 4 -1 .?I" h l 'dl ' ~ I j d l ,+I f.. a%+ 14a~&ab' ~ L J Ip&$- &s ;i:8 - 4 All &~ L J 9 4 9;bLI 4iwJLM3 &JWI- +I 4.. b L +J!+MI +gid3. 4 j q , +I e3'dlAJ o&iLll ~-i-qyhe-u"p'+- L ~ I role J~3~$b?UI++ a~w 'L&Zb+fYL'dl 3 playing 31 i L L ; c ~ , t x + ~ j l - ,- ,,,iL3 91L L I I L g j U ijA9'GIA~CI &'dj+piP J ~ih3+G~~ ++JLJSZ-~&,L;WI~+ L$I ;+ 3ii L , A ~ l g ~bk +3 ' ~ $ 1 WI hlgli p fiiJ- ,&i1 4ilj &k J!$I+ '-I ... aly4~l~ .Z+L+YI ; i J ~ l3~ iJJb3 i ~ & a I& ii.nL1-;ll &&u &y3 'great-man theory p&II 1631 ++eJul3i +I+! ? p j ~ L S eU1grb ;&I d3J d I a hlj L~$$I L" s &4 w u ! &G hI3'W&JjbZp ?+ . . +LC + 1-u a L l y @ h& +a e I & j ~ 3 1 isr~!$> G h ! &Iy 9- & J U ! dil ' ~ L L + ,+ d l '((axle men h9j+l, GYP;& .&ujmI- j u ! J9-j G k W l * 3~ hF> JU+i ylill $ 4 1 &Ay 4 & 2 L J l + L&I3Lnational-herotheory &$I- ~ ~ ' d p + ? U l J+j LL,~GJ4 @$' JkJl &%3 +diijj all ; ~ j l a +3- & b e +&A- I Lggzg3 l L & & i - r 1 u
  • 37. o h j 'Q charisma && +j& 'charismatic I. &>Jm! i~m! Lgf+pp;~.A~LLdLkfljL.;L dij btkit~J-G +Z~LLJI iW13 . ~ khi++ ; ~ ~ i t ! & ~ + u ~ + & i t ~ ~ y eb ~j;;jdij ,'i i+ LL! father +'w ijy Q &j @ [>j & & L [+ I d &Ij &image a I 2 U l bKj bdld13+ityL i W ! i .,A IL e*kil C~ di jj&5 3 44 *$1'cj.+l d A i2L;JI >k+iW I d I zY3 &dlAWIj ' 4 k @ubj3- ijss;Gj .'+it zL-Y 2- L 'Z2Lz&4+i LW'",+!~9 - &al2L+l 2 L &a W !j-4 LjAlZ ~ l + i J ! j'i~l+i!Itk3 ~ ~ w l1-j 'distributed leadership leadership as group -+&!;ik_Jb9S &-I >i+I2 7 +L'function + L A ~ ~ G ~ L - & + L + Y I .. d u l i p ,L ~ w ~ W C (jI ILUj C>-~w+4 +L~I a&&L'A.Jl3 b& ?9;;3 ;;I+$i& j3d&(.@Ij .*-el 'L+ +ISr! ((4;K))j&dlFp.. +jdidJ 2-3 &!p+L ;j'4 i ~ u Ij + ~ j Lal;Sj Z2&iJ13.ud l g A l-4+A,,&c;-.zij4 bt&itl3 d l task L+d13 the situation WpJI.. ',3 a&@! *j .WydI &s;;.- +L;fpw13dlpcllJgj.. i ~ w l --e & 4 . : l . . . . J ~ ~ + j . ~ &m!~ ! _ L P(~)4Sj dlpJl -. '&xi(4+3 '-+L * U l , Z J g s I I p13""J! cl+J13 &i$I3 b 3 2 & l l L & J ~ &dl.. y dL;Ckl+ && ij+&iijJCgl .-~i wL9 lek! d ~ & i o j " +~Gii~pd-t*3 W C W ~ f 9&c @&jbdl YI d l + ! dh;;Y+i -;jj b w x ~ ~ + i ;is ,.the problem man - W l hj1 dW13 .L&. J! 4 i C b ?Lj! lisL .- ixL+jcakJI +LA leading behavior &JWIt 1 3 L l l 3- &ku&-+!j 'j+&~d+u
  • 38. & M I k h L SKbb d ~ l . + J lW I a ~ @ l ~.&--) 9ibJJ-d9 &9 >+I g.. L j Y L b i ;I;....~I fiLjI++i 41.. J ~ J - ~ I99.. ,+g.sr~l J L Y l , JYl L%Jw;G4+ +jag . j u Y ! ,&-j13 &k ; J U I -&=-I a L + l GWWI ;,+I &is3 .+~pgi~i t& b& kj3.&WI +Lj i,d-d' rb(wy ya &I li'a * ' d l.. p a l C L e L g o n i .&& genuine ;ic I - .A1;J@ L s 9 h4i)!L&l2+1]4 leadership 9isJ- &$I 6 9 1 ~b L j ~ + ,i ;MI J~~ A b~~k o k ~ 1 W S W Lb 91 I Yl bL:~L;;I9 U S u L & d 1 3 a ~ j Y l .jIJ+i2 W W l a L k J I ,,-b3 +g+L +lpEJ-r& i;91 +I ;,& ij;i OGL+I +i g.. 4h~J W I , & b b +l$3+-J& 9iL+A 9 J m ~ bi d! JgJ-rl &.. 3 - m l ~ l;,d L a 3 ,;+.A 41-L., .++i Y C ~ 9 JALGkJL&,J+I Isgl @9.. ,;J@ a+ 35 &kg c y ~ ~ 3-141~-c~L+I~e ~ 9 ~ 3 L ,A7:+ +919 Awl &!Gydb % 4kSjLku9 JJk&& & +91 Li LS bt&9~b9+ 1;w J*9 9.. b k r l d j h ~.IJ@ &4 @ 4 Y - tjiijr j 1 9 U I 9 rjLvl$l3.. r j 4 J M l , L A F Y d L U ; J k l e U 1 3 bP& L b i &gi3 4&>eJ h j J L 3 31 -GI-! i ~ eI+& i~L+iIl k g iLbi9.social I. &&! ,democratic I. -19%~;J& a L J 9 F l pj+&?+ Jghb aIJl+Jl i k l >+3341 dI+b- j j J & J&f13 b ~ ~ - ; d ~d+-9 (J-4 & d l J J J 9 ' $ ~ p d IW I * ' J ! J ~ ~ J F A * * @I li'apLj.&L+lJsz$,, -O J , u J l ; J & a l p ;JL+al &A authoritative or autocratic leadership C s y l g b t G Y I 'd W L 41.. 4 9 ;tJJ-J- u t 9 J F J I 4 9
  • 39. I I *&J b&. &p' - & u l &- ' L G A l a l j & i y LC- 'oligarchic leadership &SiMjI i 2 & 2 C Jl ;?)rldl p J I ~ ~ L k l l - j lPJk i;i 2m +I+I++AI a L 2 2 i ; 3 ~ 9L6-, U I .,ad1U&!J!9~ +bl++Jl U l elite power $ 4 1 X h L j
  • 40. &*.. LJ+ &51S - rurnour :&P.. L,+JgUL3 ',=L.;tYl LgyL Lgl - gL! Sherif, M.: Intergroup Relations and- . .- Leadership. Mills, C.: The Power Elite. - LU ji .&JL JL ,UI I14-- - Gibb, C.: The Principles and Traits of - ~ ~ l j ~ ~ lLJg&&&L+ Leadership. &uLi2.A; :;A3,&I3 Bass, 0.: Leadership, Psychology and - 6 Organizational Behavior. J3j L G U l ;, J3j & 2 p l&+ Tannenbaum and Massark: The- j# 13k& 4d Jjk Personality of the Follower. & hjk1(j& Gj L i j l ~ Borgatta, E.: Great Man Theory of- f+j-dl ;J&* L O + G + c 2 $ 1 Leadership. Browne, C.: The Study of Leadership. - WL . h 5 ? 1.. &ad +- &a1- Cattel, R.: Four Formulae for Selecting - & @ Leaders on the Basis of Personality. &lj .3~3-k-k +'w &j &wI Petrullo. L.: Leadership and- L32lp;dl alj, Jp &L~?I + Interpersonal Behavior. solidified r. 3 u U l L L Y I yi - e ~ l t . y ~C- .51tl;y1 f f g j i ;li + Y LUX biL + L ~ L L ~ I ~Uy9a,,a,k, by,.kwg
  • 41. k k y l, + Z g damaging r e . - L l u A L-3 'Pi +$ 4 1 b W I 9 .;jLkl! b - ! & L JLI & LLLTYI 9 & 4 ~ 1 g&jlfl1 +g+b be& '&I& ;y3u .W!- L L i Y l L L l k L k . &L&i L L LLK- -LL;;Yl& -zG9 d;Qj i;ab +iA -XF + LQg 'riots L l pre- +~ - r k .~GL;;! at .+G3&kgd l 2+9 riot rs.. ;id&I LYlj a u z4 3 'planting a r. &&I ;GkP- 'LO- LILY1 3, +&A 1jK3 ;-3 .I& 2JJI9 L k y l+p 1 L b b - a f l w ~ ' &9 3 1 9 5 $413 importance & a Y 1 3 .o+ ++Y &l;Jfl &UP+! b'ambiguity L;IK Y$ ' L L Y I ,a+ L J i 9 1 9 j LL;;~I Li9. t J ~ip,UI $11, JL+ di LIJ+ AI- aJwb ',Ul i);W -L-;C ((-I,, && 't++dl l13M.+pi))jl&g &+b 4 b j - I 3 & k Y I JP LL;;~~J'I~L+ d l @YJI ( e ~ lJ ~ i Js +A ~$19;9db Jab9 '+I t*y += G W I ,adt ~ 4 Q f IlLn JP L h y A- ' + " J I I ~ ~ W ~ . ~ J ~ ~ G + &UI- SUI ;IS;W ,i a J u*- A I I ~ O ~ ~G j ~ 3 ihJjp~ U W I+JD 3b ( 1~ L V ) Postman ;il-Y9 d3 9 9 GLjLlLA9I+ ~ 9 9L k Y I &&4 &(-a)! 3 Y '+g+l +j L'IW 'L+LAal!+;A+ j J (JUUl&(j&L3'~F~+&Lc? -&by! elx3.s+, g9 + &&!I P'UIJ- -sr. germs
  • 42. 'LLy13A+-. &i3 $ k 1 2 dL&g j++ & l U I d 3 ~ ~g news sLxfb Laig ' G 3 2 U 1 % L d J djJ-?L+ OL ~ k i k jbibi2+a A .;YI +&a + ' A k l 2 L L ' d l g . i A L d l ~ 9 L ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ j - S j i ) - g l J ~ r. immunity L L d i ~ l '&uLJI a&L& (Jjjf l 2 L L L Y I d-& unthinking I fi (jg+ s d d ! 9i;++I g L $2 acceptance- GI2 d l 3 ,,JIYI >JL;;~!.. ~+.L+b)g'Ll+I&&L&> .. @I3 '-LliY &J,a & JI;;? & uLJl y &L;,db3L& J&L .propaganda Z + L J 2- &C & r. consciousness L L ; W &i!13 -I3 ,191*'&LA*I Y C ;II +.JL+,i w 'I;;?- gi L i j I d L. L h I.. JgdI &L K p l l.. ' G k ! ! a h 3'&QI J W Y *3 L ~ ~ yb s ; ~Y u~~Li +A A ~ ~ I - , - I ILi+ LA b ~ + ~ ~L&,,.. Y S Y ' ~ 4Lb3++ 'ki b~YI &i!.. fiL*A bJ9Y ;*&.l& &LA!p;r.,WI i);wg .Lglgliij &$& &LJ by- L L Y I c;;U .bLsLu* kjPP&'.-.. A9 ; ~ s L L J I $ ~ ~ + ~ . L ~ ? ~ I s ~ , K ~ .&* u U I &Li..k ;>+I .;++I j-Li +i)5~LiLfI&'i.(;9 + J ~ ~ j ; d l & d u r k ; , & l j ~ . , - L.. G;l;;r;I &da&~L+' '.' "9 - 9ia A -,-I Jk%~LI 3i41J~I-, JH+~Li-+I ~ Y I &!I L21)1@ & j L Y I5 i,l .. b++.l L ~ I j y ~9i;++I I+&++ GUI+9 .GL~'L Tj12! $1 j +FL2.i L2lYI &ij2-tI- + .. +z,~ .+I 9iJUI j9ig.. buJ J.LL~$@I 9.. G+J+;.'dl .. 9ihJckl+ji ++ Y -!IesLu Y GUI 3~"LoF9 .+I i$j ~ 4 9' i + ~+idell +E bi A 9-I 9i'leveling L+l U JLk, LJ&cW distortion &+I.. 3i'omission - .l n . , 8 A L ~ ~ ~ p k 2 L a &- ..
  • 43. W C 49bj+ SF 213 L+JL & ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ & ~ > 3 &+iLLI WI-I 5 - k -YV) Neron ( j 3 ~(9-YIb(-.; .A: 11 W C & L y I GLI$LS& (pj.(?TA c + ( J- b;,-7 i, .. 9% ji 5 - u ~g 3 J + JFJ+d 311lib.Qj+l GJYJ LI O- I ~ A L ~-G JLI~YI 53 l;ls.: - ..-r~ &LLI i+i U;I~++LLYI w.cJcb L & j ~ y I;i-;I-d-41SF 'anti-r. i~La.LL!JLi G b3> l & LJ ' i , * - r 4 & d l LLC(; b4 &.. ;icLLy3 .i,L3jJa &+l -41 socrates &I+ GJjji &I ' i i- Y+ 'm&Jl I (.pj' 9 9 - i v * ) C W C L +4;ru O J L ; ~ ! 4ic igcLiOclu31 .+I GAL 5 m I +LC pL 9!$$1+j~+ + Y k ~ ! $ > j.. .- V S 4ijk cm &A- 21 + 3 4 @3 .$Y1 '5 k4.b 3i g 3i.psychological warfares &Ail1 ++I ,i . & L C ~ I+- .+ +Fji 'GLI~YI +F ji : L L ~ I 3 ~ 4&+is J b j +L E Y 1 @d_;lr 2- G labeled r. Y LEIc 4;t. .41L+ >ij'L+I ~ ~ ~ 3 1.d-;y-.--jpp++i+ Y-&LLI b i ~ b + r c c ~ ~ +jbJ~YI ;1Up (pj.&Irj.. &I3$$I3 & d L bJL L Y I +L L L ~3ij-9 .b+JF ~L9LLl&W13L;llr j l S e J W I 3iLsjs-'9 . d l I~_SJAL -: dlj LB;IjLP;;I &.. kL K jU$* ,L;JI &A& L & L G L E Y l & b L 3 - b 3 j i&-+&@I Jswlirl! @ (j3&JJ ~LLbflbjj+ i)-49A! r. ahL'dl ,Ip 331& +L c%YIj.l b3& &dJ warden voyeurs hFL+1 +i pj'Lgic '++I v I y J I pic* - &dl &ti+r. reporters GGLYI+Iy3 jh91- k k l ~,,~l;,'k+& +I && 41a L k Y 1 J b b +I r. boards a L U Y l LA >i41&iJ- *j.@ - L L I C . ++I SF
  • 44. ; r * G e ; ; , t , ; ~ k b ' & L 5 .. & u!i,& 2 p 2 3 2 3 +?I .!-LC3 -+I$ &'a + +iL i# G3 ~ J h l2 -. -*~'j+&~w ,bi 41p ~ i 3u i w --J! L L Y I :I ',Id19 & ~ l & l a d emotional&-ILtk;Y & d i l l +ib- 'd+J&;isf- b= release - ,%GLLYI +, 3i +iLh4 'projection& L Y ?>&A & L&L+y '$1 r j w l +Al & cjy- +J+ +,e 3 ' ~ ~ 2 0&'a &I &I &dl& L Y I ',ill G G L Y I- - complementary +I & L Y l d JL+ - - ; +wai htprojection MI bi esAi&+I w-b%++&+ AK;, dig'-1 JA~+4 &dldirect projection & L Y I- &$ u,' b '+> ~ ! ~ i r ~ . e " + J 2 4 1 +*% +i j b 2 4 1 *$i- &A1.. ~ L c k Y l j.++ e&~l$ ~ - ~ u _ k l k ~ ~ j ; j & ~- 3ir ; ~ ;JL CSJ-~LUA~ I&Ij ; j L Y l AJ- *;u.++.+?I ,+I ,i 'UI ',ill- ~ ~ 1 l& - k L Y I .+$I 3iSLJI ++ ?+- +',.e-rslcLq 4+4i,+psJ9 t;--Ucs-&i,WLg;Lb L i b ?cajJ.r. factory L G Y l &&Lhll & J L 2 &"LYI && -&Lu3'+%I dl;& +,' I I.. - W I Z+.JLYI~ J I ~ ~ ~ I++ bi & &I ,i13 .&&La &"Lyl&2'+Ll'+JVl'.. - X;;;LaJL;f4'Lgl;k4=Lf1.IL & fb""+I ";U (d;..s '$I$ d~ CP;? pip3. b 3 ~ 3k k y l r. - L k Y l GIJ~+C JL-GJ~+C c l r L L Y l 3-1 Id;.. 'clinics l + z - u l JL+;dl $3 'I p 1 3 2 L1,23 'G&4Jl L q ) 2 L ip i- r. mongering b-1 +hiJ (2, k k y l &i9.Jj.+,-II w31& 9 F ++Y31 &‘;I .. p131'I (P 4 3.. '*&.I LgclpLC . kJL.;;Yl aly4ifl L i & i k . ~ ~ l & ~ L d= a
  • 45. 41lab r. -1 L L Y I i,&+dl- j G3+ Lj;~wol,2 i b A l ,j- .a 11 &I;Lwol, &Yl- &LAY d+j psychological lab.+ - abji L,L~L+ *&LC+ a L L L Y l *j .z .1 -1 , A * I & , I L a d U L b L l 'impetuous rs. 3 31pu~+>lj ~;Lwol,Ij aL~!+j4%3' a Y $ i J lg- +"I "5 +i c-9 final-peace rs. rUJ+ && d3.++I G w l +py +Lb& -&12y13 -2.IpJl ' j L U I p ~ iis- t;t;l~i j s +~ L L A ~ I ! & j @ j * l & k & + Ib 2 + . - a L L ; Y l & &.J .+.-" 'Aj @ I G d l ++I+Yl L&& 'JlY c - 3cg 'anticipatory rs. -91 a L k y I ' 4 1- &dl +jI+ dl; & - & L Y J m I J ,,, ,,ic ; ;+C C +LAYI&9QU 41.. 2$W& C pIj;~wol,dLi~'jfibl +Q+u3.C1&ll" L L n3~ LLAYI , A--,-,Y --&w laboratory r. 2 1 d l i r 2 . ; . ~ U L + + , ~ ~ I ' ~ ~ A I I.++ LjJI- &'%+I9 '&'%+I ~ i S i ~ j- .racial hatred+CL~. LA!$- p wji- b3&.I&&I 0 h h G kj3 ji G ~ ~ ~ + + j , . L + i 4 ~ L l F L & c p z -+!L('JI &I &'2 J&ll ;j &i ..attitude jokes r&I 6,)bJ&L- ~~'ji;,;d*'L&G00i+li,pi L 2 3 4;byL;11 +c 0& &I 'pa>& + j * ~ d l j Y 9 ' 4 i L Z S L & *- V.Jb.5_r hi bjJ bc -&I bj+i C & - - 9 ' +J9-'l c s 9 i - L Q j l 1 4 .+UI d -&.bl$I &j+)Ul- WLcjfl cSif*J&f3- C C ~ 9 ~ s ~ 3 1 L g ( 3 .L&Lill- - +++ LCIL)F . - -tjj 1~ 1 2 d&LAY1 -klj;~wol,j +Lj r. planting L k Y l &m9' L g f L -u*LpLSur $2 -+I clrLi@13 r J L L Y l ; 4 k r L L A Y l U9.r. agent L L Z U&S & L k + Y l & bj>
  • 46. ',+I (y ;l9L;U crAdL1l JI&l . I d I + b ~ & L d J & & 3 5 w dl-1 2.. *dl~ 3 ~ 1&&,I$Ij -4 *%)IG u sC.iIkJI J.'I;uJ & b& &!I3- kk461J k ' d I- I i LA L(yu~9c5j~$~- 'I++.L 4.. L L ~ I Ai~ +'u&MI &;13~l- OJ- 41- L L y 1t& Q4yds-I a L I J d I d3.'& Y S ~ $ 1b-1 b ! 9 2 & 3 LP 3 S f ~ U l1 jeeL-+jz LL)U .LUI 6wi r. L E ' d lejy &IjJ e ~ ; ; j + d l conciseness j L Y &.- < spreaders 'i& [J* l ~ ~ j h E b 151 C 151 Lb*dl++!!;)9l+ A L & - +j L y Y l , .JI+$ +I+ljJ i;U & L ~ I i d ,...;I 0-1- - J1 CJL US WLii ~ l jUS3,WLii ktwj L L ~i- gi c- i;i ~ g h u iJ u $ ~ j L + ~ y ~ j + ~ w C &./.ye b~*&i-Lkk3 91 4w3d3% J a L i &WI
  • 47. 'j12yl J ~ Y .+ closure s X i Y 1 3 j i +19g J; J+ ssl;y~? ~ j " s.qsLL, 9iOL;; L aLqe* ~ + L J L L ! I ?j+il&dl & d l ' + d l p a j - L E Y 1 La+ a k h ! d b'assimilation & b)k L 3 j h h J ~ ~ ~ ~- @ +ljJ 9i04; J; ''&+! 3 l 4 j u k & & + i )' . - 1 3!+JS 'ji -+4 ~4;;.914 ~ x ;c~..-! d9,'LL +i qjJ3~ 2.. -!9 + ~ j ~ ~ ~ ' J . + a l ; r I ; l l c , t ~ ,w9 J- ji ~gl &~11~ai)+bi ~~~ALuL., b2J LL,;,~'LW~~L;;. W3k - I i)& ~ 2 g.di LJ 0lck;Ubg @ && L a j"+L L L > U 2 ' ~- GL-! ijb, . ~ i ;IK di i...;:u+ G, L L ~ I b& LL&I3 ' & L A +2- & A i A L., a&l_l;; 3-4 &LAY- -&I b k;k3ibL. k;4k- ~ h ~ idb9 $1 -kL;Yb g &JAG - b$1 +I++~JF+=G19A1 ;,& L Y l c- LsLdS9 al,lAA!l 4-t bi.+IAYI 9+JLF;d~ ++ ~4 'mottoes- - b- ljJI-4 ~ J F&4&- .Lg) 94k- &i;Ul- jhl- C)i;&d13 ?)i;b9wC;j& L E Y 1 LL+ Y 9- dl31.. 51+.... 'sharpening jl>YI. 5 ijF & L&+ -kkcy &&I9 '& &&3 dJ&J +c+ kJ2 LJ; bb +&A3 '* &&I +9b-d' ! h e x i ) i djf4;?ljJ 3- ' b k d ! 'L& Wl+dl9 j b y l j -W 5 p ~ ~ L l & L 3 1 4 i ? l t - j p i l C h l dl&I .&+iG ~ ij+ s L u C % - I jI& jLit &c jlAaJl ijt- +j_rl p- GI~JI ;*,!I . & L ~ I ~ a s d l ,L 3,dbq3i' p w ~ ebi41p- J.....L ji .-LLL;~p- O U Y L ~ c ~ 3. U l 2 L t l '="ilJ ,i ' L ~ ~ Iji . C P ~ ~;isdCil jgnAI .&+ ji ' d l
  • 48. L J J ~l j lC .uLaiil Z J L '% ~~l;;; p-i,9L?--=! J k A L J J ~1 jb L;!&~ "&I+ + u Y ! aU L & Y l a+lL'dl L k Y l o h &E lib ~-3 &dl .. .L -rl L+ + I ~ I LL~YI 9 ~ ~ i , ~ g ~ L y ~ ~ i j l L+d13p? 3i-I -LJ +UYI Y9Q" iY rjWl Jl J LLilyJ G3 3i,u- . 3i,-I : L ~ Y I s;--I t ~ t 1 3,+-&h~ FJ~i91,L-J .. w-~ ~Jinill~j12~ljL9"ifI+ &-,r;tl 'Pi .iuG-2Jlf+d~3p & k j 9 'J&iLT'I~+ LoLC 'UL i i Y l & L& &+L&Yl r. L L Y I JLJI+l 3i+y + aLIJ_JI G3protagonist. +'I ,JU +~i& L L ~ + ~ ; ik s ~ be4d~f++l y J4 &L2?b6 ; 1y- C 5 Y -L -i ~4JJI L.+J>
  • 49. .K;spZj .+A&3+JL ij.ii4 impetuous U d l k L Y I d;Q3 W C 5Y inflammatory r. k L Y 1 3 fr. j~~ i~~~;iuF bi~ g j ~+, 6 L ; Jl '-hEb!@I ~ j l i l l .. i j L L Y l j !+&!I LmIqlxs3atrocity rs. hJLjbogy rs. U+I ji ;irj+l !ijL,(lj i j L w I 3&jI+ Lgl deleterious rs. %sf1 ijLhy13 a 4 1i j ~ ~ y ~ j!+jji a~~ $(i; 9 3 *I+,-. eb dividing rs. ~ r Y l ~!divide and conquer @ &dl d+diving rs. LbLill j+~3i+~Jju+di- - .a . + L a A3& 3--;W,i L L PI~-JI+,J+ ~ ~ y l3i 4ulj &a&L+&Ll j ijdlrkjYlj e ' L * I . + . , * ~ ~ i j j ~ l Js +y3 .LLy& j y Ip13+W& .- & d IcrL ,LLILi I ,%I - him J L L ~ I w ~ i j- L @ ~ I L ~ ~ @ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ & L ~ & . . I'= immunity k L ~ J JwWI +3 +A d l 3 . L L , Y JL against rs. L O ~ & (JA 'bEJMI Jl b L J JL rE+&-- djfl- 5-U k L Y 1 3 .Tj12b L L ~&A f+dl k,,di %I - k))+$I OL +, QJL &+- O l J i ji d - i L3pL(<ciL L ~ 4 + ~ ~ i ~ ; ~ -j L ' ~ n r LiU;1.j UY., 4-l d+13a.::~lllii%9SLjwL+ L L Y I . UL 4 L u ' A i LQ9 .d+l- . - - &I- S%Yl j .jl,)'I + h l J3& Y &SJj9% bi& L k y I P+I ILr_ljrJ4;!& ~ b ~ + l L+3 oJ-li?..I .,,,,,,L1i j l r ( Y l L L L & j ,i .J~IJ;I~4- ji . ~ g j ~ + ~ I .I!Je$~j j L&&- + l a pj 92,d L j .L& +id1 &;uLjYl &L;1; .creeping r. &Lc-ll L L Y l LGF 9 hjUl i$12 +j +& .Cassandra rs. IJ&K ijLLl b3 ijdij,21 f j&u&u3- d i 9 ! . b g 1 ? 4 @ + J ~ q 1 + .I++@'.-Y ~i ijj- &IS ijk=k! b ! ! j & K L L E ~
  • 50. :F'P G. Allport and L. Postman: The- Psychology of Rurnour. Coplow, T.: Rumours in War. - Peterson and Gist: Rurnour and Public - Opinion. Prasad, Jamuna: The Psychology of - Rumour. Schachter, S. and Burdick, H.: Rumour - Transmission and Distortion L W , A& ;)9+ -kLLYl &a2&l f:+lJl&Yl Ib+A a, 3 +dl3 'LJ* Lgl LL!J59 '+T f:icjJ2 (jLjXtl dL+I 9%L a & -3 .+sUJI3 -91. &J- J W Y - l Y L Y @ * ~ ! ~ ~ & $& bK litL 91L & L Y I && suggestiblejl+YI.. G l l +pL l&.c &LAL L y l dill- type - d ~ iL+,~ '-;)g+ 1 quasi-cultured type .% +.&it ~ S - ) . j J i&L, irhl+! &&j lek;;;&GA!K k k y l j .;.s+I 2- i ~ ~ + li r b & Y l w 6 &I Jl U L Y L. '4L;tlJ&%A U I +&I+ &dl @ L A 9 1 GYP JLI ijg;am!-ag @$I J+ - p p&W i&s'(9 r-- @~.j
  • 51. L,,,;;akLd l 3,metaneeds i j 4 ~ 1L$*.. .. L)l?g illbmldJ& 'd3 '+- ~;;b'intermediate needs cJdA&abWI (& d& .. +5 CJAI jS g3.need hierarchy - 4 b i . . r ; ~ 4 j ~ ~+I> JP]I dj& 3 '7- &IF p w c j I ',LC .2+u!!'d13 L&JI -+-I '..,., ;,J - L z 'd aLUI JAG3 'I.&& g y Jrk3.. & K ~ L & ~ + - ~ L + J & . . G need al+L i-3 31 integrate need .unit u q j J p a k ~ ~ p i e ~ 3- e2L r U J! +MU L93i+MI U C 'QIX I,-: 4~ b~4j - 9 1 2 " L I JI +11 L a &L+ '7% '&LA+ &!.. &a +i&y@ 'd+Ld>Lbls p2 &j 4'- 31 '-4% b-3 '+* u pA b 3 '+JLb3--3 ',,4 &j-LLu+J- i j L ' d I iU primary L+lJ a b L d i l - 3 3 ,basic needs -+~i4 'needs j L Y I psychological needs .. -91 '-1 ~4 J d b JW1j @c h 'd LkJ!- c -&U13L& +&j.. L j L u ' d 1 3-c dj ~..i+3 .+UI j~+ji +
  • 52. I j + ~bi3~ z ;bi, ; .- I 'affection -I +UI pi +'++- uS-!sdkd m>i,& b3+&I - +;dl ',J! +U13.5i&95&1+3 w C C bl- i,Y ;LU9safety need - d i j k ; ; = r b & &+% -1 -. ~-L;flcfP& & sexual need --I- $&I rL&ZYli,+;LLI;-II- -1 - . PJ~_JI+Ldb3. c k Y I. C +UI ji +J! I& b++ ' + d l cfPLilI 'i+&U I- .- ~LLLYI 3~+ W I ~. i ~ ~ j41;~KU +iL LL i,L need for affiliation t-4 'd3@ ,am1; A L 2-3 451- C & '$a3 ' p l d l i d 3 &j + M I ci+))?I &Lid1klrrLYJl o h need-drive- JjUbe lslb+ U I .incentive model &+I n.-pressLLL+LLUg U j L +i,+ pLoI+l p* n fn~LJ13LWI ,+I'I++- . C I ~ + ' I ~ ~ + J I ~ ~ + ~?< - press- & L A 1 +Wl &+, j12-,, .((need-pattern bahavior &I- +I 9 ~ n .pattern d+MI 9 need cathexis i,=-Lj I cfPLJl3 i u c ~ l : 6 ! ~ , J j i + ~ +Ld i,LS klS9'&i&-if , G G p IL,~~,+L;++,AI- 9i'LA &-J &YI- t++~d ~ i3iw-)~ lh&&JLLjI L s L 9 ' L g c L & Y c t. C . +jL cxkLoY13 . t k Y l. C &&Jl i,& J&4 -+MI L L 2 b& 4ib U I- Z,UL .Z,u;Jl(JA at+ ,++I J! need for +dl3 WLfl JI +MI3
  • 53. 313 49=? ~ ~ i y . ; b z u p + L,,-& &kL;f JL&- J! -i+LJI 3!+'ee~jL9- J! k k l u l- 5 pii d-GU18 +A J+kL&. d3-. . d l '1;$ k ; u l Jwi3'need for power L C L i)& kJ 415 .-bLLfli)1 4dl s i)& S S $ l j .- B&&,L;II..I bj1 J+ ji JulS j L u j & J l- b~3~ ;$I& - L hK J! + W l j .&$9l& ; & J I p + need for achievement J#Il b l.l-;2 '+I 9- -1 al+Wl U 9 ~ f ~-I G k i 3i'G ~ h 3 ~+L& 3i2-i J: O h JiGj.h3'* LLe jlj;clg 'LU&jIj;cYI 9- & M I &>41- J+j)_llj ' 1 4 4-LcL+I 1pJI G l d ; Y l C V j .&YI& &a a Y L I 4rbp.... 'W J9* 4j.4 .+MY1 (need f o r - ~ ( l ~ l L ~ 1 3L . L L W i)$ &vY;$6 'prestige)- 'a!> &U3' L ~ I3iir9l g o h 3+&L; L U I t J j - & yW13 i c ~ l d l O h i)s &JLkpllj '41 + u LU 3iLUI d-LJ c 9 A f laL.+-e* k L J l L+ '4&+ll+LU*ll- y&i "ILL 1 3 ~ f @ -I3 Jlkbk . l l b j .+I J& j j i j- aldl &isJ! . & ! G I ijbL&LA OL b-73 &h need for self-actualization J! 'derived ns. d- - - .UL i)i3~ ~ w ~ d ~ ~ ~ l;A i)t, ~ l d I + W l , 3 L n e e d for s u c c e s s c ~ I i . ~ g s l - i 4 444;r ; J j;-,t-l i)3 ,((need for recognition dl P & J - & + ~ + ~p-c+i)i9 ' ~ ~ j l f ~( G W I A) +CU i)l J! , P.djbI+il3 djl& 4 i)dj3L C & % c ~ b )Ll_iU 'need for loving. 4 conscious n. b~gL;ell+W13 J-=,ii)h,.and being loved ( + U l
  • 54. + + + i L 3 k w ! ~ + wd b i J - , 3 ~ i p ~- -+ need L U I .fGKj- 5 k.LL neurotic needs & U I ijkMI3 &S JS& 6k gratification Horney sip- &iU aL)I-! + 4 3- '+I J+f13 ( ~ o Y - A A O ) .. 3+ wiri-4 LjG 'b JjJJ +4.- L ~ A- +ab - ~ i C g A a w ~ji++ i b ~ ie3' ~ 7G ,a: -,- + -4 - ,--r .f.llijL&a ijL3-+A &j3.+L-.n+lS..LI . . ;G9 Y.- +I! 41- ilkWI 32 .~pathological ns. ((-&A>abL,, a k U l '¶b+',LJ+AfiL3- &M3'+I Jl 5 .LU!:-L&!-. JL-&U13' & c L + Y IX i U I JI '&+%I J-Y + U I j ,h3Sfell&'iJij&L.. +CIL;U(21 j Ii I &I3 '&JLL!I + U k +Lp;&&I aLXJl .-',it1 - need reduction ghki3 ++;5~sL~veb,+~~.. .J.+b w !3i+WI LLL 3p $1 einternal n. -&WI +W13 41$WI &I2 +c i,:a;; - .eJmIL L L ~ ~-. +'&Z L i - 4- Jl- 4- external n. GJMlLWI3 . U I +-. @iLif * ~9~ Y $1 emanifest n. apWI &W13 G3'LI- dgWI Lgic p,aA .latent n. 2-dl 3iXiAQI &Wl 4.. narcissistic abWI3 s ; c + & i j l j c r r i ) r J ~ c ; L j I.. n. state &kYI 3L9.U ~~I+i+~'b-a;- id_*;,] uWI 4- & . ..1 gm n. tension L W I $93 .aLWl ++L;jUflJ;cL&C.&+L kc,$3 ij* -+Wl cW! + *j .*+ G y j &&i3 +MI3 t&AYlgm n. reduction L W I-
  • 55. A‘.&&& iJw advertiser :vlY +..I.!& ar bc fi~si;!e;k;4. - ' b s k Maslow: Motivation and Personality. - (JXrarl+ L L 3 L~+L,L L 1. b& delayed response +&! -b*yl fe9-d @b &Aw-~~+cpApbby13- Lkalrfl -+IjJarl &+dl ijI&L;f &- e L ~+I d j ~ y I j1G1&L :+ (J%K] i: ;11- d I J ~ !jI$ +;,repetition law: ~ U IAei i_l~e+~ b+L p p +&i3L . ~ ~ a r 1 3 J ~ IGL 3+>A .~+JI A &u -5 .ffiy f j ~ ~G& L+LK 4 1 z J 9 1 a ~ + ~ J+.U - ar3 .&I L A ~ L &dl j1-19 J%d! u $+ 91Ls9* + J Lf*pdl (JC 0Li;arl -1 ,i ;s~;JI2ikL+y (JK b+h3 +5+ L+ +A J.531++ priority law: L..LI ~ i yJ ~ Y2 9 1 &+ i+ ,i J+JI ~ l u i ~fw~ 2 2 b recency law: Xi1d l 3-L3 Murrau: Explorations in Personality.- Hull, C. G.: Principles of Behavior. - Lewin, K.: A Dynamic Theory of- Personality. McDougall, W.: The Energies of Men. - Advertising Psychology *:* *:* $L3;,- 6 3 Advertising (~SCryl &dl &d+I &&iill
  • 56. I - L I ~ L L I b , .bMI i~ JG!4 ++ d i l l- ((&dl)) &)Gat UG strength law: ;&I j+bj !& -1)) g b~ i ; i .+,+I hii;u ~gjpg ~id ~ + ~i;u.. ; + ) ) ~ j i l i - L ? + ~ + ( c ~ $ ~ p ~ i j ~ ( h i + 9 ~ & L p- i I I i I .. I law ~ L U I jg;bj :L~;LLI
  • 57. rl+yi,Lfl r ~ y ~JLL~ 3iJ+I L2&I+lIJ+I 'tLi3yIj ' L + % ! A ' = ~ ~ J y J - & J I & L ~ u I ~ ! ~ w I ++ bi 31c '.A... s3'-1 5 31 ' reference frame CT-LZ'J1-4 ,LbI 5 Jl 5 .. 1, ,- & ,LU .. +3 b+.A - L f 'reference personalities -1 0-4 && GI3',+I -1 'j w l =,I;U- (jXcyI3 .Lq+J +be.-+ QJp3 p d l +ib.Jl.. &L$ldul'k~~ j&-u..... a A f l &- 4 1 '+kLr- ;2- L ~ + ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ Y L ~ ; Y I + I.. G W I ~ I A L L ~o ~ + l j j l t Q l- &L+ s3 &- - b k l 3 & q j J + L f l L ; - f I J ~ 4 L + I &+I3 3iG L + ~ ~ + $!+I '+bL+ b u L&L%Yl instincts $141irLSlrlg. ~ L A A + i advertisements.. .mind advertisements & d l &LSCc! sex ,I a>+ 4I;!+ &+i3
  • 58. --re Lo djJi,*., i,+* +uu,i ,I+,i ?w,+pJat,i U l &I5 .&WI3 'l& uLp" +I C I 4I p& possessive need pd3 ulillJ3 '.I+ p w g 'I* b+! IEJ+ 519 L s L - J Y I J! &i GIG j!I9=. 3iJJ sLZ3YIg +l+lg 'pg;IL%L+', + ~ i Gek;i14 sir .p+J9 ,-I i-dkebi+i) k u . 4 3 L + 1 3';4GL.LJI&3J3-&~9 .('%+I Adams, H.: Advertising and its Mental - Laws. Scott, W.: Psychology of Advertising. - Koponen, A.: Personality Characteristics - of Purchasers. Twedt, D. W.: Consumer Psychology. - .:..:..:. ,?&!I gJ+l &dl +.. 'instinct @i,3- u r n ! i,i ~ 9 ~ + J 'waking dreams lcl;k,?)l ,&%I- ?!+I! JLjS m l- a+L iJF gj .+I (P c s 9 1-9 U I -3 G L ~ &i,+ Jk3'u. YW13 ,p&&'I&U U I &+ W S p+a;13*., '"UL," --3i A~.,..iujA* * I ~ .&A- pi+?U I & C - L L ~ U ] I ~ ~ I + L ~ 3!+tb9iiij'&+I p g ~- Z& i,tu;Yl & C J , L l- .. +I Ail zjyj .&I Z&j 'cJAIJ1 &+MI &L& &L*I &I- a ~ L d I g.(-JL;'dl p ;, 1 . . ~ h l- - - J-Yl $11 &dl3 ' Z g &.LJl ~ K k i - a n ~ J I & W U ' ~C . 4s- h4~i,Lyb curiosity need safety +%I JI -Ldj. .J+ - 4 - ; fl LIdk>L1i,13 'need 9%L JS c ; , ' ~ i , f i ~ i ~' z + i c i ~ 9 ' k j W l j c1313 IF^ W 'parenthood need L J l g l l 315 ;tU13. ~$eg;l&%~&;I'+~Ub
  • 59. i,y%l-4 Z J ~((hiddenpersuaders ;SJLLQ))Kautilya +m3' L + +:+ Q +W9 '((Principles of Politics Lul The Art ~ & l>))Sun Tzu: 3~ + +kL9'-& Y e .. L((of War a )) Confucius: p&gk;g a- p&Ldl?s3'((Analects .. ' - 4 3 ' 4 4 ' - . ... It-l +i , L ? l k U 1 3 & * - r I uj+i &- J3dl*j ' ~ J ~ ~ ! 3 +&JI '&CcdJ aljlj3 ij3s& GYP $3 '-@LATI L&qJu, p. -4LdlaY&JL LJI .campaigns public di31))- 9 &LJIt+yj ?% dill- propagandist +ls1I9 WI d j ~ l- &i,+dLkl13 '((opinion? &mIA d ! ILa t+ % &LA4 I opinion manipulators
  • 60. ((Agitation and Propaganda&Ldl3 5 i ) L I ! s s i ) ! & ! k - b b q Y q k L 4-3 - - k;l;g; Lg?&LJl- $ L A . & J 1 9 j d I i;JI- +dl3 L L 5 31 Lt++ -.. $LJ3l z92 d3Yl -2 2 9 2 &+$I -. &;JEY &L ';&A ;,dl 3~ ?@I .- ah& &- G'W bl;r,L, +LJJ~ &b !4 5 ~ jd1Ji3 J&l ?-pj . & c I L J I r + ~.. +G L ~ IJ! 3i.GIc 'LL~. +LYI-5 .--I . - DL&'!..,-sf ;++dl b& 6- +NJ :&Ldl& ?+ -s~j&fI ,i .ego oC;j GLYI 2- rfikL!bi+ b& $Lr L > ,self 4jlj rfik - -& d l $k3, U > . A ~ d 1 fl I, ; A - 4& propagandist .the idgkll @+.bljjbiL 5. 9 d l $1 ,+I ~ - 3 .4Ll$lJ1 'b. L b.-+>+I 4jLL.sr&&ii p&:r.l:i,superego&$I L$+.bk I I I - - ~ I ~ ~ ~ u I --+dliA-931 G i ~J!J+~ A+ ,i ,~E,$I++p +I 3i.$WI .. &~!;L+&~~,LB~UUIQ~L;. +Ldli)LI!diuu*I .,9l %?I + t+ B;G$I~ ,call ; ~ A I ~ &A!! i 2 L ?;Yg~ @ l ~p k d I 9 sL i- 9h1.. , 9 l 3 . ~ k g l ~ ~- ~ c r f $ d 1 ~ijkh&Y13 &.blp!l3 3 ' 1 .--I & &xi ;++ + 5 ~9GIL A Lpl1-. U l I +I$ 3U3 1 2-14 W ~ Lb s . i * e - c ... 'W J+ Li+ .QLf*lly!d r YI T iLa&.&+ &&A, c, *p , ; i 4 ~ d l- y!9 3 ,+PY' ((1-+43Al)) y! GL3-44 % >; A - ,I , , ,,'; *-c, 3 -. $ & & x i J l ~ $ k 2 I L + X l l- diuu Luis .&!2*d& -1 Congregation de S J J I- Z9dI L;la,) 9, I YY L ,Propaganda Fide 9 *L+i b ~ t1 - 4 ~ ~ Jw13J U Y ! ~L&d&- 2 9 d 1 -LA+A- di b?gL~JLILLfI I JI ((&. 'W A j .&LdI?I+P-5 d3(~;;grsfl),Q! b-)- I+bj&I iJL*dl))-L+Il- +LS ((-&LCdJ))
  • 61. + L A 2- +dJI ++A .&&4d13 3- LI&dl motives p I 3 s l I 41- +2 L++ LJ~J&~VU' a+uial pgjl+L + L A dc+F L. ;K ,psychological needs l social @-YI + Y L um- eg;oL9i,- 1 l p 9 1 ~LL+I security FLL weL+ 9i,&JUYI- L L @LJ+ ,>$l- 4i +1-J 9i . 5 o 1 M ijLiivI&+ lib,+bJ- L J! py+6b p13JJ13 ilbL,ll ro+~dL!IL u+! ppJ-? ~ + ' 9 ;J+ 6 p%-9s--44 L &&'9 L a j u 3 LAid+ 'u-L ~ A ~ 9 i 3.... - .I-. 9 ~ A ~ L I L L . JiJL+; l u g - .4 d l y j&. S3.wL3 ,$1+13 a ~ j $ ~ sL+h~(ILLZ-I ,+i++~&pLgs - vL;II3+.., '** v e i 9 ~Wlp4J-2 G~.ei Y~I+I b~ ~4 ,$U L+l rj&L.Jl 'Jl C =LA. - sophisticated c A :4 A 11 J+LILI~ LJL!J9i+& + propagandist - -&iLa '&I9 &MI+JhjJ19 L- ~ u j l A 3 &- J L - Y l &b9 L L a m !i j h Y A f 3 *-dl a:1 - 4 dL9*(L 'L+l~p%g .tdiiz7-dl &I- ;$+dl3 l &I charismatic &>jK a : - 2. - d l- l ,LIl J&+ '&J+L + p u + +h2,+iJ9i4j+ I ~'hbi +41-I.us+ 9 Y - - .suggestion G L Y-5 di 2 CLLLJJ t U Y l9 ,suggestibility I3&Yl 9 W C W LJIYI I+l L+p,Ll13 .persuasion pJ&&I Jl Jdl- I ~ # G I A p+ 'diJL, ..L I d l g- L V A + L X ~ ,Ll,,l-+>J39u d-2 w91 i'W' &I -+4&9 biA krw13idF2 ,&WI ,unconscious bJ+4dp +~s4;3- -41 a; I$*!!))&L dj&J d U 3,((reference personalities ((reference frames &-&I A$!)) C"bI+I9 >&113 d>LTl&
  • 62. +La;lrfl j+ d l- 1:,13-~-r~ rusj. J ~ b ~ ';t&dL L J J I 2 L S intimidation.. a-1 'JI -LC+ L&+ C I '#I PIy3'"+I + M I QLdIg- L.6 e U ) l l J+Lilk i, + ,political p. iJ+JL"LI ,aLG+; ' I - u l L c L L U L d fallacies ' & d l '$41&l&- & W l--- C &Gdl bps;;;, I+U psychological ++I yj- 'L+i dlb1,3b+f ~-j-d3.warfare- - - +j '(('LdLaJ&A)):JO +g + e----i...luLly+p'LJJ~ .k~~all,.&Gill ++I g- & L A Y a-L 3i-dl;JYLI +ii . a L d y3$h+!l &* overt p. o+L,cj& G-+Ldlj Z q L d l Lgf JLJ'+s-ifI hy9 masked & 4'white p. .-I :jlszLl JS - kCL*j 'a-j p. 'eLe;llj&+Ij -uW13&&I
  • 63. - .; t ~ 9 s f ~ 3 + L ; y 1 3 ~ l j 4 ~ ~ ~l/rJLS .aL)CcY13 ;i@13 ~2e&l13 Z1)Lcd13&Ld13 I &b3- ' i +i L+ +, ahL?;'dl3 d#I p J - h l- & w 5 w L A I I '*L-I13 @I3 &&I ' L k i+UI A 3.T% ,A)Ccy L4& '4LW W I j '-1 ~ L + J ~JL;~)I & ~ + J J . ~ s h i & d l- information %'dlC L+- :-$ a * d l Y l k J , Z9 ,theory - 1 ~ ~ 1 9 'communications theory - L~LZLI,~L+JI h p j b ~ i +k3'selective i. & L Y I- Z 1 ~ Y I structural 491- .- Z1)CcYI- aL+l a-9 - .-i? b Y l L 4 u 3 'i. a Y k Y I &&I3 .&Ll9 aL*l rLy13 'rSLcyl 42k+ ++ + ~ l g+iL A I ~LSI ,A: :A , 6L&e&i-SI Li3.-h9 ~ J J J - ~Jk Y j Y 2 ] L t ;i>k [,mi ek,L dj,+GALS YF.2' d I J ~ y 1@p Lai56-
  • 64. . .B. Whitton: Propaganda and the Cold - Zjb 9 3 .&Ail &hi31 6 , J - - 1% War. w+j lJlJ'n;,u4 Z++ D. Leaner: Propaganda in War and- d + ~ ~r~~ Crisis. Ellul, J.: Propaganda: The Formation of - _ Men'sAttitude. .'w+L ?&!I ( d ~ j.ZJ-!I Doop. L.: Public Opinion and- L ~ - G L ~ ~ ~ ~?%?I (rrjr) & Propaganda. - 1j! &&&I d*! Lerner, D.: Propaganda in War and- & &> ::I ;&- bj -I L -, ,J Crisis. - Whitton, J. B. and Larson, A.:- 1 14 LilLw13~1~391 Propaganda Towards Disarmament in ' ; L t J l & 31kilu!Z J 9 u f j - the War of Words. F bi +UI.' &L+I 3~
  • 65. &id-+ pAL%Y LK 'L+i- .. J-& w 8 - & 7 ++? W l I :++p4~it;rs' - 4 4b, - w p~~&LLI. . ?UI +id ~LL+LI 3i~i +,@I ?~_k? U - ~ + p j L ; L Q G $ L a JF # 3 +L Li ,i- -+ measurement ?Lll p~&L+- i 3 ~31 +w p3,of p.0. g h~3 &iJ.. J? p ~ i j ~ .IrppA+3L&Lakn+11 ,-4. - p e i b @a Lj'pw' - .+ b ~ ~a , :, L + I ~ ~ I ~ -I ~l;j,j+ &J3 t+lJ143 3a;3 lr,,-! J L Y Jb& '91 a u ! $&4 quaJ+Yl $ &L+jdI + J ~ b ! & > ~ ; d l ~- kLJl t Y L Y ! &>- ?;I ~ 4 2 " ~ L * ~ ~ ~L! - sample survey method L- L ~ . , - ! J~~ 3i ~ + 3 L ' i c ~ 3 i ~ 3 i a ~ ~ S 4 I u i b J b L 0 b3 J . .LLY ++?L &is.. ;GI public opinion CLLII -+).rkYYl - L 4 9 4 &+Y' 4'+p& JL >k 34 41public opinion ?Lll +i3 .'icWl & J JI+~I d& 41Li 91 ?UI &id- Li &a3 L J - L X 4 + &A- 51L u9- .bC&I u . 4&J+bK "Jsi" d3+J!+A~I-LjLiul ,JUi p...U l p- &pJ dk*+kjLQxjj4hUjL+ GJ& JG 'Jacques Necker+& +cjr+iL.dl J* 3!":;#I ;..s.((?LJ"$JJ JUI s*gpeS+ 61 :++U 3 L 2.. d l JU 6 ep$Ipu?al.l-,ia!! .J'd fkt ~L+I &+3'p--i 4~ &_9~.p;g,~i+~u1- h&tii&dl- d3- L L W j !&I4L13its(;.$ILsJkLei +LIUL &lJJ z+i LKUVJI. . &+L,~ ' 7 & c ~iiry(pW1;,!i 0# &+ t&Y +& L J19611 a ~ k ~3iJ&i3i &= +% 69-LWI(o]LJ9.irlcL+ ,,,.,ti I&J U3. c J L ~ ~ A -L&
  • 66. r"Bj Y L W I $ U I 3~ +j;i *J W pjL p u l &a IlJ-4 IlACYI $1419 J!?LJI 11. ..- &generalpublic ,UI LL& 4 1 'attentive public J#I 3 - h3informed public &JI dlJ& 3.. *YL! +iiii'J+lx&l &I i L;?J ,U ,+Y+ JS jL A Y -3 Lpollingof elites +dl +&I +lJ'dl3JAC J! ,aWl ~ L J4.. ~ ~ @ & 1 3 . L g j L l g o c k l j j c j the 0. of + ~ I I& i ~.G L LLU! .. i j l ~ u lct,tl +L L Ji+the elites &iJj- ,the thinking leadership i-I la p the o. of the cultured a ! iu ... >i4L2 .polling method C & Q C ~ ~ ~ & ~ J A I ~ ~ ~ &?MI$91,LL - . #I @LL cJ9+ p 3 & ' i l l~ J M Ip+h3 -$I+ -L &Gallupilglb WI &I A &L&J~~ 4 b . r .. +J> d u J i JRoper~ J J i j 2 ~ , lC 970 L LL3.Crossley Js9r'l&L+4]5(dWI&+JJl 5 J! ++ b l diL4gL p , , ~ - i A -14 i +J9 - ,i UWI OL g L~- d&&-ijL++aAlp~II.. + L ~ L).U data banks i j L W WI i j ~ ~ J ~ ~.LK +~i the general i , + i 2 ~ f lLw b+& i r u l + a ;irF ? W I - W C 5 the 41llgw3iLWI &iJ3&cultured Y y~~+, GI %., +lJi&L+ 9 0. of the general pl~blic a-I +'w I+* bi + b - ~ ~- &idlj.. &*JWI p ~ LLSJ)-~~- 4 m 1 3 +& J ~ L L ~ ~individual o. @ JLG 41L U l j ijL+AdJl private o. flWl &i913.. .&J +L A3&eg;illj-&I+ ?Kcafl$L3 t+pJpJ~9i+41'!--=Lp +).UI+~JstWI+i9~,&l Leks I+ I+ Y 4iYg .&ALL1 ij~jl+Jl$lii3 the majority p.0. k ~ ~ t t l- . &ia LijW13i,&dI jgrc r ~ l 1 9 ..
  • 67. 4;i3'ULZ Y Aa ~ ~ j y l ~~ & L K J a~ Li L . , , . G ~ hi + b+, .W;.~G;li 6- --+I- . a U l o h aIr+y3 31+i?gA J+> F k y 6~ '".i'Li L J - LA3 4 ~ l ~ i ~r:r:.... ~ $ 4 d;jlFLQ;;13'4& & + , A 3';tALi2Yl - .' u u ! 9 ' 4 , jSflj t&S-tl zj_,k(l 5 1 1 A i L ? , l j '+dl3 'z& 1+Lujk4'&.U&L!~~ $a& db3.L&~0 ~ 3 -4 1 ~1 1 - - - ; t l a L . . , , ~ f l ~ + L W l & A L & 3 Y l 0l3 'f(gt;Ul '+I &is,pL%+L+Y, L i C &'+ bL+3 'Jk,Jl3- -4 1 : 1 1 . - - 7 11 aL3iA,ULl+,LJI &I3'j;Yl ;~LL+Y~ ~ A U Y I ~ -3 L U 9 ' F L u d 1 9 w c . 8 - L '4: .A- I ..I) + b..bl ki authoritative a L I fl ;i ,..-- L j b ,; Ljz-. L g i I F G l personality ~ 4 ' ~bjlJl3' - . ethnic II 7 . . -Jl3 &i3wjlal+l e L S personality +WI &13 'minority p.0. +sbt~ &iJ- e u LWI &UI g b ~*9 .. .. - .;r91& i d - &3 LLUA &- k r u i,&& d l- temporary o. '@ p L d3g+a+z,,.., - 9.. daily p.0. -41- ?w&i913- the &I - .2+&1 &L& 9slJ%l&tb total P.O. j U I +I CSi$~3- '%.+-E &+'dl ?l;? & d l- p a subdued p.0. ++&iLk,nL3qL]I&ub~L&- 5 . -I &~,JI~- Le%y~& L ~ + & d l- 94, misguided p.0. ;L?LdI sCiPWl&I9 ;Awl open c+l ?WI iSi~13- 6aGW13 ewdig- LL~ P.O. +I ++Wl latent p.0. -1 +i41;A ' ~ 4 g r l 1i ::; -+2-4e]3bfl',~@+UJ~ ,G+ b1;~4i 41.. +3 ir! i,++ Y ,WI ;ji:?WI&I ' p L + A j ee;b VP; CjJl.. &U& &9*1I$UI+(egl~&Lng- - i .+;+JI&b+&pG3
  • 68. - . .4 4 , A - 1 - . . - 7.119 ~a n 1 r .lI aIjI+I d! suggestible personality ;d;l+Yl -4 1 , n L d 1 3 L~uL&Jlk>$j$JL 2Lextravert p. a L + d l 3.p . z j +$I &i2- jiLj LUI introvert L J I2,.A;313 GIJ$l JS &&Jl& - dlJ2Yl +A- p. ,i,- ~ U G & Y L i+j .LWI .G& p.. - y+lfllJ~i,,ulJ+.... OL- +lJi L,Y+ L ~ u ~pj 9- kr4;;tl a l g l ;r i,$j-UJ ~ J ~ i r l I+ Lis& .=-.j41- &i41- OIJ&I O+j L J ~332 dj2 kir.-&L; J! ?LJI&I- J4j@ J y 1jJkL J .+Awl 5 -&IJJ Ad&, ?Wl - ir&3 ~ l + Y l $ L A - ,Ul ab&I 9 L-&JLd3Y13 2+uL_ullj i + ~ i y ' d ~ ~ ~l - a J - . ! L - . - . . - . - .1 1 9 1 1 n - . I1j u9-f Ij ijL3&-1I j ~ iJ ~ 4 1 ~&i$id~~ LLg;l+! 4h W b + b L
  • 69. +I $L-- ?-+ "Ljl g LJ+3 Cooley, C.: Social Organization: A) L I J J ~Study of the Larger Mind). 9kj influential personalities & a general will LL ;21J & P- + i ~fkt2- G& GI ;re j3L.;. u ; ~~h3.?LJI c s i ~ ~ 3- .-I g- $1 volonte generale -LWI 0 ~ 1 ~ ~ 19 Jean-Jacques ROUSS~~IJy 3 ~ L6., Jb *& ;J!J! d3I ( ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ L&ll 9ithe proletariat &J&3d! -AV- ) Lenin 4J% LoS L J U I 299!oJJ)! e p Gb '( '!Y wb&lj @!Jljbt++ ( ,.!-. .;iej+j ~ g l - 1 2 ;+'h Wieland + ~ e l ? lpL;JI 4 1-29 - &.+ - ( ~ 9 9 ) - .((@Adl G3J w3 ~ 3 3 9 1JS J! 'L! &i;l J!&& ! b Lp3 J;LCII)) jgk? i;u ?WI &i+- +cji cY-I p 3 ..group mind ++I.. +J&$6iJ- 21 + i ~J=+ J& us!+$ & 4i21J!
  • 70. I lj'3 , : , > l n l 9 a l 3 d l6 ' 3 J3 i j l a L ; I & ~ L I. C di +,+& &i41- +L +- J+ & . . I JjJ 9?MI&JI,- .,?MI 4 ,#*; +*,,,d3t?k c , ~ i j ~ i +MI ,WI &I.- JC;, LC+% 5 d l 4 ,,,,,,;aL+lj Lctlatentp.o. J.= ?..;.jbi J+~&L,g +L- 'LaJ JjJ d b GK +j,z+ $7 w S b l +J3 - ;'&" IL ?J;; pr ?WI ;~+l + GI+! 91rl$l ? l ~ j i r . Y l Z F w &3 ;Js- &,,&dl d l Y! L+ +WI- d3+ll d3;"dl ;i2innn1~Ilij&WI - Bauer,) 4 1 j Y ~ jOL+& &$I W.: Die offentliche Meinung in der akm&LLj Weltgeschichte) - (.?.jTIA-ATI) Plato &+)~4i (.?.3 rYY-YAI ) ~ristot~e3 ~ A J i J + U I (J+ aLW1 JpJ j d i 'Jl.. e Y hc k 3 .aL92--113 J+ :( 0V - I74) Machiavelli -ij .,Wl - ahL;L .lPLl 3s :&J+I 4~~ousseau-3J b*; ? W I w3, + + -&I " " + L J ~ i a . - - e ; p ~ j @ PUI (sgki & J j d l- &+%.dl +t j 3 JY uyj 1aL+aQ1l ( f d l I dL L 3 & :&.dl 4iJQ - J I ~ LalJWlO h ijb%LJJj L W I &l;?J i>r &a L(Q1LjI &dl ijl$+!l>j ,group dynamics .. Li 9~,I, ?MI&i91- iussjg+ 2-l-3 JI> L,-LIJ J l o h JLLj &JW;>-!I 4 -8 . 11- ;,l+L >gjLes diyjL L l ~ d l C ;*I '+ bGL'+ijL+ J&5%y13 @I3 kid13?%dl ~ + > t e u ; L ; ~ ~ ~ l - L ; L i U l WI &id1crystallization ijfi&'(' - 5 5 J$Yl &la&4 j1 L* bj34 LGLC?;! & c ~ ,c L , i * ~- . Bernays, E.: Crystallizing) O A ~ @ + ! ! I -+&2 Public Opinion). ;z?-r;! j;L dl jil+y+Jl JWI ;$ L ~ e ~ t + ~ u&t?WI pdJ-di- t-, L L U + ~ U I JK; + la+ a ~ jpk;s -
  • 71. Jb&4--Jl3dl -J LOg+ Y L " Y l a l A L 2 L Y l pressure groups U l aLL+ 'hidl;, .;~*~I+AIu~+;d~3 JF ~343&+I3 &I +GI+I WI 9GL+I &e - (jXc'P'I, +Gst13J-Z1L4*?P,3 .&I3 p%;d3 J ~ $ ~+ L J I ~ &JI -Y! aL3L!J j J bL kJ3 JjJ& (' w1i s i ~ l*G +A d L j .&bl>%d c j L 3 L ! l w13+UI +I- p- ALI~J GLL+II++&JI I + ~ J I- L ~ l + 3 1 d I j & ~- U J !- w3. ' L , ~ ~WLJJI @igti3 ~ & A & J& & A L I J J ~ !Dj-rb .. e-1 LL3&u-I ;i4-~i;Ll ALL^ ?++ A>*-JI- ~ L l J d l0 h +A+ -3 .+-4d J L Y I &L3&.. &I 41 c,d3& +I e 3 ,#WL? LB;.I~J + l p ~ ~&idell- A &.dl- JIG1 Ij-rb ijLLYl- C L3lJ+ +:( 9 Y 7 ) Lasswell &,.Y ~ j - r b ~ ~ iA ?+- bi &I+I .I+ G~ 3~ di3 l G h ~ ~.. L" $3' ,I+! &&LA3 LU .JI+YI tl~b+$I b U l p dlj yl bl :( A T Y - v L A ) Bentham ?l;i!J& WI bi A Y t3- +i? - hK +.c +Wlb$l $3 .+L+ &+I c~ ?WI - JkJL +6Jb3lt&Yl J& ?L d l $ ~ - 31: ( A T - A * Y ) Stahl + ;jjI+ 4;b l&$l &&I OJIJI 2- +I ?WI & i 3 ~- 3sl;- &-I C.M& >*Lhll Aj3- - - i A A A A Bluntschli- jh3.-L+I --I &iJP- A+ & ( ~ Y Y - A Y ~ )Bryce #IY- . ?WI .id- u+~ ~ $ 1- ,MI 3 +l+$l3 & 3 U l br >+Li& i l l- &iJ3- .&LL~L~~YIo+-~ -+&I & ( Ao9- A + o ) Tockueville @y- wUIG b yA$k di ?WI $ d l.. C +I al+l db3.&Id1- ;ts2 J+.J 31q3 &LlJJf13 L U I J&i- p U I &jJl- 4i.i
  • 72. 'prestige paper *L 6- i++l 34 &I3&La3 'd* s3'd++ &dl- ++<% '419b,+3&9 ' a ! who says what, to whom, how, when and where he says it, through what @ ;,j 'channel, and with what effect? J 3 k J I dj&&Lwl- +I '.'9'(J+ & d l ,(Jpk?+) 4 J 1 9 6 ( J p ? d ) &L,JP~(JP, i.?i)h U l 3 Y&JJIL-+ j&L?g.(*dl) && '& O J g i i 3 '(Wl)~9jYJl .;a, ;,>L iu -J .?WI +id i,-I JL p ir2 , A ~ I - a @i ,propagandists LLdL
  • 73. dj&j U I 3 l-+dl *I- Lg, ?+ $1 pXwYl G &Lclll LC;9 & L d eJdI &dl3 L ~ W IaL$d! Y C ;II,WI +l(&AiJl p+L)4;pA$L. F L ~ ~ ; p ~ j r q a k k l l .',+dud1 IIJL &.lzJ; d l a 4 Y d l 3 ALLGI >O* .. - 361,zJul ip- ?+!-"i P 3 1+3 94' ('MI C &!$I >&Zj-- aL(Yl LillLl- C & ! d l- &I3..., &AI L j .,.aWI &Ldbb 3 u d +I+ai;+ ,.am! psychological 2 : ; fl uJ-1&3 hi .Y+ J ~ L Y ~lwarfare +@&I3 1 e g I ; L i l ~ lLLhkll w3- h G i ; L j l 3 1 y - $L L & J I JjJ &&I L & U ~ a b k l .. - . C bJ9-3 L P 3 j j u g IIh 3 A d ++j 1 ".dl J L L j 2.. 2 A j l + .@ b d l ilGLi)'lj j&Ll g specialist - .. I IJ-.. Y 41II~+i-I +&I -9-19l*uLiJI$&$3 @$J ((& &), ~ L + W'LL~+LJ a~~~&3 kyrig ~ $ 1.. @I k ; U l o h 3 .&iJk ?WI & d i , & G j + L j d J _ g , J . & d J l%kill3 ldIA13l?~p$~ ALLI~J 'L+i LJL L U ~ ,i1ZJLkll 3iLLI + L ~ ~ J I L A 2 k;III*L+13 1 6 u U l ;4~il491 Y 3i,LUI J&61~ I ~ $ 1bjp ~ i . c j' ~ I A L L@ J . %Yl 3;L3;,&ji b b b&? J 3 1 j i 9 ?AJh iJ!'w3 +L &J- J6611 U C p&+ ,WI bl i x b l3 oral means ~sIIL+! JI+'~IJIIL&$+.dl 2- JJL>J G ~ I& Jj-I & ~ J ~ u ~ O ~ ~ G .WpUIp& 4 O+ ----r .c?;u +I ; c i ~ ~ 3.. ab&l &&I.. a b L ; j Y I L K i :;.lJ3+l L,.,L'L C I j ~ c j l & k d l & ; j ~, - - I - - l a ! - - I - O-C;LS ILI ?WI a ~ i - ~ - k c u ;+I& - d GaLbL=lijYl eIIUy3 1 + ~ j lJ ~ I~bg
  • 74. Free, L. A.: The Role of Public Opinion in - International Relations. Klapper, J. T.: The Effects of Mass- Communication. Smith, Bruce, Laswell, Harold and Casey, - R.: Propaganda, Communication and Public Opinion. h9+ +;;;Idill- 'marginal man J 9 L ~ ~ + * p & 4 i Y g ~ +- ;r0-4;j~.us+i ++ bi .+ c9s-xf~j41 .; J~pi k , l G s f l S b ~ ' d l&;, .-, -- I r- . - 9 641- 6 L ; ; ' d ?%;;'dl $Lj& ,&;;'dl & 'L&jA+ 4 f+ +$I I L $Li;+J)lJLLL k L b i L t l j .+ 9 L 3 3Lfj -,@;;'dl p i l ~ q g ~ ~ + c b . + ~ i + + ~- '?L di,- J ~ I~ W IJ~-JI a& *WI '5J ilbkl i s9I -1 '&IS&i.ll o i g l *yi;p&g9'yWI 4-1 Jk+ki (P +*j .LLICI &-+ marketing $ 4 1 ++.I+I+I~kh1-i nI: L acdl :&Y wY!&&dj~ L ~ ~ - L J I ~- Lenin: Agitation and Propaganda.- Albig, W: Modern Public Opinion. - $ 4 1 cL.- ~3 'market analysis2 4 1 Childs, H.: Public Opinion: Nature,- d&-d -9 'marketing research Formation and Role.
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  • 76. .U$l .&SKe;.Yl ,+I JL*I92 - b&i9bL;;b kLWl+ h%YI .abwIOLb bF3 b p 1 3 d L I J + ~b 3 4 3 motivationy13LJI(;.- A &a p13sll+eLL&.- :A 9 3 research &J~-I! 3j b Z + u d 1 3 u w I -1 p k b&J-W13 3 4 1j-3 ..I+I3 d l 3 $9&! @! ZP9!&SKe;.Yl b a ~ u 1 3 i +-. bbWI p g l & . I g G I * ~ 4 ; s + Y J L- 35 ,J!*+I &;_)dl +$j bb)lc'dL LgzJ! W l 3 .?+ h3412 : . d l J-JXLJl c L y 62193 .*u&S*YI 3 4 1+ljij J ~ L-C . b~ +i .I+I I &GI11 &3 .l+lIJl +WI +J!?MI . - bi j i C i+ -+232 market3911111 L".-,:Ab&&+dI ilrl+LL I J + research &dl3 & ullef13 L!A%J .oI*#UJI... 3.siiu
  • 77. b3 G y J i& i)i3 ' J W J & , , & I G & J J ~ ~ I . . & -.. - c,lt,,ao L 3 . U l++ +'&dlL;13?+L;LCjS'& ~ $ 1 d u l i,'I i,&f 6! &I.. &~gllW5l +j .L J-YaLf VI c 2 4 1i &2 1 ,.<I' - 1 r --6 -t i,I +>-! I .. UJYe- L: -!' J e I J!pdj 2J+1 d l & U I - .:is' ( t U I ;i_)y,,C ' 2 . ~ a b ~ ! ~ ~ ~ i b - ~ i& ~ X + IJfiL ( ( J ~ J - ~ ~ , , &JW- y'd& &I &mI L&J% (%&J .&!J&j a ' d G ' d l J&&L ( S b I h) psychological atmosphere *& i3? -2 #...r L - ‘UI J,*LL .&LSL h~ aidi +I J!FJ.I&A!- 41+l hj- usUI J~p;d~+ i ~ e~ L 3 ' d lI d 3 .+I +l I h - 6 L Y l-5 &c u L d & d l p u l - .&&& *:* *:* .:* U I ~ $ 3'JbCbl~z& 'd1dA91 a U 1 3c w L ~ Ie + J 2 ~ ~ l +I i I; 4JI J L C L ~ I ~'-%dl 'b13'U3' U I &i,+ 41.. &L&'dlj ' % J W l &)Gg . I & . . & & 4 j d _ L 5 d i w (+hi+) +I3 &AI- uJ-bi+~+-& L ~ I&- 4i-j 'J+I cIjA & U I- JLjllj '+.LC i,& i,l jiL3 'r---"3+l,;,l LS,&J2*4+ .hJm1&%dj&JL+i)I- ?'dl3 ;ruLe]+ )-+)z = - f 1 3 . U l ;;i u $41pi ipj +&LLLA&. + ;dj,I .+jgsj i basic needs -L%I G ~ W I JY L+L;;! p- +I, Jj i,191513 J W I lsl i,& ijj3 'J+l + J ~i,& bij'+IWIe l j +cL)?13+I & i~41Jl (P +b2& v;JsLgue;$ 3 2 1 LC14 i,& & A !- JgLhf& l-&ml
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  • 79. 43LoI~xL,l3L;L_;rl&lj 2 I I +L3b d ~ ) r h Y ~ 1 3a l G m ++3& -9 .&59- ,plki &+I ++it+ consumer -1 ki.- :a ? +LC C market 3 4 1L.- a 31 research 'hi+A+ Jke3research(3 - , u " k i l l p W 2 1 ~ . l t ,- - . IlaarLL4fl al;)lCtu + d l &I 1)92yw;.;.J Ckl;; JF &kI+L13 1 d & d I LC lo& L(pL2d l a L U l 31 U I dj;,WJ* .+WJi+-! LtP&jI3 1-1 ;fr,fiLL4k a13~3~ C ) C ; I I O ~"-1 C I I J ~ ~ ~ 3 IGJ)-;J 'If& ckljUI OL, JLJ bi A .. a' + 4 1 ' +3 - u 3- ~ l J d l a)ccarl ( ( L z u 3 j ) ) b++ a s p 2 9 +1-91 + advertising research l9;Kj lL+iJl al&.'kJl p ;+.dl a bWI(3UD i)31LLA 5L4+~ 'TLhJI J!& U K ,&& dl AI-YI 41+MI 3i.,I 3i LUI c+ JI L -LWI 3i12rkil~3
  • 80. i)$l J+2 6 . k ykl;&c jjj'Yl 14i)~4J J9-y19~ W C b C &~$'uI &&.!I dl k l +j + ~ l + * ; i ? + l + C &I3 '&JWI ~ i Y b d i ; g ~ ~ f ; h i - - n -,r1 31- i J f n 4 ji +$I &LLYI I aK$ i)K $ +j 'i)Xr)U + L a a t 1 2 : 131' L l && 6.31 fBJl 3 U I L K lib- a j ~I sl;i . G L ~ Io& a: i n - . gu: m))j&! i)b-31, ,i r~ A 41- I+$ .~)%YI C U I -kl i)l .&jWI- C .,-;-J1 +0 4 3 .uL&4&i& -Y C dl -&@ 6- q d.&,Jl C i)!-2 .& abLLfl d o h -1 7 w x a l i i)%W JI- ijljLLtf1hgSr; ~i i>p. ijdj ;is .+b. . .o$j;s 4;rk; &'+J4 ' L A 1 tig;r ~P~L+~))LC1 ~ ~ 4 3 :A + ;r ljls lib 6((eJi,,di -91
  • 81. ( 7 ) -++I f 4 1 +I9 +J (QLC - -kpdI - - NOBILIS 94
  • 82. 9~bi 4i.&.., iir~jk+L .b%Yl alJLc3Z+13 U l y! ++ 03JA3 i)%)'I J,+zz A 9 (controlled'LL 'L+G+ y-L= exposure technique) 6 j & I 'a A - 4 . - p..&UkrSLn GlhI. 5 G I 3 1 (P+ J C S I . I p&&'.u13 '* ',LC b%YI 'ZJI$~LJ ~ l j + Y l pi d@! al,Lj! & K,&- J+I G % ~ I Li+d3'UI G ~ + A .zr,I- .I+ +i,LW @ a L j A l -9 & 4 ~ ~ < l $ ? & & . & u l a L k Y l a l r Y L u L J I . . , .qL +L L1p consumer surveysc 6 - * 9 3 p 4 L L u * z + s t + 'L(j-l U I -++GIg, 'egjb&l 3iL G j ~ ~- i+.-IC J~~- 4'I++ 3gi atYfc;;udl cpt!9 .&jm1)L u ! uJ+1 aLI&! & &pi &$9 bh &-aJ19 - -a I G l F 5 - .t 9 , 1 A I 1 " 9 9 - 4 C F J+g .+'dl ?L &9- ;++I +a1 &QJ&u&A'+i,Xry C S b%yl ' ~ ~ - 2 1 ~& (j%4d! y @ g+e -?9~919~ 9 6 ~1~ 'WI &+ 4 GI+! dJi, &bb l d i +;I (j*)Il j - j ~ ; ~ !3~4d,X3.got J!&-~ Y L. . 3.g* gjJ'G S ' d ' A .+j J& u ~ ; dijy .,t,;;b, zjy d+ & d l- cjXrYl (jK-afl5 $L- k4+ bl;h?+ d b 3 ;;'J ~ Y I '6-d I '+ ~ & ~ j # GK I Y L +L-. (ji-&wl3 L b ~ ~ W +j,U I GI+& J&)'l a ~ a j ~ ~ 9 . (j&'4..!.., ';,:c lc: d l &Q *LA GLSYI +i+id3i ~ h j l g l ~ consumer jury & 9i-I ~ia.+ "12 @ & ~ ld b ;.A 3itechnique j-jMI @ &'readership survey &I &+I G ~ i+J~ 9 i u ~ g L % ! ~ i 2 & & i- bi3i'GKC~I L~. a ~
  • 83. ALLY- . + &K .&&I 2 & d l- GLj+l $.hi-dl sL l j l &K JS + ~ it - ~ ~G~~ $jz, &.b%j*ll b-+$1 pLJ1 L Q L ~ j * j - d L ; . + &k +kyip..-c~9ij~jillyl;l~ ~9 .p'd.?' +ljT,i2>il ; + L C 'jJLd b 3 A L k N L(+ .b: 1 (+&dl ird 2 ' P p34!t . 9((i,@-+u-J - 4 -I .:,II ;~4~kol&ji AWI &+ @I+ ,&;dl +1;&b& db3 G~.-&I A +w! ,ki + p & ~ ~ A L A + % + A ) L b ~ + L + ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ i ~ + i c ; , g k t w ~ 1 j - J j L i - 1 ~ l + L k l(egld e - rjljk&I3'iu!p p lJ+Ic ' ' ~ ~ + ~ ~ ~ i ~ u UI+::I:;+U~~ , < b y .'&I -+&p + L i A l j'LB] ~ - M L ~ Lgr9- +,,;r+l*gi Lg;s .+ lpK L I T Jp ;C-U;; 'i*db3 j&! (egpll&j.u- &&- .t-W + L d l +&I L i . i .GI+ L ~ I -3 .-I y +-j ~Aj~K+lyLl&c>;3SIJlLLUILiiI 9djk;Fjlji . + d l ji .--@I && .ij1j&Yl W J ~~~41 ;+%I &-&dl o s g l (j+ dj ~ i ~ l p , l ; l l ~ 9 ~ l ~- . p j L + i j K 151t h d l b&Ly -4 1 . d lG L & ~ i,3$c& dj 'J1+ &iL*JO3 '41&!i3 * + %j .A:,+kir 3 ~ 1 2 - i 3 -9lAyI ;rG3jj-C ,WI ;, dl Y ji el;.'+?I ~ ~ $ 9 ~,LUI Jjb & A &I3 'JIJLLI .UI jjb ikji .&I o$L p4Lul +& i l lJhu3- & t-I 4- ..+I * l i i;k - jli + - +F-- zx.u9~&I5 l i lC .u L Y L. - C . S*;E&'UjH. . -. A ;j9-4 LLI i ; ~I -aF -.
  • 84. - . _ . I$.A.Jlbtl&~&'W ~ j e m ~ 9 k f d & d i j L & ~ b 4 d " + J & .p+ g?:&-,Jl& al$h $1 L d l- - 9 j U l J!& L Y &F . motivation p l j d l L&.- r ~ 4 1 3 Le;ts~~+;rbL+i$&
  • 85. .d LI+I b++&& &ikj ' w k %IJJ@ *3 ij* p,pb&31 t iij* LJL3 (&,,-? +wi 2 4 ++*3! $j;s .kiA> d$l3., ijy* 2 ck;lJL ((-1 +$&" .~1.;...,11 &i-j +% 'dj& '+j+l 4 .I+ & d b y f+ .biFjJ! "41J! +b, 4;i ~ ~ i u b ~ ~ ~ + ~ ~ d i ; . i i l l j & j ~Us . ;ji +j+~3 +I $1 +>I $I+' +AjJ-p L.S . L I ~ ~i j ~ ~ i9.. + 5~ I -%I 31.kWI *p'A c + marketing+ 2 ~ 1 1 ~+s~A~&~)) ij- LQS L& LOJS&( ( P S Y C ~ O ~ O ~ ~ ij%yI +_9t9&.u)) ij%Yl :n J L3((advertising psychology V c 51J+ ,i +319&+I &....A1 (QL,) J!o&Yl +A o & l p marketing psychology P &+I L L 31&iJL '6 q-~xCylJI+>- LaLjijl&dl I d -9 d l 3 ?41+L 3i j ~ b 3 ,i 6illg~+~~J! 3i'UL . . 3:Lte? 3i 'WW' & i W I LCU $ Y U + L ~ ~ S ~ L , ~ ~ . - ~ ~- G-tL% k ~ 3'&9+LJ ij& -+Lid11 d 4 ~ ~ ' ~ ~ b iZ3Y - . . .L;I &J u Y 1 3 i j I + A l ;;GI> i l l j b Y l o h JS Jl skJL ;;#I 'J! &@I ij,G3 .-+WI & d l J'L+ik 'questionnaire j l + ~ ~ Y l ; ; + & + & i d t y .&JF I '4;: I - - ' U - L d;d ( ,:,; ,+ --I J!&Lp g ~ & i ] l yWI J-- - krg && &dl3is1 LA&j+G Jl- aI,&I ,I+ J! -9- QJI I d (oej~& 3 'id JS i ~ w lij~+ 'iJaLadI +kji illJwl (j32+ p 3 a ~ l l i j U l 3 ~&LS3 .bij3& G ~ J U I ~ ,J u5 L L I 3 k . 2 ~ 1;rri J3p3 '&-+I @jJl& I>-f ojw p+ S ~ ~ ; ; - Y L e;w~bi + JL;II +cU~ys-dI J+ ~ ~ ~
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  • 90. d!QYLk;-2~m l & d ! g- $?*I @ 4 . L r&Ldg 6 4 s $WI l W C ~;ifL!~ G29 4f (j! +.J.. L&+- ;+! L,~ ; ; i ~,+lp- ,~;113 yi9 hi e3 ;UI~ c 4 1 ~ iu3&+.+ + p l ~ 1 1 ~u i r,? ~ , g +- l $L-" !h+&ub13 L & +J-, ks..~.:.;~i TAU 5 9I* hi GI * - JL ;+-Lll eglhG3.$WI I d .',dl2 4 1 J!($3 iyIjLLa 2+'L'a'U4*+ -1L1I f l A i c l I + & k b i h b i i ) i ~ c W 'jl Y!& Y 2 l + i u Y I 3.2I+Yl c 4Ub gi,+- &ill 2 l p Y l + tuq, &ap-4 *~-1L119-& jkn A+ hl ...A ;11 L+ &&I3 L& d.33 L A l 9 di Js -3 JU+b3 c4yu2i~lj+grhq.4ur;;++ h ~ p-2 'jiA L -i bi L & GL, 3i3Lil~+~3 +I + + ?2 JS 3i3 ;J+ d l L + d l 2 & d I ;tL+
  • 91. Ginsburg, Sol: The Mental- Health Movement. Its Theoretical Assumptions. Ridenour, Nina: The Mental- Health Movement. Encyclopedia of Mental Health. Davis, Kingsley: Mental- Hygiene and the Class Structure. Clausen, John: Sociology and - the Field of Mental Health. 3i,JMI d! Z ~ J I ,i J! 5 C &J Z ~ Jl+l 31 ,pWI J! Z y d l L . i - ; ; . . I 7 z q k r i r A ~ v ? + & Y I ~ I- e3 d j ~ g U I Z y J &j .b+uaI &I3- & l ~ . + . - + ~ L a ~ ...A : )I ,social psychiatry +G.. - zs+ p* 3,&3 ,PLY ++LC: +JP+ 4 1 c)Wl & P&+ i-lCI3- ,psychodrama L I J d l &L& ulJi3++ p- i r i ~ ~.. i r - 4 1 3 Le-f~i3 -41 -wI.. -1 J+L i F ~ h ~ 3 '$3, +3 .s &+'r- c9-! I3i7L.";~~ ;_u c&3 +I+lll r;UI & maturation..
  • 92. 5 9 I id1+i J+ :+I +JWI1 . ) l u ~ u L ~ ~ J ; . i r ' d l - y . J 3 <+ +3 .+I +I 3'k .L~L..,&i- ~ ~ k l lLT . A ; ~.-L, d i . d u ~ rd-LU- ?LI~ Liz ~ f ~PLL +g +13 .+L~irgiv~- LLJ -. 4-l (jGj i,&dl1+I +la; ;ct;kj! +- - +; r ~ ~JS g L1;;9'u .? ; j ~JS b Ejlgbi + G ~ ~ ~ - + L J I ; ~ L A I & + I J L L , . . , . ~ U ~ ~ ~ ; ~ ~ ~ - ~ + J I ~ ~ L l - ~ K + ~ ~ l & l y l 5 = L C i f l.&I 3 regressionw3kf~hi - maturation de &ill 3 c-I l +ja3 La C ;14J+l 4 generation hypothesis- C;LZ ;;J'djJl Ay 4 1 >*+I -C :yrs_i31 I+ IQ:u&'ll Y C ;1&J g I 4 : m. hypothesis c+l- . k 9 l c+ Ls2- &+I aL;US Y j 1Gj$l dSjO-fl- j-l3 ;+i ~4 Ay 91Z I ~ ~ IG X Z cz~~i+-3 TI p :principle of anticipatory m. FL'W Lik&dCh;b$! &J+ll ,,LA& @ +3i@ G , &lJi + p 4 -.;TII UJ-:. . d J G~ - m. +I 2&i3 istimulus induced m. ;& LB,sJl- kJ11& :rating j-~ 3 ,3i6 GLAYI 49- +I;$ 3iO+ rq,;rb LJIj~'p'1j ;i- .1 I ffiJ13 G49-f 1 .&'+IJ &'iJl3 &Iii*+~;I!l;t$',i-~- a developmental growth jbj! = I I 1 process- "L,J,XLL~ibbJl. € . . g r o w t h 4 1 GUl bB )-LUl- &Sl&L Ji&b9>b13b~ (J-4 >I&: b d ! O L - ~ aJ- -1 ;1Lg;131 ~ 1 - 2 .4s+ 2+b3b ~ c h t l r ; J l ~ ~ & ~o b y b - - - y 3 .s&I% b9 ' 3 .al2&ll L" G ;jWI I& i)! J$L U L J c& *"-JAIL . ~ 4 , 7 + ~l&'dl +dJLl 5 l klo ~ l= C - C ++ir'~"i--%l e a ' $ 9 4 4 o L jb +l i lC kl,? ?Wl
  • 93. i+ L L ; I I j L Y l fgLll P S C sexual +I- C+I 21Y! , ' i + y 6" &iWI+ PX; PApuberty - i i lY ~L;II 3i+MI 3p4 s I h l + l + 9- $1 +&YI z a l.. Y a L , ; ? d I * p g ' & 2 d L I l j social m. +&Y- .. +%L g Y V l G 3 '&&I3 -+Id1 p, '&$LJ13 L W 1 Jl +I L a .. +WI 3i+WI bc . ~ ; J41+I .. u;.JI+~L! J ~ ' $ & d;gu&kS+I JI C , L A- & k i S - genital m. & k l l c4;li11 - &W- - &-b & &J.J dl. c ~k J-CIJ C l 4LUj 'i-YI i,i,LLLijc l j d I i Pi +L;II 3i+LA ++9 . ~ ~ ~ d ~ ~ g ~ j g . ~ . , , i + d r r k ;.. 3 . Y LSJ Jgug L& & y c l c ; t Y l + l ~ ~ ~ $1 I ~ L ~ I ~ ~ u L ~ I + k L W -&&a +aL+I Q - l b vocational m.: &I +Ij .zlj$j .. G~ 3iu3 T j w ~ 3 k u ~ ',..JI cAillj .&I+ g- L& rmlj JI k f N I c I j Y I i,& 'U-sfI J! '+'+I JI JI Y C Y W L i j l Yl &@I&I,. L&K3 $A.-kj- '&+I & l A I a L a - d A l m. limit p L J I J- P L Y !- -~L~.UIIG~~;LL.B~ i s ~ i - k - . 0 4 ;tl;;tflj & d l dL3&kj3 a-u;, pl l i b 'Lejl+!.b~~&A C &ILJ-4'41p - l l ~ Y l ~ @ lILa- .. l C P +%ijl4jI-L (J-4 4 s ,pi?' 4 1 A i c ~ l ~JL... 2 Lbi3.z-~~ L $i ~4+y~- 41 &i .+JIj Z+'al3 ;i-fl dL 4& : maturitas praecox$&.dl +ill 3 &Ij 'Ggcul+aYWI klL ‘+&I+JI~)LI~~II~~&&G.. -. +iJ+3 '-91- 9;sjCjlK &- dij+ LuLijir&JI ahLl++. l Gj A++ a L . 4 b I +dl ~ ~ 1 l&Ia Y L d b j .&-l '-L"-lI-LLJI P a u l L&4 &L- iji p;j3.+I a l ~9- *ki+3 g + sexual m. 4 1.. -
  • 94. ;t&Y k o j W I ~ ~ - f lZJ, &ii 3;4 $4'&+I +JkY3 44-J' p;t--j&i- j ! 4 1 JILYI JUI 9,,k, &dl- &+I 31L45 L+l ir+i2~.6k~l 5 C & I + & j - r 6 1 + f L & I &- 5 Ii5 - a L l - & o J j r ' + + GGL9 h L Y l 1.61 1 1 . - - F ;4* db3.&.'a& &dl ,+I3 - AA .) Arnold Gesell J+ 3 L I $lgill & ( 9 7 ,I z+it l3 ,emotional m.- ;t+ iji9 psychological m.: &+',A3 ' 4 3 Y G I 3 1 1 4 a+'diJJ OW? Lgt-? +L;" .&Ui .+Y' g k l l +,gkll &ll;Y+13 p y d l L % L L y d I ~ L j l J _ > ~ j i p a ,&I +Ib di JL&SI &-&-dl3i '+91XAl 31 3i - 4 4 1 3' 1 e A l l c-l 1 ;r 'A; tl <Xk,ALUjSJ.b$&lI- + k i J Y L+. development + k J Y
  • 95. instinctive behavior d+ I .. ,,+)) bi .&.. ~rf+ b j ! ~ Y j +dl- &W! +d% &i..innate-C 31 ;*Ji.. +& !kt,&&piJ bL3 .lg;LLt Lg;L pj..L(+u iikLi,)ip+lj dqWI L+ +((+D), .L,+- J~pig.. .?L,, LL,)@ &2>J- .+sj G J 3 0JggfP .b&lJI-1 @ K & J J scientific &$9;>+I 3 - & Lo '&d b & .hypothesis 5-4 o J ~ ~-I J ~ ,bi $9 ifb conscience i. +I &- (c241,, L+& CJ-QIC- ;>+ 6.t~+i~ L I + ! ~ . d ~ y J; bAl &dl 9 3 herd i.: #I8 - ++J+++ JLI++J&J p&+ l ~ l i L 4' 0 4 1 p&+ ~3JI;J -.;A1JLq 'CA 'X? ( j j Jw+Jl !i. Ridden b1o);l+ clJr +, - :C'P Gesell and Thompson: Infant- Behavior. Buhler, C.: From Birth to Maturity.- Harris, D. 6.: The Concept of- Development. Pressey, S. L. and Kuhlen, R. G.: - Psychological Development through the Span. u ? ' d ! w a r 4 ! 3 > 4- delayed -+>;A$ +4 partial i. &5+1 i>Sff19 !i. &i)U! +&+)?I yY13 .L&- - 'ki@ J& . -L + .J.&i+ b . J- I IG;J+.instinctus
  • 96. &>dl e19d1&Ui)l d'GIJ,Y w +;IF&& kUICfp- -. cjl& jI%,;j d l F p- bJhiu! i,LdI -+UI + i i3.;.J.+ATI-. c k j l g ~ l ~ t J L I I 2.. &L;;=! 2 @dL3 '&9s;tl L & ~ i s ' + . J & L * ; ~ Wlkell i)L+ L =AS-i iJW1 i>> ji 'combating i. + L ; n ~ i ~mastery i..e-j13 Le,.Gi& s ~ 4;>+I WGYI &p h ( j 4 1 JGb' & d l &&;~btpill+;r.aYWI i,+Lifl & & d l- -2 .*JJ i++ CJI* +A &j$I9 i&?J3)J4dl ; r . i + + ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ g c + ; r . d q 1 &.. J k Y l .d+I LLL --i d~ J- U I ~ I - McDougallJk3&&J3, U l 5-ldI2-- ( ~ Y A - A v ) 'theory of instinctsj;+I G2L1 .1p91LJ+ J-+2 ,iJ~L+ +JIJ + L a + $ii La3.aLWI3 4 ( AAY - A . 4 ) Charles Darwin- j ~ i ~'kl2'%LC L,LL . . i>+~ &!I3 'J+ J! % m pk&!l 41- c - .. , ( A - L - V Y L ) K a n t u b Jh 4 & , a , + 3 ' J + I ~ & > ~ l ~ L 3- .JLYI ji ;11.-41~.SI,,~I ' i i :-cj' ~ ~ . - G Y I ~-+dl ji tj+~j a& epk.dI0 . b Jk3& ,affective 3sj 'cognitive &iy r;ll d J i@ 'conative &j>j .. 4 % ~t.+ ' + G ~ 'Qji - &&>+I d+l % ;ir;u-l+j - -
  • 97. Y LSWI 3ip~~dqw~ +I J+Ld- ,L~I c~~ 6 $b 41SJ.b(-JY~L~L- +All- d l j &4 Lj .z+A+Y @lpJlj *ljj.!l &4 kdj_l~1,~L~+ - - ILASLYJ.- ... &C 'psycho-analysis b+ill J+il& - 'aL>jJ13 j ~ ; d ~iskls&k&& .#I Li.AsJ Lr?L.%I~J&L!j - - . .~ G . - t . . t . 4 1 f i ~ ~ - 1.. .. 1 dJ+! a & & ~ ~ 4jULKo +3 > 9 b e &J+ p'?9ea$1I&,~~!~+AWI +,44ik.&4<~*++4@ c l l ~ ~ ~ l ~LlSg ' ' + d l &I p+iA &ry~Uij_llcllLbl*YU LS3J3.JIaj& I1;C$1j$I ;i>+ - 1,4; du ,>+.I $ 1 ~ 1 J @ ~;jid s ij91( - . ~ d ~ l f ~ ~ t , ~ ( - J i ~ - ~ , ~ ! ~ + .anti-instinct revolt ;;>A~ ~ L h p f l kis3a > 4 + L b i +s~,~ '4- G U &eb&Lj'~~ ;+ &T* b&a&J3 ' F L A I 3 LA ~gi;+L b i p3 ' k ~ i+ . b J J &I,, J&I;;A Lgl'431c ;$&Is 4 .WIF .irl;(-~ijk,a ~ ~ + ~ 3 I ++I A41;4~bi(-Jik J d ewe - JL&'Lgf J L Y ! 6 .d+I ;>+ 31 & 4 l ; > + 6 ( - J ~ & + & P ~ U ~ P J ~ ? ~ L 3:JLd& ++I &I- dl& Pie; JI- p- z+...d +O+- I &+LLL;>&I >+i+A.J...l+j .dgLcLfl+ .*IJ 2 9 3iL'u.. - . 'LL tl+l I* i& J-,~+~~L&&.!J ;+I e l r p l l G ~ + j &conflict ;iIII~;;S-Q1l~,In.Jl3-z-,&lI a).!).!--;dl3.. .. +*s-; - Q 3 P++3 -;+L L X L djji i j L y l&9141.. :&+I +b631J k 3 a AI63s3i'death i. a41a j r p b C Ldestruction i. y ~ l;jr+ 31 Lid i. a j r p si'life i. 2.4211 i>+uI;YS 5 5 .WI 3~LYI a>+ 3i'Eros i. ,3Ay~ ;;>+I Lgr &G c;Lfl 2.3Lkl13 'ego i. 'destrudo i ~ ~ _ L i J l-Gd-kdleJ~YI & - & u l L g , 3 p t ? & I ~ U 1.. L+ &+ bL JS3 'libido ;t?Lucfl 2.3Lkll ;--; &+j bt2 C W C L S l d bl AJ+ 151, >3 .derivative i. ..
  • 98. J ~ ; u ; r 4 i L & ~ & p +- - J! J% + &+I . G ~ L ; . ~ ~ I I ~&+I +&lc;i jJp&J~- JL~ +k ~ j ih3 +( f o r - A A O ) Karen Horney ~gxil~+9- +i iJj2GEJI~ ksfw$9+ij_,-)CU 19SL $3 U S ;I 13$i w9.&+I i$&.u p ~ i- ia2~ 3 ii-.::l$191 L--d9S&LIJl a L ~ 1 2 -- . .;rbLJ13 +U&pgLL-5 2lp91 +a &+I &BJ.LLd13 ~ + J I @lj2;ji'41- J+.M J K ~ . .;i+I+ +&.L;;%A&Juz2 '& 41%6irl- +I UJL d+Jl I b J+ g- $u 2 '+9111 +a 4:02J u',A! 0- 5 &i- .curiosity i. f Y L a Y I bJ3i.possessive i. U l3 J L Y I A ~ p + d ' 3 ~ + l & ~ ' u ',A X L U l ;r k?JS L t U I $i +I+ 3i.-LAUI JSLL-L +-3 .*3+- +p Z 3 d L3gS-l
  • 99. -t- JL +Lilg 'ZSF &J drives p the handicapped g+l- ;rijii &i4 ~ ~ 3L L I 3ibL++. - 5 .id&.A;r i > ~4j3i.WI J &SJ3 L G J - ! ' ~ ~GLcylj L g ? b l S b d ~ i ,I ; + i j ~ ~ - + 3 i ' i i , 3 i ~ k ~ n ~ ~ ' . ~ k i r g l + - ~ ~ - ~ i +- E+d3?Ql +Q13 mentally h.. -3 .physically h. '&A+ i,+L LGb .'LP&dl Y j GLYl crfLYlJcifsJ9+-i.flbjlg;tl S--a.. &3 . d i L J &I i j l y l &-. U I- ... &E b a w l i - l ~ ~3i.propensities L+ 5 1 ~ 3i.drives MI- 3i.needs ~ L J.ergs 3Qt i-llh3j 1 .desires - 'ulgll &i!p4dj .Gs+a crf+I jy+ J L I Ll,'; '+I.;;, -W C bJLfllj +J+S .+ +J -929 &I bK bb '6@ >AL& MI~ J J -L b i : ~ I P McDougal: Introduction to Social- Psychology. N. Tinbergen: The Study of Instincts. - Wiln, E. C.: The Theories of Insticts. - Thorpe, W. H.: Learning and Instinct - in Animals. Scl-~iller,C. H.: I~istinctiveBehavior. - .:..:.4.:.
  • 100. .+Aa'++A JLYI 5 t.+~ 5 p-3 +4&c-iJLa,bi dj .'*&!A@ $ u3- -Fj ;..A ;$&I. J - ;i.-;L;..u i $ l y~;.JI ,*j),y.Y r *, SLWI,pd&Jlj LAZU~.&+$L*4 .~~~$.~i.9! Lu,>Js2 s+I 2.zGz. - oI.+..&,a 9:- GJ.+-J j 4' -zi3L+LJ-Y! 4k.L - &I G L Y l L>Qdfe-;r,2 sI ' 4 1 -dlF( +-L?+ jj+i 0-4 - .4ii'u: -;Lijgk;JA&?,+ la LLI+,JI- . 3l niotor 1-1. G C p ij+ js-&Ly14 $1 ,:?:ha1 h.L Y 5 9'sensory h. &r visual I?.&).criJLJ~J& ~ J i . d l,;LC i+oLL&,2 4 1 b 1 i d 4 ' ~deaf p - 5 ~'d;;4L!t+ l L & s -+;.J+,, L M I- $9 .blind +ill c ~ 1 2 3 ylil~ + 3 iJ+++JI?jXI2 4;bJ I ~ Q IJS ;,+I,,, i,& d lJAf!g W l K I d 3 l&L! &!I LjdLLJ .@Is el &&I L,.)Is+d32 dUi - C +j.J L ;?I d+iL+ &II i j i ~ L Y !J bi+ LLG z+id1 GLI ~ L I5 b- & d l ~ c m l&(j& '+aL LTb++j.&+I I&- A+& +5 ij+F +i ~ + J I ' g h ~ t j b i o & J E + w ~ - + +' +&$is- .&+LJ +L+ ;A ,i ,&+I -I +'% i ~ ,ji 1 +L5-4- . J L z (J-4 )r-ij-L)d+L+A!l a U L Y l (J-4 , P P &A3 .dl-vkijj.. 4 j ~ + q i ( j ~ ~ i ~ ~ + 1 & ~ 'family-life handicap L d l WLtfl '+Al jck '-)A ,+ 3UL5 +;;j .collective-life handicap &I2 &A L!-L- 2 2 L h f l .&iLZLyl ij& (ji5 .Ovdr g+' -..alJg&++deb L,+ dj&i - +&j+++A GLYl jcbkJ3 LWI+.-.;~;~+L,+$L+~L 'perceptual h. G l J 2 Y l GLYI pk5 - U I ik;Ubjll c y . ! +t+ j l j2.F - +-L &a & i t ~ b f j .-&+$j~bf d & d l 5 4 4 1dj& &- &J&_>j sh;aljU.~L.JI j+U ' & J L L ~ Y I-
  • 101. r;-tl..- + LC+&- p +=&2 3i. 4 ; , ~ ! ~ + p- L J 9'*LJ+J! 4:; . A ; .:pi-9 a k Y l 4 1 hfi hi3,& & a ~ l o i c ! i & J I +d k ~ 1 3 ~ l s + U I . L w G j L T l3i,deafness pd13 '&I &i j W I b 1 . A ~'anacusis & ~ ~ ~ ; r ~ ' r ; z l ' ; L ~ 9 3 .partial deafness j + I +I +- c A ~ ~ 3i,hypacusis p;rl~3i & +I 3 .dysacusis ,i , * Ie- b~ ;;lJA~L f i ~ J J ,diL+ jLp ;LL! & A - 5 &I+ 3i,+I 3iG~~ +w 3~ +I3 .&+&3++~dsli 4 1 9i,functional deafness &sf!- .psychogenic 'kid1 - psychic d.- 63I 9 : hysterical 6-1 j- - as, L , , +bir i l d ip3 41jLp b j ~p-J I u9 & l ~ 1 3 &9-CL/.lfl c4C_ '++J w-~L2L!J L+LA +* y;J1U + J l o i g ! ~ ' y1 LgL.+-J L p-1 L+ dx ;I-,&? &-&& &IJIJ 4 4 1- -&LYl y . L . 2 Y3 . k 2 L Y I '+'&+ +s ~ b L k ,s 4 l L+-- f -4.'--,u - L +iW +( W C w -&I,J j' Y! ~ p ~ c wY3 .;~L+-a..dl $2 A I ~ ~ ; ; IJK; e;ji Y +%I ' & j A&& ~ j u ld& p~+ L u l l s i 3 4 j ~ ~ ~9 4 , j - 1 1 ~- TAT j'-K ,&;;k, 3$3 f+gclI j&lg & d l.. (.-,A J d fiL,~dafl(-pLii++i.j! ?I ' L L&u3 +3L,;r13LJidlp &+I ,slF;dl ~ L ~ I ~,uC+I JUI C .J~~ 3i AI~LAYI &&i .-a+-~- t i u, 2 L i A : ~ ~ +* L I ~ $1 +I 3i J&$ ~ L ~ ~ $ Ii.~J4i;k ij-;.!i+~3i J L A ~~ U I .&I,+t,-3 ;i_iL_j;JI J A ! I W l p& y b +dJiJ+$ *L+ ,+ $7 +,~L+LZJLI cJ d+l t+ ril &L..+J3,G3LYI t+J . .J~L-~. 4 i l , * ~ gGL1y >+dl ~ 4 44 j 1 ~ c h i ~ ~ ~ 1j ~ ' b ' l LujI & J .~;L_+L,+Ieej l
  • 102. j + ~‘"L,+ &I+ +&!$I 2 2 ~db3& g ~ bd3- .&I+ ++$I I -i I ~ I , L J I ; + L ~ + ~ ~ ~ ~ L + L I ~ ]t i. .. .. ; q b ~ y~ I ~ + Y I ~ 4 % LS+iI ~ ~ I~ L L O.L+ &;JI.. ~4 ~g] . ..?$I &SG P...projective tests s t & ' & ~ j ~ p + J c ~ L i c Y l & I + g +IpedIe+iJ,Li3 L3Le--tl&&I amJ-!I +d% d i l l.. congenital d. +I 3 i ~ ~ - i 4 L S ~ ~ + e 3 i ~+ I L ~ ~ I + A
  • 103. &LIL&13 & U l (j& dJx3 .+Id' +w w 3ak]l +Lid G L Y I a Y L +j .imbecile -$I3 L moron G-$~ .mongo1&+I dJX3.idiot o+lj - b?);& &dl ~Lik,ill~.cretin .&I3 - + % a 3 3 L w ' 2-431 ++ ;I +lJG & +(j3C ,LLL- L+ dJj ;115bJ3.+Uj Pg- ~ ~ ~ c k l j ; r z i ; ' ~ ~ ~ ~ i . ~ .$J's @l3 - 3 M ' .& &3! +Jk . ' & ~ 3 . 1 ' - 5 -1 < 7 I t l c W I ( r u g U S $ $& &AdI J&I (jI LF L U I S ~ ' J J !c&-+ 'dS .+I & b& & d& +.,, ..&ill & G W I & ~ j d !O& (r& 2 6 L o L ~ ! & ! d l- G& *d &ax3L > ~ I 6 3-1 3 j3-f 6 J&-J 1 +3 ..WI 3i~ I + K ~ ; Y L ~ ; I3+3 G I J L ~ . G ~ ; ~ ~WI r"~+'*~-&?3.d.'(-- - . . - +' 3 2 9 '.1+111 J! &J9 '(jL91 s3. ( r L k l l &G j a g.(r+JI P- v.,,.+I . ~ i+.,, 'QI+! d &=o>;; + ;& L J ~ ?ill a r l - .Uj2 .&+I 41 L-.Tiii L - (r ~ ~ + ~ ' & ~ l ~ i t . ' ? 3 ' o w ! 2.19 LLecL;1- . .speech therapy 4 L d i l l 3 ~ ~.-L~LYI k ; u 1 3 eG k~QL J+l3 -i43+!3 (juui+&JI ,;dl j A I +hJo p ~ i l l dtF'I d J j &J$ & d l &I &3 ',dl JAdl-.- w j ~ 3. b ~+A(jidJ (j5g.2 +j.j y a dJj &&.!I GI.I+I 2- L+i &,L+ G 5~ +.+,i j-~lp- ,i ~ 4 i LA h b iA * L ; ~ I- -141 a ~ l jW L J - I &L&+LS& 4 7 I-1 dJ& GJIj &+I o h 3iJ L ~ I LJL.- L! u3.L..,I QjJ;&3 i)& is"+Li L3~ k i l l L k j Y + d 3 . ~ ; d 4kbLdI'+ o 4 . Z ;A;;Ii,-*idI ipg .w3 rLi +uj~;ll JK; + w j d i&45&+ J s u . , , & ~ ~ I j ~ ~j w l 1 ;2 .&jd 'LgjbL, *-3 .'ILL - M I
  • 104. J*Jfl & G-3 aI+ a+&! & h J l 'A* ;LIP y L b & & L d n I - r d - . - . I d l - j ~ ~Gfii L E4J Ldl LLib'kLl;ab$I L ? ~ l ( p ~ , ~ 1 ~ 6 r ~ & & ~ ,L ~ 3 Y L _ h ; l~ + w L f 1 3 b! GL;;113‘ & L Y I" 5 &$I9 U l- ... M~G ~ y ~+u r l ~ ~' ~ i (&dl (pj .+I ' j L J 1 3 'dLk;ll G&3'& ~ l ~ J l & : a 7 1 1 ~ l ~ ~ 7 < & l .. gJ$I JG3 L&$L . L I + I &d.;;.etsijgLell " & ~ & I ~ ~ . b c - & j & " ~ - C LQ. d Y l & i- dlF LJ)C,- .. &'jpdL +I + A i b Y l GI+ j~;.!&jL" ( ~ bJL~(p& 4 f ~ G& '-J 3Js;iSeguin ;IL++.~ ,ltard 'ssoriMaria Monte dJg;L;_a+Jb" 4ijh(jb' i i Decroly.JJ 3~~ - 9~rvk;,~i++p+~ I 0 2 ~ . 7 j tG8J' (p -L~AA J j! &K3 '&jL LS+L'LL~ nroLLOL+,P - b ~ . 4bjh+J3jiic i ! 3'L-X. - I b + e j I d I -LX3 A t . r 2L-u -6&Jy2 'p-Ql &hjj~ukil ~gpdl~lkb6r1j G I&I P~rb,- - iGl+J;JIeLj 2 dl (p ZJL~WLd3+13J I J L ~ ~ ,a~jijtJlp;ll c ~ i j+ 2 ~ ~z G l p ,i +$I ~ k k ]I t ~ , . ,ir9&~~ ; i L J l p 3.. .djjjjpell $9 ~ L u 9w 1 9 ir-JI L.w... & ~ l4 j Y ~ ' , A c i &&I- - 0 1 ~ L&J & J W ~.. &adJL-ll +6rl pLj? i;l + d l (pj .z+W13 W C W +bYl L " U 1 3 L W I j ;GI+I 4 A A ; i 4 L. &1;211&" QUJL.- & d l . & A d d - . G-441G L ~, A w l j zGIJAl pLi gW I q L . J I&&G3 &+j 'I+Lic'j+l JAd+LiYlj I d J & &JJ! w J b w-z.3 o~~- jwl &:L& J&!I d;. jq- L b~ ~ b i .y?b- i,&x 3 '+I d l &+> L + ~ ,it+l ,~WL&LL, ~ l ~ ~ l ~ @dl j u b L54tjJV;Le]! J1$3 .+e2T.+.;jL~~ G ~ ~ Iz j ~ 121 NOBlLlS ( Y ) st^^ I ; . S ~j- 41- + k J f 9 4 1(~LC- L ~ J . . I J ~
  • 105. 9 forgetting &+dl PJ+ C 1 4 31 PL; kl J j ; l l yW $9 &-I p remembering+U3 hu3.+I ais.&JI~ & ( AAO ) EbbinghausP 3 w I.-= 3 ym? ~ ~ . d i+319i rLuG UJwl+; t ,SUI e;l+Jl+-'*J&l#&a~U nonsense c-I tAILidl ,nonwords ,'ccv? ali +dl bsyllables- 4d4! $ U l ~ d " ~ ~ i y u e i e l ~ u ~e - c - ~3 'forgetting curve &JI retention $dl 4 bi2i~'bi Tredgold, R. F.: Mental Retardation. - Zublin, W.: Das Schwierige Kind. - Force, D. G.: ExceptionalChildren. - Di Carlo: The Deaf. - Clarke, A. M. and Clark, A. D. B.: - Mental Deficiency. Anastasi, A.: Differential Psychology.- Itard, Jean-Marc Gaspard: The Wild - Boy of Averyron. Wallin, J. E. W.: The Education of - Handicapped Children. Creuickshank, W. M. and Hohnson, - G. 0.: Education of Exceptional Children. Haring, N. G. and Schiefflbusch, R. - L.: Methods in Special Education.
  • 106. ;]+,A;$lJJL L i p i *L & .(STM ) Short-Term Memory long-termj d l 5 . ~- .; ., ;,51~1--3i~ +s'l.dl lL&i ,L$iiL&3k9'memory hkL1 ~ ~ $ 1L L ! i+. j+ a - LLii;.'i "A3 *&A2 L p J 2 & ; 3 l L&Jljli19 .pd9&/iLM&WL 'L+Jl $Ai bj+ j9-&fiL3_1_1LBU L & L 3 ~ l ; ; ~ : , ~ 9 . ~ ~. A . Y & 1 ; x 3 jlO-S--OJ'~3,1,&--.. .. . J+ 2 3 .items J+ L J I j3L&- - G +Ig '&~1?9l JIL!.. d 3 ;)s- +A % TJY gi $&,;9i-uJ igy ;)A 3I ;iU, Aj;;isj&I +is . s p I :,?,: @& I& L-j .-, L. L3 i;j2A ;$id1 o L u - + / ~ L ( Adg. ' ~ g i ( - ~ ~ ~ ;+.,-I ;+*iil~(+I UtL' ~ i- &lrrf! ;$iLJl .itnrnediate memcn/ L + J ~ L I 2 4 1Lli .working memory 1+,..; l,!L.A9.p,i~liary memory Y Lii,--t~ 4+UL y&p .&p; o + +Y i@ ,J+L J+c*-- ~6+' b!"ik-!i 1 ;$Xi &.J;~-I L+Ja3-;.a3 L f G 9 i .. .. -UU' "L4 L + + A l i 1+13 .i)@l ii Lj;i4bjI 3i& ~ ~ i3i.oPr3 b 3 ~ ijllPLJ13c j & . ~ i u a 4;jjG 2 o ~ L '& ++I 9i4 L L + I & L l r L ' . . I "llsljJYij fi&ri;LLLQj o h g l i i L ~ 1 3 g ;Y2gz,.b&.A+. j t .+ +L+,Yl +i;dl &+I 9uC . - e3 .AL+UI OL AL h~ 212-+C.L5--"d ll$&AJl +Li LLL ~j+.-,dI eJj '$dl & JLIA -+ii f~-;,Yl &c jiU'pA i L U d LI$,'+JI ./ L L L + Q I 3 j+I I L <. 0 4 dL,+ _Isdl- J4LLJ'& .;trL+YI. - ' I L3 L- 42; M ~ ~ Y LPJI j &d&l d~ J?-. - i~+i o+& - $& XLc3 .lILGJI Ld 4-1 ;>b bc &&jE ( 9 3 .J$&hj GLLLG~UI,l& a&$di&! tFJl- :. Lm*LI+ j XJ . 9 LJ! ,use iaw ( *;;'dl jyu) ?I&Yl ? .kk:u Y (J dAA-i..&ui ; ) L + A I L& - k i . (?~J-AI ,j;j3;b) h&dl i ~ U l .law of disuse - .- : A ,,,*La ;fi;lbjU L..*J 3
  • 107. + ~ i+a&, -&.AJU;I l;s_SIi4 3 .&3ca-!I ;,++Ar+I.ui LQ .reference memory +yFJ-' // C G I 2 ;$I; ,+j .J*L& l&Jl m3& ~g;;d ,Dernlaner~tmemory +j .'=A33SJ L&a3 c-.LL.r19 ,secondary memory L9;L- 2$! j L~UA Y C ;Ad L S &+I3 G,+$ &;L+La~ j'd .&.dl 2j~Lu& &Mi,$+, L ~ i j W l g p ~ + +J-JI z2- a;;l;l! p L M I 4?Lajt;&9 4j3LL&-lA++ &Ij . d d l 2- ~$~l.ljJ/?? % L l a. J +>i Li;$!JI +.-$+I u i W C L C (Jl$j,s&$llI ',LC ',+ GI 4 i L +&i4%, e ~~ g ~ 4 L 4~ .- +cs+ e_r~,+~~srlji &*JJl J ! LJ+lg C W C ski $1 2-21 JI ' -uii $U &4 G I * ~ L L Z fL5 +j L-Jt (y4 5 '+'dl o h +L A & ! L y sLJ$LJI L@+ .(JL+Lu '+s .WL ,]+z Iib .decay theory .LJl L+ & +% .LA,?- L p 1:u jii + M I c2 l+J!C+ .&-cell I++ 3,&Ibll . L o 3 4 d 1 3 LG .iJ~'L..+i G;Y sensory L+-dI & L a w ;)+s L g j ~i j l A& (§IS) informatian store i s l l r l '2-hdL+~+2-!12&!! C I* G* $1 J ~ ' !;+ ;,oj ';+i+Jl ,>$5' -5 pj+ Y3 ,$Id &I> pa.Jl>Lib.. ij+ d i p -1 sli JLJ! I -r ~ * d l l - l e - p 4 ~ t i ~ . b l . . Icorllc h_Mu;tiYI5G'iiI (-4& p a l l &~ A J D ~ J ;_UYU ;$I :JI Lig.memory 1415 ic+Ulr >+A b j e 2 CqS 2)!Xlll) '+$I > L Y l A I ~ J IL J ] J - ij+ .(yeriet~cmemory Gl L+l >IJ+I p $W1 p a l IL + i~exicalmemory) 2 9 1ill) slll 2 l r &A L;jL;jA.SIgfl &-hlf ill+Ldl321uLljp ~ j h l jiirLcBf3 JL.G$lj jutg~ l g k l l jiLuLdl-. uU-JI 2+1iJI) ~ l ; l a i l j j - ~ I + d ~ j + U l sl-Ig .(semantic memory ,-JIjLLAY dL&l &+ Ly'LJ!3
  • 108. +I J! &+313 '+iJ! & ' k l L $ & ~ W l- - - 0 > 3 ' I ~ 3 .JL ;JWI -- 3i ~-?r;&d3 f J 4 1 1 u ~ + ~ &C -2.3$zJs- iuillk13Al ~ g i l ~ iJ.,..,.L~ ,b3LSJI +&I ' 4 -'X3'&All2 y +u L+& 'dWj'~LbL+13' G J J I J L L ~ JJ3'&3I3J3 L c f j l L i k 3 'cfjLh13 3% ;11 Jl ,kwl ;lu,.. L dj 3iAILJI?I 5 6- +I +IN ,interference theory &l d l Q+ P ~ I J ~ ; ~ ~ ~ I;,J 2 ~ <11 ::+- - 4 L G 3 4 3 9 3 $ U I'GW'-3 L~.~-~;JI+;&.~s~LGL?~- . 9 oL+l L *'Jsjij! + ;i;? .QL droli;L pl +Jk+L&Wl crctp-tl- & ! d l Lp9 LO (J&A3'retroactive interference & L + + z J l + & L Y f l p o U- -1, (JjJ J9---9 JLJ* d- && ~ . d j ~ ' & p J g i++I proactive -)UI & I d p-,,! ?&LJ d i l l J+I l b 3.interference- j3@SJui3iak$j ;)a A Le;4 .J+I IL 3.W; (Jid+i;i+ c change-trace $Yl J- L+ 4 3- 41-- 'ki+* IPS 'theory '!+% dj& + I U 3 . & d l 3 ' ~ ~ u j3- e~jj;5~k~ ~ l g' W J C W ~ ~ z$l;fl & cjLLf4JI +w 4 lLdg L 'closure &%!4 d L Y & - d i f I z+LL L ) L j' 4 1 - 8 I I - . ;,A- 1-4 a d + confabulation +I wu;;l wy. 'L3-4Z1l A+ +La3 .&I g- pl &LLjj 6 -- '&I 4;y! & Jd j+ -&3 'leveling J+ij J+i + L ~ J - B ?'assimilating &C .I+ ?Lu;l +? $Lg;l'p pLll 'good figure ++b CIS; d3'symmetry r-iA LeJL- ijY 3i ~;;iA ~iglu3.+LJI o+G30$ii;L',iLSL+L',+ .. 9i,+I p- 'LL '- cjr d& (Ji& + ~ ~ u j a ~ ~ & ~ ~ & b. c _ (jil+A+ *'&i3-&hit+ 31
  • 109. .i.ii i u + +Ji wQJ+ U Y J L ~e + 9 ' S 2 - W +s3'suppression +l C ' I - j .19i6~ $1 I ~ I b9+1 &'dl l b &g ',$I> +4 b L l - direct +kbI+i b&&!4- its!.qJ! L3d3+- 661'forgetting L C L L ~ ~ I + ' I L - ~ ~ L ~ I Y I,L unconscious forgetting LJ-Y l+ chY!?>&a sChd j bls kJ3 ;A 'retroactive inhibition -91- a&&YI $LJ '.+L.JI 2l&Yl Ll- + & L ; ; ~ ~ & ~ I - I M ~ U ~ I C C GI6L +j LJ+Y4k L&J&j- &'-J+i,&i&!I *I91 - a L & l &I (j& LjaI$WI 6i -,+,. A,& ;;lGL;; bi j9k C &Id1 gl al&Jl 0 b &iL L ~ i + ~ ~ j 4 L i j & g + + + L s 9 ' & ~ I p ~ L s ~ i w ; , . , ;- & ' ~ i + d + ~ i & ~ ~ $ % . w h t l J.c Lij&&l i,ss.' motivated 92 ;rlj-I
  • 110. ~LAl>G L L Y I &bLLL 2>LJj- +lp9 ;A3i'$1 b,9L-k p&‘-“glfL.dL . J . . ,dL+lJcLl_ibl-ql &j '+I +i;- &9i &+I & 3 ~ J l 0-1 -I Li+>I ~ A G +&--G-~~.organ!c fargetfirlness -J ;1+dL. -I -. &X4I+ Lo ;i j L o M l 3+?&~9 a~J-LxJI c $ & b y G ; ; d + 3 '&i;+ && L- - pJ4;k+-9 b~P23ybjF=Jb 5 6 jl&> L13.(_;I;- e!JOA j& $;li? +i.L&i'+dF & [ A C S Y d> L 4 l;I YL ~ l ~ ,b-J2+'+~ . . J d A l Lg333 I.&!~j+*l C ++I his ego oLIF-q J! cL&i'.+dJ! &dl+ bi(j!y__g +LJ ++-' LgP byi bbl; C 'I & 4 3 9 5p?3 .jLY13 >XI I+ -413i&+$L~I- b-1 & 4i-L d i l l pathological forgetting- .. L;;G;,fU.,'&+!- I-;?&. 3i+ &dl wliJl ea lapsus b L U ! ;+g 3i .?ALL;- lapsus ;+'1 L J I ;tla;rlau'linguae
  • 111. s9.I+& LJ-l ;r.lJ9 '$A Y j b& & I d a Y L " ~ 1 ~ 2&4 &.. o ~ o i11 h i A 11e+uiiid91a1 .. +1irqr;Li ,jF;d1- + l ~ Y llj, cSqcJ,. U l" ijl2Llt +.$dl ~ I & j.&*ell &lp, JI(;LL*.bL& QL 4 ~ i l ji .retrograde amnesia M J ;+I j " anterograde +Y i d d lidlU ;~l+ h ~ l ~ g ; d l ~'amnesia J& d + C 41z2W &&ul" ;r.+AL"*h-I(;.+I*YI ++9 &e& 4 3 +$-+ p $3 L $ bd ;2Ld J3& 2 3 .Ll+GdI &+ & L+LuJI .j u ~ji 1:;,; yLLll -1 4 + A h4- +lly3ljlij)U +ii9 V C d~ji hi +A Y b;d L +cr.L,.&+s3.+* 09s : ' + . & ' 9 ~ 4 ! ~ ~ k ~ - g+ &LC" tlJ-3 (p',i&II1j 1- ;1I&2fj - .;$ill ; r l ~ G u + W l >-)I +%I id$ljrI ijl+AJ j&- .-LJl- dj2 -I3 ,lapsus calami elkljj.memoriae .arr~nesiaidJlU &p& d l" ;I&bL*i)i&l$kp;r.3 &ill absolute forgetfulness. ++I i>lUl LA " 5 W l & t ~ p &'LLiJl- iJl,jJl" .. 4;c p3.&,AWIJWI &' ~ ~ " " 3+9 L;j, & d l 33& l k ; 3 ~ l J &&+I y L Y I p3.&5u &3 . & d l 3 +Wl &lJ_LCiU '$a&9 ;$Id! +& d l &"iI+&.. A.3 ~ L J I3 b L IC "pj + U I hls I i l "2-L. . ~ U l j j idJ.+iiJl i d ~ ~ LA& dJml+ ~ $ 1 r l ; ~u .i24 i$ljrirl hl- p Lij .b- . CLLYI~- ~-II 3p.-II C ? ~ +I3 .alcny dj2 aL+d 4 1 i d j - 4 ; - - .s4J'j++ .+L sChlJgY suggestible GI+! 3L3.;$I j J++ Lrl;~j.+L +j o $ L & J3j .idc&& 63- 2 di LL.+LL- - LL~- d l j .LLxrl;~ ,s 4;) 'UI id9121 -
  • 112. GI- JA J ~ Iib3 i+ isdl '$.L+wLi6pjli14.. J.d+d h 3i:epochal a. I+;$I j o j b I+I$i;? A ~ i j & + + ( j l a e d + ; k e - . & J l p L+&p3eYh;b-)-bA!I - 5 5 &Gi+4;Y 31 !episodic a. 3ui $ I j .&I 5 i1jwI3i +&&J - +++ 3i+SJ iJ3-LLY; y~ iLUi J~& ;;UI "L--isg L.t++;AIiGI-*- .LLJ+~J~~++ALA~LL~J~ L 5 0-i Jj&db h3itcatathymic a. e2j+ Gi +LC (jl $ji2 b13 6 :&P Aristotle: On Memory and- Reminiscence. Plato: Das Dialogues. - Ebbinghaus: (Jber das Gedachtnis. - W. James: The Principles of- Psychology. Rapport, D.: Emotions and Memory. - &K U Ld b 3.C.$lj@l l4.K &b+Wl i$lJl ;la$& - . P 8 '^I cjkbl+m; G I s LB;.I~+- L t+;d iui~ $ 1 - 3i~Gi2- +- . &L.u+ ;$Id1 ~ I A *+I t+&LA3 circumscribedj9-2-dI ;$dl (jla ;i;,+j ;+,J.c J,-i&3 amnesia $j? %' ~ L r l l&LA1U Lf k5- d 3 a ~ ~ ~ G u n Lj36 ; G I 3 k a d . L d l @ ; i J ~ 4 ; i > J 1 iLUi 4 41J!~ 4 1G W Ie~5 3 d J L y 9 ' - & ~ I F J 3 ~ JLG;;~I ;$IJI 3i ?I+- 9;+ U'selective amnesia &h3, LYL +
  • 113. ey9.bu d ip ~ g k ~ ~ jA.. - -. ~ w I + L s ; + + + ~ L ~ ~ ~ + 3 ~ U 6 3 p i k l i j ; , L ~ I 2u-s wuijb+i AL;; +%3- +Wj -bb- J &.+ijL.-. + cytoplasm JAI~>~I;~ L&Uj L!2L+i15jtl & k 3 .?LAW +&I ji 41JL &GG GI+ Lyid. LkadI-. LLl;rtl L g h k Gr..?"j J C I I & +j r;t;d13;Ct-CCLh;f13~IijL&JI+ ?&iU i,:.A* II L W I L&gi LpLp I+';:: Indl~ 1 3 . ~ J 3 + 9 *:* 6 bS>- L J 2 --$IF ?zj .-+ JS &I2 $+I ;r~ % k l -IJ+ L I J J - I- I + I nervous system *-I! j w I- - 3 L &- J& A&! W l j ++I -31 JS @ +I #j . + t b L ! U L 2- i,+l & ~ ~ ~ ! ~ ? ~ -- ,i -*I $12 + UWI DL, iluj2 ~ i 1 1 ~ 41rLP;I &&I3 &&L .Ja- ibill OGYI+AL Jji&I3 .(%dl I J 3 ;i,-I'iL&dl+~~jlB1LfIIL-. o J j u l LWI J! -+uj+~L+ 6% -+;r bSj @ Lb-JI jL&l JI ilL+dl -&L dendrites ill#I L13j+&$- J&& &LWI +!+.dl -9 neurofibrillae -Z+-C ij&I ~ ~ h j
  • 114. W'Jb e ' Lj-a ,5>.PJ q-II +I jbJl;.j% k I + peripheral n.s. &&I- b y d l +Lac J-SJ l & & 2 L j l j@I :G+JI+ k h l 3 JI automatic n.s.s I d I bAl .3;;;U..-lr &+I- +uljbrain tA119 Z.+Zi +&&cerebral cortex +>id$1 &! rdJFj LA+^ l@I 2Ll)l A& 'jl$+l &JZ+-4b&+ & a 2 1j Ii b cerebrum $1 &j . b W GJill sj ijl .-; +ij+ Y "'pAJ+4b;rJ+.k--; 5 Y C +.9 .+'dl ++ b u l aI &L&! &4cortex $1 +W &3J L - u b ' & L & ; l+l- - & A ~ I- +JI J+@L~I- 41 a)LhrLt&+l- *;i+k uj'-u+I ant?;dl da-j tr*p ?u & -- ~ u i 'pyramidal tract @ g l l jL.ell + & & L & & ( J A & U & ~ I - j&I3 ILa 3;i;;r 3 'nerve impulse b-dI J ~ L. ; . ~ hgg.. J ~ I at#Ldl& kJWl "'dl -3 .'+dl I I 3 1 k-.. JLlpylI p kr+l illJ&J1 *J 1 ; j L W L&.Lb ; ~ & j &&LLdl l L & ~ ~ + A w I ~ i ; l l ~ k w-. a l ~ l c 1 4 LC . &ALLh$&Lux3 I lib la&dl 'JI ~-d;'dl+ 6 - . - l i j ~ w~ M Ido;~ ; ' d l + L d l &i;!+Lkll r i a +i;g ";c +&+& '+%I+WK +>&+I & LLUX~.ajliiv'dl 2 4 1 $L d &+& -*hI r L a &lid&aG.9 . a j L ' d l i,%l;lGlYl & h ~ ~ ~ ~ + ~ ~ b X 9l&#Ij+Jl d X j ''$5 (AdrAU (j('bjLL-)J z j L ' d 1 &I;&4 - 4;ic4.s'+irl$,hLG&3g* .--I aL$l+J-l WJ nervous b-lI- jwl i)sS;19 b41 jL++lJ + (N.S.) system - j@I9 '(CN.S.) central n.s. &sQ11- j W I i,& 4%~$9'9+1
  • 115. ~ ~ - z i ~ ~ L.' c bl d i & +J.spiral cord &@I- 6 J-Vl uU)xfl ;i;dBtil&-. .e--"+*il'i;wl&$% 5 *VI LuAU U)xfl2&dI G3-. . p - l l + ~ % l ' & J l ' + $ ~ '&7- Z)xfI 'A=&AI- pUi;lI lJ+u9 v i I :.-e ~ w i&dJLz *Lej &)C~JI C U I ik;b+j .&+dl39p W l d j 1 d l d I- 2a L L V l 3-1- &I & ;+k $dl3$1 + 1,LVl Ghk +q3 rL*rz d$pdl- &g JI U I-. A@& $izj- . t ~ iij+j w~~~ e9L M Ia)L;ull cpa W k 3 y-Jj J ~ ) U ).&j&j +yj . ~ ~ W $ l+&L 6& d l + ' '&7 &I LL*- - xa&4 -9 I-.+, 1;I.LLLIYXfIkiiL'dI k b p d d l d l- - & j L y l- &&I.Iag.$I&+JSi+$a- y! -I & d l & L d I o h , o h ;4l-L~ l ~ ~ V 1.. y L y I &L
  • 116. &p p;.;jb+L;;II id14S &+I.. I- psychosurgeries LL+l13 ?+I JL ;ebL $I 3-I & &Ltl W L L k d I kJLd;'dl LS+l +.iIgxf13 I ~ L I ~ L&+I 3@ c L A J! .+I;Ullj iU13$94 L u ~ 1 3 ~jl.il+l tl&k &LL3 -L+& Y C ',-dl- .kl.)! & &LA 3 3 i,+ G L ! ~ !DL;)I 5 ,basal ganglia d L oaut,L +i,U .Latl +..& dlF .LA p- as41 iiJu~A iJa1L_u?++I L$1 L L l a d l LLLI ipg iJIp -+JJ~ 6 W1i , j l ~ >bU hippocampus
  • 117. F4i;ll c;r-;Us cerebellum @I e- .I-;rs dl- +&I - + F j . t f i i 9 3 . ~ i + 3 ~ ~ + . -0;.I-; J!e-b;,~'~A 4 jI&I .. d J L ; , X I ~ * ' & ~, . b-*fl jL&J ~ 4 6 1 ~-1 u& d l L"';Id - - .Gnus0-1 aK+l spinal cord &+I J+l LJ - 'pa L O d+&J'$I~+u,&2 + JA.i.3 ' + d l ;*I tl;C &J - L + L Y l i,'L3j h$Uj &I3 G L ~ I-I-. oJj+ &i3'-+AI 3k;? I.ju'-x+l - L u J l-. ai&LiJI-. -d 6 4 i n * 1-. 1 a - .* 4 ;; 11 a&kd J3a . & ' A d 1 & +L--;~I t j ~ j @AJ e-ll j4 4 -3 w- dui+ a 3 u 3 jWI J(0-211 , ~ a c i + a W l-. AL+AII f13- - b-~~ - - ~ ~ 1 6 1 1't+i vejg 'afferent ; & U I ;,abL;ljl J&+ L&eU3 !+I *3! k u o r J I j b J l
  • 118. . - . -( ' 3 ' 1 -lj.l&Aj'+lilyAa t '+s+I + k 9 l & + d l "LyCdl V S b ~ * d 6 v v r & l 3 $ ~ -.. .. .WF +~ g l ~-41+Lac91 -1 -1 d ~ i d l&J$ LLj- . b 9 1+, ik. !I 9iL., !I '&$dl +I jW Jl &&dl- - 'JI- -&'-+I &@I&2$3- ;t.a+L, +lJ'dl aK+I &&A C~kc9lJ!dA&l- b-I j U I - -4 1 a . A * 1- . I, i l : f i l ~ b L ~ ~ ' , i J l- & S L + i C I L . J (- 4 1- a + b 625 'd L21JI)UIa&+-'dl- - C $4625 LI'J d l . L 9 l J!- - d!+ $ d l j W l ir. b+jsdl jWI c ~ k+I J!+2 ~ 4 1.. ~ ~ ; Y J I AMLI +L~I &> ;rL 9 ~ I I. ~ k ' d ~ 4 dJ+'i*l3s;3'J .-+I I I y I As+ d ~ 9 1 ~ c I - 1 1 1 b-Jl j w b Lo L&1 i3 0. - .Y C ;id autonomous 9 3 '-1 b+JS.-" e+J jWl ykp~AL= visceral &9hdI j u l 'L+i -3 - ~ L & I-3 +I .hi .efferent +,Ljj ir b L ' d & +*J e41 jW1J! $29 + ~ 9 l @L ~-i'L~j Y '&>+I- ++I -I +L~I -3 Y p@u13'cerebrospinal nerves Js &i W4 W L3j d L - I +u.G+ ,&J 1-9 -,! ,,Ju3 '+b 41p3 ~ $ 1 &&!I- d b “,AA- +L C S ~ ~- p,>I- C V C &+91 'b$LC &'dl *d3.. '@I LL LiGu,&Cipl J A 4 i i Lp ~~I.. '+&!I- d l 3 '&dl &&& (JA <&.IJ L ' d I.c $1 L ~ & L & 3 ~ ~ l l%&a 9U M I 4 1- +I3 ' L * I c '@I 0- p L d d+l $ 1 ; t . - ~ k j o l 1 + ~ - . 9 1 ~ i ~ ~,,&~L;;;ilchcJlL+l " ~ i r l~ i 9 4 ) U P ~ ~,~+AI a3ApLp3LpfiZ% d3+dJ d2---a3' 3 ~ 9 ~d-41~p i d l
  • 119. b-I jL+?lIj 'system" .. Field, J. and Magown, H. W. and- d l jwlj ,vegetative nervous s.- Hall, V. E.: Handbook of Psychology. Pribram, K. H.: Brain and Behavior.- .pols 1 - 4). Crosby, E. C. and Humphry, T. and - Lauer, E. W.: Correlative Anatomy of the Nervous System. P ~ $ t lZYLinv~luntaryn. s. ~~1~1K11.. 6 @ 4 % w k L k . j i ; J I p - J I i y r 4 ~ o cp- t+ii+ar L&&L.U3 ' G L ~ I &41i2L+W JI & L Y L 3 b a ~ l J ) U UI ACL,jwl I bbp L+l &bsJl 6 jL>l Lkib & &- - Gj.3 ' 6 ~ 6 1 1ZF3 ' i d ! irUI>$ $3 G413 J4l cl+$ ZJ~P $-I++! JI p&iL9'dlj LAt, , A ulJl 'sympathetic d u k l Lkug... ,parasympathetic a~bj 'G~ 9 1t ; 2 2 :I - * I G W ~ I3~ irk-&- Lk.j3W s J l j.. L b ~ L b ibbIJL+!! 3~dlj yj '+I irL+ r L lF & L b ib~ ~ ~ l l . 1.. -I W S .:..:..:, 31 "GU 3&$+ d3' L J b ! Lbij .LJ411;;! -is i s s ~ ~ J.. * e U l I J ~ * L A + A ~c U l ikLi;IyS j- 3& i ~ k h ~+ YL.LK3fi a iLLp-d13 'neurosis +-I d ; 2 ~ 2 , u y ~ 9 bL~- ( v A * ) Cullen &LS ?u3 2+LL +J h b '*hGI&! JLLi&ill +lF91.. " .:..:..:,..
  • 120. Lt"I+ ,L;U L - * u l iplpcirl @ p Z 3 & ~ j" ill* &A & .i*Ul &lpJl ;ky Js ;;; 'd; 11 7 L+ Jb3- LJ+! 4L+Lgi4 1 , , ' I n F L ' p+Ly" .*+&I O J L ~- L'&& d3& J , i + ~ ~ , s - ' is+cO3 C 1+13 .;jLfL1-LjljCr.;-. 31+-. aLly LlL+ U I &&$ aL& LILA- vu~ i + i e L ~ . , + ~ L&J+Y ;LXLoilGJ+3@ +IJ.& 5 * LB;~ '%jpJSj ~ j h+lri YI J J& & k b ~&3 L L 3 X piJ" .ilGsfIo h ~ k l5 i)bdl& J A I &@ d3 p" Lq+ ' j _ ; I d & 9 ~ L ! + U l 3 + u l 3i& g ~l+~9ir~9ii &I ( 9 Y 7 - A 0 7 ) Kreapelini,+l.+> . . " w l ~ & * w J+l & + d l / . + L ~ g d , ~ 3 ~ g u , i f k P ~ & G UU 1 3 ,'+ GI+! & b i l l j-3 , - ' y L ! + - Q 9 L5i+&Ll*! &i& A 9 Lpsychoneurosis+I- .&LLL 3i ~ ~ p b rbi414 +Y" WL+LW&pIpL&I;- - L',duiiI , U l pU l DLA y.. - .+Ladl 314 J . 3 2&'& U" 5 C S pL l && &b " - " 6 y ' d ' &lgc e ~ i. . &A +a&+ L I ~ &+i db3l+..3iGIJ3 &I CT-UL;L;- +lJLK + U I ++z illS_cxJlo h LL3L+w+I dl* ci3i$l+!l o+al+&4I .. &+ Jl
  • 121. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 i l ~ ~l.lIiji3,GP +-I &cw c~ 4;ie-3 sF3 .tk;pidl +& ++u$Ml a ~ k 1 3,+!I (j-4 & Y L -I! &+i3,~+JG! '~diJSJ~k*;lrpl~+b~ ilkIJhI 1-1.- 7 cJ& *LL .. 4 l . ~ t d' " I .. anxiety states a Y L LL $1-1 GOL+ L>++ L?'L ~ j i jI+++I Li .&+91 +UI ' k ~&+ ~JAl;, i 2 L aL9;- 9b b . & d + + . i j 9 ~ & l j i+ij +.&9 .41...:s.. di, diJ ~ L Y ~ ~13~&;,&U3db+3b- b3y9 9 9 3 .aldb +La.....'+ +js~9'i& *&.&,& - r ~ ; > + I ~ & + ) l j g r ~ j ~ ..- "G+ 5 3 b t l d L +LVYg b & k d l C - 1 d l l i & J& 3 & @ + & ~ e . . ?- J ' L k i k s & ~ ~ p ~ i C L S $ ~- 3i;&I ~ 9 ~ ; 4 9 + 1 + L b L b d I I- .. . , k l & L j L ~ J +4 1 J! o&Yl J ~ J bu3, C ~ ~ J4+UI Li31+L ,b+&iLI +-I LL.% dLl I;,, ~ & l q c 4 r ; 9 - ~ w l &!$I3 $9 '&+I.. e u l '& &?dl &a 11 &j -1 &K ~ p ~ j- Y bi6 l ~,eblFi3 GL- L J L ~ ~ + + + & p & 3 u Y 51LS .+AI p.. d3- 3i&S;Y- JM GI2 &IF LJI & L Y L LILA p %&id! 3.14'92= %!& 31 + u ; l l J I LG;gb++k G L Y l .$+L &I+ $Y i~ziu. iJ? <a1 h-l LtflL3& - b ( j b d L & d l 3 +LLufL LLUS ,iLuk9ib r g ~ jJ ~ Y Iall-. . ';s. C W C LbI-I A- Y + M I 31LI.+YK i .A& ."JI f+ i- i j d 1 3 .bbdl &Jz&+ &dI- -I neurotic i;c$I$! JL;il J.c - &L+- Y j p& Y +3 d d j c * LjliLJG ,psychotic i,pidu lapidl-d ;bMa3b&
  • 122. *9 "&dl 03i.C &..&+ & d l- la &*I i Y k ) U I p,!i p W l o b .belle indifference phobic -+La91 aL+Yl 3 i+Lk_u;?p G 3 Lj + ~reactions ' G I &?+I ++L"z Y a I r . y + 5 C d+I ajDI -LJ+i- -L+ I+ij .+LJI gdji,&bi+9- I I - 1 bLSi&l +G3 a ~ ~ F + ~ + ~JI J-;caJoi irJs.;ih)wI~l~ly',i3-~ - &.All ~ ~ 9 1ip &+I LLUd ah91 &+ a& 39 3 ,claustrophobia (jK +uU U I o d & C-GL- pj&I Gj,&?+I I d + j& 'i~js-.ijLJ! +JS O G ~ J ~J* + J!&!U&-&>su@ Le?9 ibt-pj 'e+ljik;WI wu h diJ! W C W ;kt+ CAE &A(jl Yl '0jl;;;Y GJWI GLL~ ,- ~ s idy J!j+)Ul@ &+I i ~ k f l*h G 9 U I&s 4'- cSW&j+l .LL ~Z&-,LI J! - + u Y l a L L i u Y 1 3. . &j+ b l F i dissociative reactions . . 2: a n - 'L c3J j i ;i '-3 multiple 2 -, A- f + ~ j lelj~j!) C J+J U+= O+ 31 ,personality) 3i fusl~e ?&J iC;L+ (+&'I Jl+l) G L Z i Jj++ .somnambulism convertive + + I a&&Y I3 2 ~ v l c f lel&ll JjUreactions - ULA4 *+I ;I5 +lF91 (j+ 4 c I j & ~ Y ~ ‘ ~ & + u ; . ~ . . +- W C W JXII J Y! .+b *i ~e;iS~ ui,;, j31;ir &MI- 3i- &4 S b 3'4JjLii &dl ;jj+>J.'Ldl ' + d l L L Y ~. . +..,I Lip3 +i2 9 41 iJ-&5u* +.--iue3iijj9,c+lCu'-f b A i6 + bJ%==d! ~ W IJI 413J+ 314,+I &*L+i3. G ~ ~ ~-C o~J-li-,*G L L Y l * c + l. . I&++! +& t b Y I +LC 3 ~ Y - & u I.-
  • 123. J+ Z L j i L y $ I 3 j A l +A . .-d~u+UyA - L a c 4 :1 I - - - I - u ~ ! J-3 $ 4 6 +I& IjF 'obsessive GK-wY$ 1 ~ 1JI a6 - - 'obsession ,,Iy$ + L p6~ j&&jI ' Q j % ; & + U +.;..LdLA&aJ&',Ley. 3i ZY- C G - 3 +-I ZY-3 3 i + + ! ~ 3 Jl:;;Jelaizl' . + sJ r-l13 ;jLl.• & L b 3.w3 e s - f 3 + - 4 Z-1 L 3 'JAIL + L C '+- u p i J 1 3 &.I36 ~ ~ i ~ d lcl;r combat n. Zstafl 4 i 4 3 'JLihllijLLu&i)l.l.;lI .. aL&l G L k L +LJL, +WJ hi '--I &a kc)lc_ll++.J L J L + d-2 Z~~ tls;i vi3.a+i Y+ ~ - 6 @'&& + ' 4 1 Z W I p JL & ;rrm' 4 1.. Jj> ;iof+dI &I+ +CII~+II b . T 1 & L d I (j 6 1 :1 .*JG3.L%$l- G 3 r 4 1 hypnosis ? . J L a-1-11 a U3 &dl 4 psychoneurotic personality- - 39p' &LCa&JLLJ9j k- Gi +5 1 ~ ~'-+AI $1~511 J! + w~I i+&A 'neurotic character e &G .. 31+! jw~w ~ 3 - &&..I .uwLr]l &.JL d G L 4 d 1 3-• a+t+.... . a Y L Y l g $CU".-- ;li 3 3.+I+LYI j!3-s.- & '&G b y ~a13KA p-+ I ' d l $ d l' + e U I G . L j ~ 3 - + ,k +&4P &%$1 +A -L3.jWII+ j-.. JU%I Gy$I b & 4 Z + U l i : #--- - JL I . .~ ~ ~ & t 4 : ~&d ~ L l lJ- Iju3'hysterical +~+iJ! a- G~-+II- - + +LJ* &J-A ,i uL!~ L L ~ U I ~. . .b2-d~ &--J jW'* 4 3 3 -klr,* -d -I .A; .:.!I +L ~j- +i ;2&dl - & L A && '*- j 'L- ' G ~';2++52Ij
  • 124. , i9 group therapy ifL .. L + i&r+F psychodrama psychosis ~ L b i l lCY-l ,madness i,+I .p ,$LL ;ILAU JI ~ 9 - L& lj&iLJ13 J k L L 9 . G ! ( y!+ki ! A -i- U~JLl+'byL! 3~ z~ 41- bJi 9~ L A L J ~.GLAAIgm G~>i+JUI L & d l ' Z ;Jl aL+lJb4dl t> gm neurosis +-I sS2L 4 I... p g .$L+'Ak'&idI il&l*YI fP :&P Ackernecht, E. H.: A Short History of - Psychiatry. Munroe, R. L.: Schools of- PsychoanalyticThought. Campbell, R. J.: Psychiatric- Dictionary. Wolpe, J.: Experimental Neurosis as - Learned Behavior.
  • 125. .L&L& &-A b L ! l.. ckL;;JI &&bLbiJlj 1 4+$I +.mental retardation bj2 &dl ikLjc;a .. u iuej.el41&I#+ L+u +LUGY G Ail3.Q&L;II y p j .-+& o+~ . L iIj! L $6 A ~ ~ L J ILoij .- dy- G3 L&l;;fL b 2 L i -2&c chb- ~L,~+J.+L-s+cr% +* + d 4 i & L > b - - - k e ~ ~99gYI. &di h~. G ~ I bJ-&l h j i ! I 3 L&J+ 4cl&l&b '72% dm1+I $LC- C .. .. .-&Lid a m &&! L L & J+ &% (JbdJj LS;Y + ~ y iJL'72J J! &;an -2 ck]j J; 2 ji .+.,.,ji qlJj >bill j 3 U l & +J$1 w.4, .. +2j ti,pLJl d-l,l,,,+(j& dill- chl$+ll 3;ijbill eLJI. C JI c Gbl &+ +!I ~ I ~ - l r d I+& U l .. GI+I i j I g L u 3% LaLgd o r a t I 02&L Gar;; &dl3- .J;YI J,+Gill +lJLYl J& & a d ! S&ill 3- L d + 1 3 b+$I3 -.. d g W I UJ.@lgll ;r;~.hs-fIj .delusions al,lLa dLa (jGj.i& ~dpll~k++;4+~ki~i- .i,+ d! J+ bi ji! L~,Ij!LUG yj .i i .. .hallucinations aL+aj 2sts Y .&I ji di p+ i j p L J I kil +J,L3 .pI$I p.. W +3L~&&+dl'+l&Jl;i-r. - - - p.. & 1141& 1+)UI f"-iJLr'%91 djiSplj,ll LdL psychotic ~JAU;llugll $$L L&l L Y A l k J L Y l d Y W I-c dj3.(j+ dl &J+- btg .J* YJ .neuro.tic & U I- LC(j& Lo & 5 &I dM4;1< .:L+ LSJ+Lr!Ub- -* % i- &+ A .+IS +A+ + L A + + L F b + J &+2 9 +L+lG+Al >L$I 91. ~ S ; ~ ~ W I++J+pj+s Y c . . W C (Ju3. L b(J+4 ;.I - - .; bl . .3.+-.:.'I +is* +U I . . W C L& &--.:,lI (JLaill bl &
  • 126. G + ~ ~ 4 4 b ) g ~ 4 1 + . i G + +%A ')Lab o w.- L& &A' $93 1-43 w3 s* pL;?Y 4iYLd;13 .&I$ ;,p& ~ a t g ~ e ~ ~ 3 ' - + iU d ~ b 4-G+-++-"LLSr9 +bdbLi bI j;& J+ '& L& I-qJ4Wg .~-J-x'+$l J3& e - ! ~ s ~ ~ j ~ ~ J d ~- . . n-i . ~ U Iobg ((~L~JI,T- 0- - &'u- _ C L S ~- LL+ .kyi w 41....................... + I ~ L I.. +&I L&! J* ;;I J ~ Y I ~' - % L a J+L A ~ I'psychotic reaction &hi ;;i -91 +b~ w3.* yk~ . L L !. . T-!dli '+$.L f- y J l u ilk>iillo h Eij3 ;, &jJI . U b L C K L J I f- e . ~ ' u&E3&l aw G L ~ Ie~pjiJS hj2 .: . .+LLI .L+I b ! ~,uiw ;i- L I P i jwl+ 41- +lFQl +&- + l p j ktLujg'&&dl- ',+dl- .mental disorders ;klk a 4 3i 'Aiid+,,,~*Ll+l :&+ +tA19.&lqell *Ul &+I &te7jzXWI Q ~ ~ I3iL . , I +&LL J+~ 3i-I + ~ L Ldx3.+421 L&& dil-433 .;I k L + Y l L+ 3i.U.LA+YL,+ - J5 ;,& A I L 3 '+L+'"irl&J- -4 3 & b 1 3 L J '+&Ll 5 b+ 5 L d l a Y L +@ &I+ ;;u'L&13 L.,-;UJI + k L l I---;rl '+,I .+L pj'+,jLiII &4 QiJI lLA&&A L L ~ L ~ ~.'iL organic &+I,c- a b i d c !a h d l 5 e 3 Id-I a Y &3- .psychosis i,&Y z$i.& 1,,1,+ dl.. a Y U l P- klYIt - 4 L L+l +l+Ll 32 e + J I ++l+l 9 3 4 + + 1 ~ & + a ~ a ~ i j i- - &+ +.-LU13 Li;& z i p 4 G5!l &. &+I ,A'AI +&I &+- i)hj&I J* hf dl* ijbjJlpu! ~p."l b '+'j.LLub isill- ;I- .functional psychosis &$I-
  • 127. C 31 J _ b J I p & + U I + l i,ylA;:dl . U I 3 .&I iip;d~ abrnpgl & d l 3 '4'(& p a ~ ~ i l i+i i)g.*~?'L+LL;I! i ,......-- AI+I+I ' & l ~ & l J s S J 1 3 ~ lJ A l w J3+dIOLi,bddj'A2 J 2 t ): I a L 3*&le;l+ WL Lkrji; J fi :!kk'y-4 ' G I J 3 &&+ ( 4 ? ~ - A A ~ )Kretschmer &L)Ll ULb1Ij 1 ;1 7 ;II p&7Al M I 3 &4'p-" L 3 '+JL d b j .+W'dl w d l - .LL)U5 Y O U I 3&L&;dl0- ijl '-, .--1 - d A* +J+L&L3' G I J 3 ps;r~-i 5 6 ' p i ~ ~ i l ~ .&i Lpis $91 ~ss;L 9 ~ a~ 3. ~ g j ~ g L+hi+u i3i;u +4;bLglw3 1-3 a, (31 Z I ~ I L % iji 41 (P WI L&3-. ~ ~ b t + F u 1 ( P d L % 3.- Jbi 3 3i&lJ+ GA iji &a3' & & i l lU l j LA&,fall &
  • 128. ++9 ~ t j + y i f s s j 4; 4 1 - 3 L u , . C - >&7 &3 +* a&& *j abXc&Js~jg -+j&%iJ1 & j L f o 4 L i + 'jPlcell LG& &&j+l a2 1-4 AJ4- ,i .G& G X ~ ~&)lc b i j L i Y % J ~ L - A I G G ~.. ~ l p ; % l&ii&&dl Ids- .+&ui3 o d i c -+MI JI j b A I -19aLSL1l++j -WI a ~ ~ ~ ~ j*I &+ki L+A~L&dl al~;;;.nfJ~ ; d U l aLJJ,L1le-lC 1: -tlc&;;l& .IjblJI +g +Wlj ;4cL+Yl e>'ji &jbdI elgii ;pd l j +3L2 &Igr 2 x 9 'Jl L&,$ L Y L2W&j.. z&.. d l G & J +&&Idl&,*% -LA... s h j.v;-1&LL h ~ l .. 'L+i @clj_11.. a ~ G ~ ~ ~( P ~ ~ I I i,2 4 1 &s3.&& ; d u 9%.2~LY13 L d d &a k p ) b,t *Li&J+I J!Gu~+i
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  • 142. Psychology of Personality &seiji *&,.LA!- &ii 04X+ 2 3 ta19~9o F k 9 + + + + ' ~ m + ~ i3 ail~ Z ~ A ~~ L S~ i ~ ib s 3 ,z+J~ 9 3- .J.'J+k;t! aU% ;r..& .p-?L4G 7 J Q-il-" 7 1 m l : p 3 'self identificationa l i ! l # J3 , ~ i r ~ &+;+J +I+ ,by j l J l- $hillj !4;15bJ.c &+ pcb narcisstic self-peeping .. &voyeurism a l i l l JI +I >!+,I &+l9 ! a ~ ~ ~3 v"-j u ~ i .&IS c%l self knowledge dlilk * - J ~ ~ u L + ' b ~ ~ ~ .know thyself IslI,,= &J- *:* 63 *3 Rogers: Client-centeredTherapy. - personality 2 _. . . ;"I T* Rogers: Counceling and- +&3 .k;kJI vLkcll+ concept Psychotherapy. r>+ + -$Ig -191 JSP &! *:* +:* +:*-
  • 143. I 5 bl, '04+2 4 1 3 .p. traits I* 9 Y V ki, Allport aJ$31 ~ ~ 9 2 +,UI& oJ$.i3 wA&.!I *14 influential is>;4: (-4 OJ&& 4Jgz 5 5 2GI+ bl Lj L V o$ib 31 LP. - .& a L L I +- 5 &)zbfl -G+I+Ll+it.--. . - l f. I3 - '&+YI> - &I$b , G Gb& . - .C A ~ Z~LB~LL;-!,GwL)~S~ 2p.J' '++I &j 'i;islgp119 al$i$dl - +hi,i ,+I~ UI-. h~;rlg- '+I iJlk,4JL& +%&ill- ,i I -- I +LJI GIJL 3i- +k~ &ill- +I eJ&ill & - - u3dlJ& -3 U I-. y &I+ 2- &ill3'GLaLj13-5 L A U ~ , ~ !- i p L l l + o + i ) g 2 + ~ 9 +L+=Y J ' ~e- irii , k 1 'L &.a3aL+' 3 - 3L ~ L , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ + + L I ~ ~ ~ Z K O L B ~ L ~ ~ ~ W L I + W . & s - J e 1 3 + & Y I 9 ~ l - d -I ..-; .:.lIzy-l f- +919 5 ,+iWl persona+&I personality + t++& i l l- J J ~ ~3i ++ 4~b~ bi ~ ~ ~ u u g,WI z~~ biu w3L J 3 ~ ~I;M O+ dl;+3 ,%La+&JI3 be Vi dramatis ;LLalJdfl a : A l-;fl +dl3 . - d l J ~ I15i- personae Adill- 4;L person w-11 ;+aE .Jui;Ll J-9 9+J 4l iju z y L a Y I g- p & J 1 3 ,G4k;Yl L&lLi 541- 4 j L I y a ;r.s.&iy &dl:,uLLg '4i?gg! JLLJ -WI d~lj~L,,;rI.. +j '&4--;-aLI+I 4.&'KI W S % -4: d - ~ ~ ~,LGA LLJI GI kiLLI j 'L+IL ~ LLO '4-1 4 :,-*P - - ~ 5 I ~ ~ p @ + & a L L , p- - a w l 3~ L ~ Y I ~aiwd~3i, 3ii.--.. .-dl&$- di! ,UI 5 o L J L I +j -4; W - I authoritative ;;&+A a:.--- - L d! W L -I - I j 4 I 6 ~ l l i ~ 3 i i ~ c p ~ ! ~ ( j 9 + . p . 6 L i ~ 1 - i u ~ ~ + ! ~ + ~ . - . - Jidd ~ j i~ ~ f i ~~ _ i ,
  • 144. J;.; d l j- ,UI$I -I .pi 6 b9-i>+j 'L+J JL L LI L@+ b-lilgLgjlJW plaialj . b wt i - b i ~LJS~ b ~ + ~ ,~irl ?Wl &la14 1 d2j LJ& G3'a ,tsJ+ .@.. GWIhju 411 31L .-~;J+&I .L- ~ L Z Kk;5 J~pi&-J Y & ~ 3 1.. 'L9 &&dl- +llj... J!-+-$j+ +aLZK+pLill J L ~ $ch~g*-&L+1;4,aEK-. Y "Y!+ Y 2 4 . . - 13 - k $ Y 3 LP +I uL;SI &JJP ;rj ' g w+ .t+L?-" f JJL;r;l13al.W13 +-s+ - human p. -+L;rYl Z l . - d . - - 13 2 4 1 4 - PI :? 11 o L j Y I- - .')dl "- 4jL%&I3 4jLbej;j y&L JLbylj*k;tbll -- S+ p &3 wLLtlj .ML)LA,- .. & d l& U l- - &&n;2 ,b,a- *L-U++ + ~ i.- +LLZ;u~$~GWI d ~ , d 2 p , ; l S L , ' - ~ ~ Y l ".. Lt-ieLi 41- -+LLI a U l + .national p +4g;;f 7, . . - b e '4jUjj '4jb&.3'JAW1ojl;! 47 . o S 3 ' d u ~ k l ~ ~lrl1- i 1-4 ,'uJ&lj dj &IF 'determinants .. - .-+I3 -L$*a l 2 - j 3-419 41 ALAI +J+j~j .. . -i,.--.;ll t ; ~ ~;i A ~ l ~ ! & l j (oa+ll &4 &IJ3 Z l J g 3 .;i_Lt"UfI3 & d l j & $ A ! t-pL&eIk;aL>L;L6.. . k ~ h r . . , ~ ~ ~ n ~ : k l ~ ~ + a1 1 - - + ~- & I & , & & ~ l a ~ / r f J Y & j ;i I2 . I a l J d ! j a-l3 .U&L!ab!+'dl a l J W ! j +$&I &I &p3+ 2,J-i ,'Jlj . G 4 J 3 - & ~ J ! c ; t $ j + ' + 4 ~ &,G~L~~+JI,UI g- ~ s i j ' L + i aLp9Zi9J+I a l J l & i u Y l *+j &$I ZLJI-. Lg;4 ~ 1 9-. .&I--&' c ~ 1 3-. 'L- . wi.JI L@ d I .. 'G.. +I G ~ +&i- +d c j l L + . U Y I Sly 1- $-' *i9 -lj ,;~LLLJI ji -+hidl afJWL ' - Z + b Y l
  • 145. b+9 , & J L +9 *g &d LlL&A9,jlkbCw&'J&~ L j 3 s I I I 4 p. basic 5 . A - ...II. L +-I-iikhr &L%I-&-J. ; I L9i,pattern d+S& 4ph.basic p.- ~ s b A ~&krJd13l~FL~& l . , ~ e n C +dlj+3 .,~Xcyl$+I9 1y&13 i,:, ; ," (P:& Q 9'+9 ' b 9 G p 9 &J - ~ i5 : ,>'%@+I w JS ~ l ; ?L .&+uhl- (Q&l9 +9 &l-?--lJ-~j(p kk-i-. kgi. 'X Lb;I& L-9 .d!JL3 A 1; L 4;: , A & , (j& Lq[ & L h [4;: , < - - . iYhl p=3
  • 146. + u u i G 3 1+l> 01 j-63 +Igag L;r ijgSjg.aL%Lcj13a L p k f b A:CII p w ~ i.- . . j ~ ~ i ) ~- A3&l &i9'(+&dl LA3+) ,y $y al2l~;.,l C;;b p L&plg; cifl .. - L,,-.; ,: - +cs*& JAU +.e131r#I L~ ;IL+I, p 5 4 1 e ~ ~ i.-.. ((J~YI)) L J I &J&U $1 +.. & L&Jj2JA &uiiaLIJl-I p- aL% +&G G3r d ; # f i - . . &+ + d l +l9i3 JGYI.. +l pL LUWlpug1',3j.. .'+dl- ++t1ugl&bga,.n;.:+iC cktJl & X J 9 - 9 1&'I4+ &I1- 9- i+,h e j d 4 + C C ; ~&h!l d d j&3 . - M I & 1 j C--J @the self aljJ19r4;dn- . . -+y- Jp3 dlJJ!p i+w13. ~ : . - - , J - L - &J+ bi &+313 e j u ! +I d 3 i ~ ~ ~ + ~ l + 4 i 1 j ~ ~ + ~ + ~ 4 j 1 j 2 2 s ;r! djl a b 9a k 9 - C (QJP~~'+++~~J'*L h A
  • 147. L L 4 I p J l kLp &j.$U4-3 aksl J3& ((ZJ2Lc -&MI,) & g'Lpj.- L- G b~ iji +- &?~ 1 3 - ~ d 1 3 G y td;,Ldg - & b y 1 Jl3J$l 3 & s b A ! o h g3.L& o+ &I kJm1- "3 LcjK LoS 3p115 Z p && d l -4 4 l L u g Z ~ ~ L J U e a4J *+ 4i-I U S u 4 L Z X L 8 ~ 9 - 3d*j .JSd;U di.dLl3 &ii& &I> i)r adolescent $3 .wyJ3i 4i:--, . . &&I LSf uJ,L.&&&&+I d L U I * &.;w-;-19%.. -. - J29r+&lU3 G I A - l ,uy~>3LiIA 2 :I I r b i d-'bjgi 4.masturbation o p k &+I J~ ;riJ!dl>- %&2=3~4'.fl~* -- +PA .-+G,i .&6-L~JJ3 bJ& k 1 3 . a Y L L ! + kJ+&I 9 &* $6 L&+ sjIL 'jA +I9 & - d @ I pa - 4 1 5 + + d l a'+ 4 &+ L i p 3 .-+yl d l d l . - .; r i .'.-.t+8;j .$LLi+y self-identificationi j ldl Lpj.A &J&l h;li i j U j d I &- &Wl)) +, d3- .ZfiLLJI GI- ,~ L L ++gal giw.- .ZALLII~ ++AL~J34.=+~&;Ii -3 i&WI&.. J-YI JI 5 &dl- self- ~ l d l- J-Yl Jl &dl d l J*J +JA &I +.independence .LJUI, + I ~ I L &i- . L , ~ I 9 & ~ ~L i & ,&i G r G;& L 4 ; l . J &-Ie3.ijI+I ++ d l & L . . .-&&a&~ $ 1odic 'kiLJ9 Gj .fictional play -5 +All &- self- s i e j g c i l5 c- +I . I expansion ~ ~ > & ~ s ~ i + + + + i ~ odic L i J i e e l I i++l ~ J L + L K - L J U I ) )'jA &.. L&& J+t L & LS* I* L " ; i J A -&LLIl,) + 4L o+ +.J companions jbdl (Jj& &o h &j- .++ &a d i . - 9 . t u w 'k3.+i + k l 3 (j9q.rational self -&MI ijldl QIAJ .;LKc3 4;LbLL p+L & , j
  • 148. 9 9 'organization FL. kt.--.. . &.llll9 + & . + - . ~ - l l ~ & i j & ~ - ;ipS6 ;+ 4 , n L 3)- C - I$S3.ijIdI ;i$L3;i1 I - - ' " 1 '+@I L J3iL&& l+L i:,--<J. : I -&I+,! c)-rLI cLUj +j 'disorganization of p. ;I I - + ..A- L J 'disintegration of p. W)Cx;l9 'split p . i n l . l n ~ A 1- . I'd 4 1Y' 1'9. . u3'multiple p. & 3 ~ d la:,-& . . - '3 .LL+L;;~AL J!+?L i r ~self-integrity LgLok3a;(l $--- ' f ' i I+l j b ' ~ k l + *j +,'h$3= s ? i,&i9 .p. reorganization +L+I 3: ' k L ; ? & p. formation 2 : .-.;.- cLUj A3.Id> & i S i $ i 'amputation of p. 1 J1.^:;'"! 9i.p. functions u U b j ip d l ++ ge;J* jl 'ik;Ubgl' o h LiU- -3 .*$I ow Lg]kS;wg - 4:..-; . biunity of p. ;I2Jn;3 1 bj C W C IW' i)13 '&k.. - J 4 .?"1 9- Lg.GUb3 yjL ds* 3.1;; 'a&l a'* aL-9 djlj &c djj+ J ~ Y 4 J l reality $114i- Aj ..4jL+ AI-Mi41i , ~+,LX principle +i?.?'da-r;ixj&&.?cd% a'd' 4I i,*g +L3++2j d j $ 1 knowing-selfG J u l . .4 , , . r ,&c&j3-!! jU- CL~LLLSI~'+ &-I3 .&d'g -a+K;611 c-l E L L i u + ' & p a 3 ;iyS Jl SPJL p. maturation2: .-L 31 .+,LA!' ~?j,i,i&&I - ' p U I -p. 4 1 ,nL iJl& f fiLljJJl &U3 J!&i f- dS-i development 'itMLtl &kl;(...I- Jgidl &I+ j&& '-&Adj;i+'kLd~j ~ j ~ ~ ~ i ' A i++t ~ ~ 1'j -G $! 'I+I~~K; - . f +-&I pdj .-&'dl d+ &I& 4 ; i g o l l 1 i j ~ 1 . d g ~ - ~ ~ ; 4 ; 1 ~ ; q k- j-1 j!-1 &a3'*'w L y dj~ j & .&&i!lj~&!j .dW',--isE+M-
  • 149. ~ _ j ~ > ; l r ; k ,. n i .:."-i3 a&+ -3 2 ;( ~ 7,#11 i3L! ;w1 .WI'$Ld h j .i,I,- - .AL J - &dlj +3> Q JL&dl i- . L .. - &$I ~ $ 1 ~,ego ~ $ 1 ~.id d l e ~ i &L3&U3JS3'super-ego $I3 .&Ljt;bj4~LLag4il_C4&~~ kl;~~l+ -pig&$l - r U i l r l p . a w l JI+ L&J Y + . J ~ ".LC JAG+ & X I +.-, . dl ip &+I- &-3 & $ A 9 3A 3 i ~P $ &',a1 GL+iJs13. & + d l &Lid! - . -.. b 7 & d l 3 -wdl3 b++ ~-;f3 .pleasure principle i i U l 1- L d X L$$l -3 j i u l .q;Yl i 1 & J 1 3 m ' &'Ilk &A+ 4J24 JJ r e f l e x v L i d I &dl3 .;+b>+l '+A< ',A: $ J h elementary processes q i Y l & d l 3 ;;$4.J +++ & i J 1 3 h j J3k kllj!kck+t+gaLJ JF L S '>s;tl0-M - eig 0-4 cJ& ~ 3 1 3 .u3iu3+C 4;b3.p~gl~
  • 150. L ) J - T (.- *j LCl+llI (QL2 ~ j U l + ~ & f l + ~ ~ ~ i _ l ~ + y k ~ k r ~ i + + - ~ a - ~ i c. .. I "dlb$+ i q b a r l a d (MugcF c -- 5 3 Ll-A3 L+icwi4f >- r b !++L-? hcl+yl G P,LI'J Lie)>359- i*&~- ;i&tl b 5 Z d I.- o h &L ++ + x i 3 .;i;MJ ;iUI - . +A+LAAJI,) AXLJI)) j ~ & iJJL . YJI. +.., .++I o c ~ i~ g z r s ~ +dl41J!&..g 'b+I +P d I J!.+i J+++b . & U l L ~ ~ L J + G C L ; ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ & ~ ~ ; ~ , Q ~-. +b~AL; 1+4~- i+..,Lb&sj 5 4f GI.++ +Guo+ - 4 ' 'A- (jlj L ~ l . ; r l l ~ ~ ~ . a . , 4 L ~ ~ u. - L Oedipus complex %J3 P& I+3 ' castration C. . L A ;j&3 + U l ambivalence -+I 3~j l 3+3 - 4 7 1 . -7 ; tIrcJI i L L 9.&lryIo L ; &bk;!32/ . ':. I+&$L9.dd -t1 4 1 IL&;i&c&;I~'";1C-l .L+ ~s;,.+i 31j-i + .L+I &2-j ,LLL b L b ~ ~4333 w ~ i 3.LL~ +L,UA .WI 2J9 A L fl ;i.s - 4 .rtfl+ J * ~ , L b l b& L J ~ j ' ; > u l LP+3 L> 4iln~,?*!l9L .&!I p- Cl-l &631- &..dl3 L I 5 3iw ~ b ~J j b jjk b+I Y I d + j3LjL~~!,L.Wl& ..@ Jb!&dl - : A#...,> -Lit .,,'I +&Iyj 9'oral L+I -&+I 4- LeJi Lphallic4 - .- A: 1 &anal+LA f- ~+;1, J ~ Y I ~'genital +WL &.,.,I ;int,;d&;ii.-&UI &,.&- 'Lp*119&9 uk ;i - :;i;;t,; c; &Lju- . el @ +3 erogenous zone ,pa[J- f & b d i d l (JA ((&iUI),aIB3)Ll +j 5 +J&I'L_)J~ I~-uL-Lic+l+.- .L~I am+da~jLe~+y~ - ;1-..,e'4..'$++9- 5 ')I J A u ' + ++I &j L&lJJ&
  • 151. J-llJlj . a $ L d l- lL;-lbLill ij+l a;;U ~ C O ~ S C ~ O U S .+Ij k i & 9.j repressed p-+ Y3 ';4GJ b& u b s - 3 censor *J J ~ s lJ+ J!J 3 4L Y y ! ~ 3 + l f 3 & y 3 ' + 4 = 4 1 e 7 -?%at1 Js; p- ji L,, P U I liyq .-sl; 6~ k ~ ; u4-ij .--. .J& I (j-4 p i 4 3 'LfjJ! l+C;?i3 &igldLLJ e%LY+ (p3'ei.&I3 & e ~ % ~ i j . ( 9 7 - ~ v ~ )Jung personal/I J&WI 3 'ego ~ $ 1 - +I J+WI 3 .0&3 unconscious @i!l3 . q i Y l 4bLdi3 collective u. v 9 ~ % ~3 .anima 1-91 persona .shadow JilliJ-i 3 animus a L s Y l +G dJj Jl &aLYl+ &&&*dl introversion i+LIdt?(.dI ;1+4l 3 +I &Ujj'extraversion 41- ~ I A Ii*i3. v ~ ~ jv ~ y ~ 3 G s l ; +j . ; i u ;j, 4 , A * . . . @ - AV ) Adler +i JdidJX A , , . , , -- -T y 4.+c-; .:. 11 g 4j+j ' ( 9 Y V @a 2: 1~111+ @ a s a t 1 & d l j &Jdl cL+*'*LA &+I' 4bu +s;2 '&IyJI &A,,.,, '& 'e;-r++t+~ J!+' - 4 ~ 4 ~ f 1OL >3 .+A y J ~iWg $lo+- ;& + U I L & a p & J ~ I- 9, ,a+ +;I J!J++ J~+ai kjj4 ;G3 'LA&Jii+ & y J l o b p- 4 1- 4 b k 6$414'J-L LL;; LL- o h .-$I- tG)!I d3&Ci;ll Y C Y y! kj-6&K (j$ & ! d l - &&L&3r;1j+Ci;ll',AjLF+l- AL,,,,'i: U I'LWIJSlJdl + ,I-cb.&a:---JJ -- 2 &WI -pj'421fi;WI 9&IpJO11o b a L g L . fixation 0 1 tl-4-A L .processes s;r Li4-1 conscious J+~ l eg"J 9 L t I&-i3 '&+I L3Up (p 6 ~ 9 1 ~jP%!ij&- preconsciousJ9-f! 3-4 ,I abd Id ;+ *%Y L'jyjTjYI &-G;I
  • 152. Lkjl'klu i ~ i3-Ai - ++~M~&~.UA+I G L J l ~ - L ; ; 3 0 ~ l. . . &wL;JI awl ~ l ; r q~d ~ s k ~.&L+Y .L @I i>@l W creative self &$+ O- ijlu;y13 .i2. A ; .:.!I -i.,+.~~c~+iP+i3 L B ; , i j ~ 1 9 3 . W + 3 5 W ' ~ ' + + ' & d & U L * ~ > hi 'striving for superiority ;$I 3 -4 -I ,A+ &CzIifJGI j 4f b& ~gr+i ~glg.a jnk 2 1- 4 t ~ iiu.~G-JI hi3.++I a k l , n & ,'J;S&CrYLLf( J 1 1 5 ? I (-.. - LLI31 + i p ~ - i -uAj & @iJ+ Uu;?13'GUigg &LLJ L P + 3& +&LA1 LLl L+Lsl;l13 U y d I-.- &L33 a+Igl L J I &l&G&&$p ~g;l;;sj&~+~++iiw~ CJ L;,Y LLI Li I J ~ ~ I ~.+&I +j 'LjJF &cj+& 4 z J j ~ g l l+ -4 -, ,-L ;;I ~i.. . +O& i ~ ij ~ i
  • 153. - .. JAII~ '~LLLYI 3,UAI ,LI -C &L 4.. LL91 u3.%*?I ;is$ ',LC . .LIPHi3~~Lilln-..-~L - ~ J+ ,JUI ij+l +I Hippocrates L A , &&All Gb>!J% ~ w l de &dillJ;UI ji humor UI A" - ski+,i ~ ~ i b~ L U U4jij ,+I 9.. c f ~ I ~ + l ~'choleric 159J-11 4 - - 'sanguine & + d l 'melancholic.. &i U3 ~ 2 9 9.phlegmatic &I.. +'bi+,i L L ~ I JLU. - .. 4 -a <nL,+#ILj‘ $ 4 1 4 ,nL ,:,I i+ij . b ~ l ~.- UI +'-J;II- L L ~ I&a. - .+,.2 .&LA1 U.. .&-dl w9&&-dl L a @!- + L ji1 ,A& ISlfl GI- ,G3 L a p i : , n ~,:iI G& JLzJI' L L ~ I - -p. 4 1 1 ,511 w# n , , a , kr),j- L&L p3measurement. ?&3 ijj+j'ii,n4,+.1 a&+ p9 pLd~ijgS-r*y9=fpL 4+j l 'personology a: .-- ...I1 L .personality psychology ;I :.-- ..I ' C l i j U I LLLILL) &1 f d j -9 ' L A 4 .+ JSLL J+I .. ijiJLLLYL ij& + d l e-ZJI LgLod U ' 3 -4 -~ ~ - L ~ S J I ~ ~ L ~ ~ +u;fd;+Ldij'+& 3iuF~3i; ~ J L &I C i-. .-- ..L '&$y~p L c j U I +j .ij&~ - , a L a x ++ L i 2 L j -4 -4 1-4 JzJI ijI jjLL LSS3i-+ +u;9%U;s;L~ LJL sj.,WI -i +LA ,L.+L ~ L Ip3 -i +ia~ .. +'dg.a+F3L~$ibi++ Aa ~ ~ y ~ej' a ~ ~Li +- G+P"~-&LJIGI+L~&& + i l .-A ; , e J & G ' a u l k* '31.9$3 -- - G w j b p ~ k ~ ~ ~ y s ~ ~- -4 4 -- ++t JILL! type UI +hij " '~+A,LJI u i k 3 d a ~- . 2 9 1 j i a ~ + e b ~ k . ~ ~ '!-ill 'w ' U l llvs t+&a L
  • 154. 5 5 +j-~gkji '+LI j~'4jYiji bi++I OL .e;;w-zs~ &LLZ introspective ;tt;lL+~I ' ~ ~ l ' . J ~*@L eu13' + i J l .'.J+Q&& ''jF-.-?& .'.Js;tl,ji a++yxJ~ ~il~ia'.~+i;bi~ y - ~ ~ d l~ J L J I ~d u l j-P 2&< 5 I .$I ' k b ~ d lSr'Jk3P ' 3 - w&dLJl dkks JC 2L&rarl di+ +L+ 9j .+.II GLLA 3i.. &I2 #I LJJ+ a 1: . . ? 'LlALJl - d l- - . GL 4i&&.b9&1j~ +~'lM&b ;Lell j -JFidl &O+ +99 - $4b ! & I &dSinterview ~ J LfiLk &Jy-dl j 991 GL-YI *bi~ i l ~ , ~.ZUI 4 J I questionnaires- 4'filJ&y + 2& & pwl ' d 9 i % + 4 " ~ & - dJ&i dj(pg 1- 'structured tests ZJ- 4 j &JL.Ij"%d.GLLLLYI. &;Yl 2 d l Cjgl.: 1 rr '.JlA&&"l
  • 155. ' ~ J U Io w l +&&Lt c;;9lP 2- ;L;S hbj ~gaku.jy3 @+I 2&.J ' ; / > h i 4 aL)k'J k 3 ' ~ 3 i J + ~ ; w i r & b i +d3,,-: 3i'~ g r ~ i>cs_k? 5 d + I I L d I a ~ l&I & l h Y 1 3 - UL;413icp3+13 ' w l j . .dl1,-- .:.I 1 p , & j z+& djGIy & &&S +i 2 3 ';/j@l .$!'u& ++ill j J L 3 4+413~3 c& b&3MmI 6 b 3 sLA3.+I- zwlo Y L g id.. p-!L& 041Jhl ,p. disorders i .A& ,t1faL1) L ,>I wG=-J . -. I * @ ' + l & ' A l U .- d& scb d511!6 L..'ML [ j ~ & - ii3'31g13iL- -I &i- ' i ~j+~b~ a l L ,Lp3 personality trait2 : . A r t o f l ;19a hi dj-3 'disturbances WLck;!iJ-4 +4 -- ...L 11 Y-3 'emotionally unstable personality &Liij djYCrh;l& bLS-ty,d- - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality JY ,@ G3Inventory (MMP) + b L ' d l al,4;;YI3 . a U I;, 23- +o l J k l- 5 projective tests , ~ i&L-- s3'unstructures ~9%L;24Lj + L J &I4-. p + ~ 'bLYI+>.. .OH@+I p u u l & i l l- +b_JI- (I>u& Id1 +?I'+& &ill3 'L&@ @ - ; k k . ~ ; d g ' ~ & 3 + i J I ~ + 'j- ?I,. is*-! c.As'blkuy jJ+ lLUAyu jLlidbL L Y l. . LI~L;;! b is3L J3a 4 Rorschach tkJjJjL;il 9 L L Y I P +ia&LL++b+.,, test a3& js-;.eIl w;L2 '+I w3.+ILL 3ib~ 3+ ILL J+ -+A6* g b e - oLLdl 'j&r~ &I;Y ++I 3iw-t~ ~b;ji +GY GI>-,-. JL~ t*+l pedjJLLil13-. U U I- & (TAT) Thematic Appreciation Test J.= G ~ ~ Y S- ' ~ . ~ b l k ~ y ~~~~lt;ixl+i 5 ;JY 3' yi L w 177 NOBILIS 7 ) -ec.plL ; s b j+I +Ig +I pL - -+I kpdl( - - - -
  • 156. inadequate p. i+l;ijI a ,-.; (5,t 4j -4 , ? l ~ ~~43i J - ~ b ~ i- ' ;- .'J+&LsS;-? JI- passive I&I3u &.. +L -+I3- 6s-3 L r l S L 9 1 4- d b Lrl+ 413, b L L+.aggressive schizoid & A U I ZLr-& ,?JI3 id- 4 3 3 ~2&3 '* @ @!'$92 4PL &+ G b l ~ i 3P. +Y .'u+sii.+~i~i i 3 or^ +J3 .,WI JI~.LY .GI;YI a~+-+ dj-ig '-L- ~ l ~ I i i l - ; ~ 3 t + i ~ 4 c e ~ ~ ~ a ~ J + i ; LI+-+I cyclothymic p. ~ ~ 6 1 1i a ! 3 .02- & i i 3i' 2 ~ipj 'Jt"+I&& b L J& 3 b Lj&compulsive p.- +i,j&Y ipjc u L ijc J- ip Lc&i'l &jj&d z ~. L L - 3- . ->j LIL+Li3'LWILGi,., '?+I +lF$I +;.i.!l '+L&3, paranoid p. -&iJWI il.~kl?t13:+WI JU~I ~ J ~ Ld i l l obsessive p.- 3L4!< ,?,;11 3 d+ I b L - o + + $ ' .wsJ!&2 'LLC~i 3 + uu ! . 4 4 3 c k h ! e g ~ . * F + 2 up3b L - o + i $1 ailn'l . . -A13 ' e b i l + 'hypomanic p. &+ & " V ~ L 4 d u k d + 2 4 &., 'dlj 6 4 1 I&+ugSll- - d - r ? r f 1 3 td3-I &L++J - 'melancholic p. -Ld-Ul 3irI J ~ I@ melancholia US;;W13 - + W Y l J! &&La3 ' + M Y l Gi AI+~ o ~ ~ - 2~9- k kJj .'L~J 2 c c : , a 1--A b . ! I - I C Y b L immature p. +Lill ' & d l 'dg L L Y l. C Y3 & d l J&+ -4 ~~n;A.IIj .dfgPto3-LFJL;s &+J d b L hysterical p. &l+dl LrLuUI o & a L ~ 'J+%L - b yJ!&9 'i-4tb SJ 4J3.&I ?hi 4% i;l +2 . - .. k ,?*!I@ +12LYl ',is& u d i i w ~ ~ h- Ihid.c+dl+& -+j '4: I n ; WI a b I J L ~ I+e$I
  • 157. ,transvestite 'I+ . d L i d l. 3 ,fetishist .$!,sadist ~ J W I ~- humoral theory &%5l L h 9 -4Ll-7.:~~ & ~ ig G&~-JI 3- P 5 ) I 5 ,. ~YPOIOCJY 5 LI C 31 e--" $ 1 ~i)'L'FJ(p9 (p-5 LCJ+~3 :@-,i d ~ i.. -;!ckl;L S3.e;tpf13 L C 1J-119 + l $ ~ l ~ J l k l d-&&L2LYjn bUi +>~kliii ,+I L C $WI l b y b c l A l C 31&WI I d $ Jal$13 .iljJI W I LiC4 L S - dp-JI .iljJl ikWl- L d y L d l U l - *+I - .black bile)) . I J ~ I,& ~ 5 9 1 ~ 4 1 ~- ji ‘+@l3- L C l y d l -l;? i~gl+l~- L3.phlegm ?&I c 5 9 U I- * i sc+J+ up9iO ~ L (.p.3 5 0 ) Empedocles &39j4.i d i i p 9 - ~ ~ ~ ~ g & ~ ~ ~ o ~ 3-. - :*+J?JyL Q$ - j L y l i)dl- LfireJm13Learthc,rlJIjLairClggfl -9'&&LJ ,water +U13 J?bairy temperament j l d l - ji LJ+ 4s+ +3i .&I +ILL4 p J k -+-IiJI JL! J3& Sj la digLL+L+Yl -&At -4 1 , - . d l ijLIJb e-l&&5 - sociopathic p. 'b14;~:2-1 -4 .. I n & ltlJI dii)49(disturbance $$41- antisocial p. +& J U I e L ; ? Y & c L L & L L a & L & p L- L J ~ ~ 4d-u1 ,p3,i+i~ g u ~ vG&2 ' c , r U l +", *LgLLL L ~ ~ i ~ ~dq .-~ ~ ' d gY bi b~ + i + 3 ~ +jl;iP3- . -.,I JAk 4 1 I 2LS+ L!J+ dysocial p. &=+Xfl 2: r-.d . . - '3 P + ~L d ~ i ~ ~ 3 g- - ~ L ' L + +I+ b'L-,L'js L4,,iZed* 3.&,MI +u bi9~fi~,~3 4 OL, +LJWI ts;l13. d ~ i+~ ~ ; L ; J I sexual 'IG &+I 9~S~I+YI homosexual&+l- l JLinvert b ~ l l- - - 3 ,exhibitionist d S ~ l l-
  • 158. ~t191pj,sl+;*,i;,G ~ J I.. )guJ13LL-;LIbJ+ &A!- $kid1 &&3 . r b L Y l , L J l j ;i2LrJk (4J.J $& &,.s&,+.,I &,<I ; - i Lull &+.,' i l Y d l j t l l i t l 1 3 +$I &,c +g & ) L l J.&,zg&dl&' earthy t. - cld13 :y132 &+l&j ,J+ %i;,I- E l d l blk~g LL-&~~.LL!~&G I + Y ~ j + i i ~ . J ,ilY&Yl d3pdl J& L ' l S W ! i l g L u l li! 2+L3 L.$l;)-& bl Yl I L fiery t. & J U I- cl+13 vi!b - 3 ' ~ ' 9 % '+ j b - J I L9,Jml' + j + I ; U U I ~ ~ l - ~ h ; i j.+9 1 5 9.. a& e--" ' d I j d j 0 ~ !& + k 9 ~ :~.J.+II I+.+i9 i~ I+IL A Cl d l ,LL9 watery t. j k l l- c1d13 1rb199i ;,d 3 ~ 1.. ji *+I &+3 1J+ 4 c l d l wL3 + 3 4 ? g 1 i ~ ~ + + 9 . ~ j l l u ; r a 4iYltk;lLJ '.L& ;.j 2-iLcca * - .14 f l : * J;rL&J1;;Ij 'G&j z + L L i 3 d 1 3 4& &4 2
  • 159. , , I j& parasympathetic 1 5 9 b 1 i W I - 9;L;LUl&I anxiety.. Hall and Lindzey: Theories of- &i+WI &? 'cL>a!lj +12LY~ Personality. i+IS ;plgJI +U Lg-m anxietas Dollard and Miller: Personality and - f' LCd+-% &dlj .+$I3 A+lg Psychotherapy. .+in i;jFi US CL;L - -. Vernon, P. E.: Personality- b~ 3j ,+uI~ +-+ L~LLL~I3i Assessment. - d ~ 3 i +$ls 41 Welpman, J. M. and Heine, R. W.: - psychogenic '-1 p-, 3 L f l3 Concepts of Personality. free-floating $La $3 + A= 41 d3L+ +&+I a! 'anxiety .endogenous a. $WI &!_Jl '/jlf+ - 3iexogenous a. 'UI eiMi 3 5 02-, d j l l.. 61- 'provoked a. Ju!+I3 .. &Ldi3 - +I
  • 160. +z s9.+lfi;SYl cjl-rlhnglodwl bi lb+ia~- WI~ G L ~ I Y, .>MI &i- $ i 41+JI s r r ~ +J.s-LI~%!jlAll s g l z Y L p3&+&Jl - . & U l i;&i 'psychotherapy d l.. zXJI .behavior therapy G 9 L J l - J,~I &@I ir.**;,%>'3922 & d l- - .objective a. &+,dl @I- +A'~ J L+t+y 4)- & i;;ss;s .a. object JiJL +4 41 ;& +ir.3 +&i 31 2 1 1 4is31+L+u51 +L+ &a I+9 3 .socialized a. & k + Y l- - ( + = - d I . p , Y 4 J + + + UL;FJl neurotic @I 9j W l @I3- - . ~ i~ ~ b ~ i ~ ~ + ~ ~ . a . Jru,~2,9*bbA!! F A ldli31 +',LAl b &a + +JJl- ~ L J L3il(j~a~3i=UI -A d ~ ig- OJ-~I* 91 @9 . ~ p 9 i ~ ~ ~ i3ikz- .LLll ;, @I l b ~~I- J&$13h-~l+l &j .'L~&
  • 161. +&I_. anxiety-reaction 5 dj+j '2 ,! I +l9YI ' & A l l $+IS - + " l J L 3 Y l .. - &- ',dl3- ' i , W l j ' * d l F Y j + l a d l *i; d- U Iji '(,%a1 I~.~;;I&+I~U'@L .++y3 41j,i ++I jJ+ a. neurosis $A 5 5 ;,&L *.. '-1 -1 +IF! r p I f I + F 9 3 ' ~ ~ ~ & LLcFCrril13 JkAI-2 F F &La1p+&l &i,+&@% C C ( 3 F*Y31 'z13JJl &= 5- >IC;LPIU@**",,&- bWJ& +9 3iiz~3y~- 3i41 UL 1-1 .- +9 3i' ~ U Itw~ @ ? dj&3 '+id 3i+ A a h 1 9 1 '+WI ~ a i ~'91 @ ! !u-I I+ b+- L3!L.JhlU I- . ,,+3 '-JLo+I &l,>Xrl a L W l- dLS I j l c~Lgj;-ell . I ;9 k b A f - :'LL LL,++-~y *I 3ji 5 ~+L~;~OLLYL;I(J!YJ+L pL & a l .GlsCkll &iip &I-!- a Y k J I &.s3(091 - 3-1 JI '+dl a Y L p ;,i,@ '*- i i'41@L &+i,3 - T+ JL$.- b3+ S ~ I++ -+ 3i'41I,,I~ @ t ~ J ~4~ d~ 3i u3' ~ . . c ~ ~Ih.&'j+. 5 z3ul& *++*I - - - a 1 - i I I 2 , , ; I1 - ~ 1 = - ' pWC='+Il & J ~ J h9J;9&+9 .>Id1 t k b aL31 I L P J l & J l ~ ~ & ' + ' J l l 1 L B j?< o! JAl 9 3 'instinctual a. @I- ',,izllj p r J l >I$ d+!! p-6 &dl- JI 4 OJ- - dlj~ ; ; 9 ! ~jlj 3i>);(A! kcli- ;,djP+i3 'b1~21tGl& Lgg aIJ+l! ( , J U I&swla -. -1 -1 -1 -.+L"L'd & u J h & $ & 3 '&&1-efI- L 2 2 1 + 1 OL JL~&- u . , * ~ .danger-situations 9 1 &IF ?! 3:d~JI p L ~ I& LBjJ+3-
  • 162. LJ~L~I +I+ ji 3 4 I , , ; A+ 'ji + ++ &JI- '41- &dl &9 LeS Ld L 2 U l d l + &&I phobic anxiety & b d l .. i K I i 419~ji &I. -19;; 9& d l liji-9'rjLU1jt j l 4 l 2.. 5 u;?lF'dl 4 :I..ii t , ~ i +J l j +I>&YI P u3iLw- '+I +I*! p-! *&& d l.. 'j$L..... 'overanxious disorder );dl ~i ij'<L- &J+I g ' i i.. (yj'*L J+iLtl 'j& kl+lg - &>++'I*U+2'j&+ LLI JU, L 'L* +UL;i Y3 '@ & b 9 'Wl ;k&4 %&+ -j ~ ~ j _ l ~ ;k~ :I --lF ~i ks+l , L L o l S ; L &Ti3 '& 9 3 . i r l j k ' d l d l g a& ljJ+.gi a&+ >L J2, a+- 'separation-anxiety disorder j U Y l egr.-l&-&~~ 'jls U s &a&,+ldL sl.l.l.;Yl a-I ji ( p g i ~ i +~,-A-,I &1j51> + m l h .s4~++.wlj - G&al a+l+Lu19W l L g r + I psychogenic - '-1 Lr--iill- -4 d~2+ii-~~jU j ~ ~L L ~ LL+uI &ill &'j&jJIJo ' k a 2 U 1 ' ~ & L ~ J . ; L ! * . & + Z Y L- w-i2L11 4A.J- - hlcL > ~Is+ +l+l p-L & T J +9 -- +'Lad generalized anxiety 1 &A ;i~ir4 1 F& .disorder h&r34l d l + '&ill LlZiLuI. - C ,@e~&I- ,&$I ji .b -1 ZJA p-p&'j* p- g ZKJI d3.anxiety hierarchy wl &t.b&jYl &'j& j I + L = + - m + d p x J l 3.. L ~ Ji , ~JI Z+L .hia41 &I L..,;YI 'j* +91 +cul >b~g$91 ;*I p . c ~ ! &3- &aLIJL&r d L 9. l ~ 3 anxiety disorders of -4;;~blAI hJ+ bj.+ childhood and adolescence hidi' j ' ~>j'+I c~~Ji91
  • 163. + ; j i ~ l s L + ~ ~ + u ~ ~ u ~.. .. + 3 i i 1 0 B j ~ g g L ; i i l i ~ i ~ ~.. .. I - L1 .l+pI*G JI LJI... + plL1 +I &lFyLC+L+)Lg 'a&!! + J L b 1 6 i ~ + J lPgjjg 1;Mi,&Yg.a"l'+3dAlI-.d - . _ . 1 &.IJ A l ;i&L - a b L L j.. SI;;LI A-YI 51P,L 'UJI ... @I 1~ + . ~ i;r JLYI C Y c Gbd1o h 9 3 'anxiety preparedness &I L J I i,k u r n d l +ih+ & u U I 3 '+I.. >$Ij ' ~ l b ~ i u 'b* A ! I+ j++ 41idI$l - JILYI 3!~ 2 ; ~.blJjpei;L3 'primal anxiety j l d I &A1 &&- j L LJ3ij~;JS; L*; ~i.. - L3i ~ Y g l ,L y d l ;rJ U Y I pa '(d"p ;La! bx!j-b e ~ d ~a i , + +2-sf1 ~ i l i i ~ ~ ~. . . . .- - 3 i,, U l + cjdzc.... . L d b i , j ~ A + ~birth trauma JWI; L d u ;SLL;, 'Jlj.. ;t;;?LLJI LSqJJI o h L& ipJ ~ L- L&AIj- . J Y + ~ IL& *JY L~uib4-1 @I - +jUg- &Ij .& &+...A& .Lf% "+Y- primary dJY1.. &ill d- jl-LLjl F GA Y I C S L I IIb,+,,-,anxiety i,& LLLw A f l 4+ +& ;ILs 4-k bl-% b 3 03& h 4 i i & 3 ~ ~ + L ~ 3 i'bW& F Y F 5 ;-I b~3~'bi+t + ~ ~d-u c s ~ ~ b F ~ + 3 . d ~ ~ ; J 3 i d ~ ~ : ; l - F . .LtCyLUbZ:;Ji)I&wl L a + -- &+.,+~YI wl+iXbid i l l j p ~ + j . b ybJ& 3i' k r u d l J!+$I J L Y I g jf-... ~ iu~gt JI 6 &9e- separation a. " - - ; ; c ~ I + + ~ A L 3 q g l. - .- 9- $1 J+ w13. ~ i+OJI+I & ,!L~L&!~ '4 ~JIJLI4jbJ3i h irilJlsl +id13 b-+-11 I~A&+JJ'~)'I I 1 - a - - . i , b + ~ p'ar!.. .+icJ~;;;,~)U J U Y I G3.w U A L- -- &I a Y U 1. - aL%! + anxiety fixation &Lll
  • 164. l -9 &LA+~ I 9 > ~ Y li l l i09ij - 6 k G &?ud.J .-$I b b 2 LBLUP)- JA j u C w -+Ld l '+y1,kkukt-;1~+'~~,..91 L?g '++I ,Larl&+ ;r z + . L ~ ~ & il~Fi+w~4++ vt-~91 - ji +lj .-+A& 0-~+3i L~s.~+L u ;+iY L - ~ ~ ~ L ~ L ~ I ji 6+&!w LI &+ * L ~ I wl $&j ' y w ~GWI-141g ji ,JNI - .L...J>~~l+i,~+s19' J.2 &9 'automatic anxiety J ~ I&Jl - i -Lo ~ - ' 3 i 3 L ~ 9 - @ - $+ ibl2L,-Qsi L~JL;-~+-.L! ~ ~ I b ) q ~ L ; j . ~ ' ; ~ w ~ l l- l Y l C W L9l ~ k d4)- +I i)l Yl L+l. lip3 'kl+sl+ 4?i;l yj'4231ejg L ; ~ I&A *I2 p 1 9 2 j U I- ji J+UI w b w,:....- & d l- &+~ 9 9 - 2 L & U I i d - 4 1 4ib ,aGJ,i 41oJ- ego- L ~ I &&*&ir;,9 'anxiety J& & L ~ Ih n l i+ A ~ ~ L ~ L &JI L - ~.GLG I+ 3 ~ ; ; ~b ~ i de4g+4i93ji~l+;:iu- - &+J1++Tt&+&&LCw signal d J L Y l- JiJl?! A..>+L= b& &L &dl- ,d2ix;ll- ji anxiety LL+L'W~UI j i d + + ~ l b bCL+j .A1$1 ? 2 L 4 I ' 5 4 C C l C &I jl 'L'd d+ &* (j rJ-1 &Jl a-91 - ~ ; 3&1-;-0L'YJ t~ .Lt&&4 - L 4 2 U I J;r+J1pslfiZO~11-.;11;J33 &I & L dig,+$I j&hl ,oral anxiety dgakfl- +Ji)c i)$@ pi3' L J ILA gi ++ - JGYI &J+i {Yl &c 2 U Y I +z L U I& L!alk.91&j . ~ W I.. +I ~ L . ~ J I ~ y .fa: . Y XL+ d ~ k h i . ~ i,dg .{all ~L;Ycg.4JAII abi ~ l g,UI~c*y &&I3- i,-4* 'rejective mothers ulNL l 2 ~ L A ~ ~ I'dui i WI+J+jk+-+ j - .-
  • 165. 1 9 ~ 1 1' i i-.., J- & i l l 3 .persecutory a d ~ L g ~ Y 1- ;pb& 4~hysterical a. 6-1.. S @ 4 d I- +4J3LL!lfL5jJ+I 7L r J l ~ l & ~ l . ~ I d L J I A ~ l -5 3 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ + 3 + x i d l ;qL+ A d ' LL- . - . .&+ ,; ; , ,LSW3i3i'4: 1 1 4 . - $JL; G+ Jr &i+&I_JI- &+I TJ- p @ j LA* ~ J u ~ ~ l ~ p U h a i ~ a g . o ( l ~ u ~ u l L~'&+~rs,#&+;& ~ 4 ; iWI j W I $ill yI 5 .LC- OJGY- $ill +L&S;; L9,spontaneous a. 1 ; .anticipatory a. ++dl '+I G L L I +I9-) 3&"&+I- -4-1 C J I J L ~ I.)>Zj. -444; 3++ $14~ ~ ~ j g'uJci U l " l & b + A + l ( ~ & G ~- . .-Gj,sexual a. Ct-+&+ll&iLl ;iLu- $13 pa &I3 ++t$3ipLLUj &--&I ,u;Y&& -+&jI (J* t o- d l b e ,%+I+ JLAlj ~ j ~ bz3,LbiF ~ ~ 3L b i
  • 166. 1 C L L i &I d l 1b&+j pJ+- - .age of anxiety Sartre: L'Etre et le Neant. - Rank, Otto: The Trauma of Birth. - Kiergaard: The Concept of Dead. - Freud: The Problem of Anxiety. - May, R.: The Meaning of Anxiety. - Eysenck, H. J.: The Dynamics of - Anxiety and Hysteria. ~ L , G GIJ kJ3.+:~ L Y o h &u GIg, L L u ! d;j& & +3iWL - J ~ ' ~ - +I+;~I .&,I41 o b J 0 d ~ ; d lk r J 9 .+L ti;&g+-Jl+J' p+ d j 5 3 w&* d l 6 9 1 439 99x11 o b & o ~ . , r;i;=LL4&,~y&~~. . S J L ~LL+3I j b & I 4 I Li+.&d+~ l b e i j 9 4 Y - L ~ ~ --1(L +-ZCjL]I ++ s3.&A A l pJ L b 1 ' L $ L ' w ~ ~h4 &a314j&+ U L L J 3 kG3.'& ijK .'&j4244, i(ski3L d i i . @W13 ~ i 2 ; 1 + u 1 ; j i ~ ~ - A 0 7 ) Freud A,...+ J++L .existentialists &~*41 ~59-( 9Y0 +3 L J i L c S & c4guhll-i3 Q&-J1 pU-"b j x +esjLm existential ~ ~ - 4 l&ill3 .b-l- ,. d W I wk $ 3 9 anxiety F 4 . ~ 9 3r p 4;L OJ-~ r q ? I d ~ p d I Jb+u3LJ&Y &-+&&dl &I I*! qW9 .&ill &
  • 167. x+j b()J+Q &-1 jFQl wjG&9)tCLU;s3 dw +a&2LL9L - L l d I & L Y l L;LI>.. - S3b k L J & d L L JLL+a&-iL,j4 4 1 U L c P C , " vL&b$& dibl Yl L+iLll L&iiIl p -&UIs b ~ l ~ . . j i .. 'ubiL;++ b~ bj3.+y~4 . 4 ~ ~ &i9b ,&~klkb2 &l;",Yl JI - b L t 4 ; ~ ~ e ~ 9 ~ s 4 - i j p ~ - l i j i ; r i j ~ , , a , ~ * ~ c j+d i g b'k~jbi b ~ ~ j ~ ~ + L J ~ L ; Y ~ & , c ; L L ~- - @ . V C , " bl Y! be+3e ~ ' S ~ ~J L ~ d+I L i b & L a & & L y &a 3pl b 2 p J I 6-J p - J I ji ' - .&+YL 4 s b C k ~ p l lJ! G ~ . Jbj&..dl$l$I O J J ~ b p & u & L ; , A JlyL'& &aI@13 b e e ; L G 4 4 r c h 2 L W & i l l wllrl ;w c3.egl b+% Y 'd J S L pdely egl 2L-4 (elk&?9 gi.: 2 egji .ub'$&a3 b t ; L JS+ ;trh+projection & L Y l '&A3 L;ib9.. i~LjL *& iji+5u&+-w ~ $ 1 Lgr ..L J ~ i juLg,-9 b 1;,..$ L J L L @ % + J & L i j L L ~ '&&! a j w l h I 9 2 4b G 3 d ! L$I+ +++I +ji & k ~ i4 -I .;II+ji2 + - ~ ~ ji plWl(J-4 ISIL+~&b',2%Ll- 6 5 p2 L I C > u Ij l & j U I.. ~ ~ J bb ~ + 1 +IJ+JIJ&di J+ (jL & U l + +I L++6 Oi+6 ~ ~ d i ~ + Q ~- JAJI a b Y 5 i % i & j ~- ~ ~ ~ ; ; L ! ~ ~ I ~ 5 -12 L I j L - - &+UIj ,41+l 6bbdi@ ybIJSL! J4k) h-Lir Lz&a ,i <UI + BL;LZU Y +3i6 9ji '-.....7 .ell9 Y- J~~?.G+~~JJ;~LL+YI e'irc;9~~s~bsSS!&.il'pJ!*+ L;;-& &.ill J! ++j & L Y l LLIp *j L G I d l jjj F L & ~ J ~b - U li)a+#I $I
  • 168. & L y l.. cwlpL.3 .b -2 .+I- *I p a L k . $Lii~i;L.~-i&&LYl .. 41.. q l h w ' d ! & l J ~ Y l j&u J3A13,ink b l o t ~ ~ ~ - l l& &A & d l3 ambiguous pictures incomplete sentences U U l +dl3 LP. drawing & L Y l PYJ13 .. L I J J ~ ~ I3 I p. play & L Y l.. ++I + ~ ila3,psychodrama J$id &I+ *+I +*L& ~ b ~ + r ~,LLIG+A CilrlJAj b 2 1 3 J i)rg 64 ;1 a^-.. l " - & C 31 -L,,&!l ~ L c j i ' J& Y U l j $Is +(d$1 4j4;J9 ,&+dl c)Wl i&,a+j .t&Yl C A-. G~JI- ,+I Li,i- a&d3al;.l*uu:~l+l & L &rkky1i;k ,&bLyl F ~ 3J ~ i+ +&lJ a & ~*% +I Jp T4 UL 3ic a ~ + y ~ g l 3 i L u ~ ~ ~ ~ + ~ + ,i .&,G J I ~L A 9 4 1 192 ,ii,~&Y 2 3 +L;,b3& , ~ ~' U S b3J3--&!2 p4&= b e 2 d p d e"Lb3J+-2 (4b3jgLLL (4 LUS +9 1 b + +s3, & I ~ I ~ I by=> ~ g r 3 J J k(eg;ib3-++ p&b9 l n l n l LCJ . ..j3' LpaY - ~ ip b9-- 3i, ~t ~ii j 2 ~ ~pig .-I+ 5 Y ~icj'b43L=U2~bbg.;.~ J >I3A- 3 ,-&A 1 3 U . LIQ~LLL$h L&- 6 b J L I b~ - Q S ~ +J.JI b 9 1O L ~ ~ + & Y C pY- dl3 p4 39- ee;i p& J ~ h be"C?4+?2+?3+?2 -A &+I J& +lFi dh3,((pel;ni j i ; r l s pl&l +d 3- L d e l ~ ~ i o n s&lFlJB-ll >JL]I- tsJl + ,sL""U G a l l . & L Y l &LC$1;;+j 6 jlJB-ll hip. therapy & L Y l- cKr113 b4 J;JI Lj& aIJL;;Y13 Lj$L '+"dl- ~ p .technique and tests & b L Y l ;JF & ? ? 3~~1 - 1 -iJgr 4
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  • 170. I ) Yale group & LL+$9 - 9 - ~ 4 Y 4 d p l L & ! p & & W - & L Y l + +. L-ll .( ; d l frustration-aggression ; r j d 2&LY. 5 Li,jpJ 14hypothesis .Cr;-lI- 4 d 1 3 dJ!+Jg? V C &I+ +a & I 9d 1 3 d ! 3 ~ 9dl3 .-,.,gp+ LLI. C &&i A- frustration- w+l -& L Y l + >. 5 l-419 U C dl pj31?+ regression hypothesis $3: d l JJ.~4f &A &L%. C &@";.+@lyyy~Y'& r ,:+I A> j i ; ~ J~-LJI pjJU~K 4~ I A K - LLYI- C $9 'L+i &b9.wg& frustration-fixation hypothesis -1 diJ!.+I -I -41pu ~ ~ ' U , . e b ; ~ l d + l J & '&+I L Jid d+1 lL4ra & J l S -.;I"" G J ! A L'E~ +Y3 '-1 JJ)-Q~-w~u p d l 4L1w&-u9'&I -. I L i)C cp+I .guidance -ill 4&A& k! frustration& L Y l, C ~1";-l 3 &ill3 >$ill& J L t , Y l ptolerance eI&!+ j-l &i)L;;+hUl
  • 171. -lJJ r-j. J~YILI L~git LP+~>i+ipp~J+~Jalfz.y~ LiJFJS&Jakyl ;4- j-1 + e &+ le;4 ;CuLi“,Yl-. . d p L g ?.+ ji ++ JjJJ &+L!$L&u& JG'd! I~LLYI. . ~ a ~ iw9.GI~UII 0 ~ 3 1 ~ ,obstacle-dominance +&A s . + ~ ~ ~~OL;;YI- @++ &i- L3L L J S L A J l 2 4 1 &kxlL&p+ LfLe? ,need-persistence Lml t m ! &UI;.,I -4 ;ji d! JjL9,&I@$e'e'e'y,.82Y -1 3 .&LW+l. C W & r - &Jl >I C L !+ & L ' d l @. < d 1 3 d ! +J a1j JI L.5 'extrapunitive aggression Lb ,intropunitive aggression w-iAII J3& L d G9Y Lu,(~ljuJI(Jj& GljuJIcG3L Q;9&-i)i +La+ .&dl 2 &j+Il ( j g ~ - Dollard and Miller et al: - Frustration and Aggression. 1 ~ b L - 44e~jJji +u- J a L ' d l. JL4i51j. J& J1* &;d t k Y I- % j 6 4 1- J* dlJ9+ >Z j j + &J&&'d9 al.& .:a11 L L G 3 dl &+ +I ji J b Y l I L ~ j r b - t k w. F -*MI c W ! L&~s.@ I;U-ss-l;s- . -- I 3i A ~~41- .GWl >L- -. J3-t! LLYi'dl• c J-1 j Rozenzweig picture-eUjjsf t+4;4i. . & L I + .J L Ic frustration test- t + j . ~ r r ~ ~ i ; , ~ ~ c u &&+JJ - ,~i5LLi& L + & L l $ J Js '+JY&JUJI rP-4;,L w dj,+ &I, g &+&-I & LcbL+$l +I3 $MI 9i,=Uekddl o L j L , ~ . i J 1 3 ~ l p a ,- jU13- Jgk? ~ $ 1 ~' c b L d l. F d d s - . ~ 3 L ,+I &. " cpjp.-llj L.&++tJ J+L!lJ&++ +L!Ja+dl~2_PQfl~.~g;dld+ jLJ.ego-blocking L;'W j+l tgl 'Ql!9+- Lj & +G4 4=Lg &3 ' ~ - ~ &YJ 9&i2"$L+ I $1superego-&=;dl &j+ t 4'j~ LL. . (J&;K iblocking
  • 172. & k&$+l j + + A + j L L J . . .&I$! +i,L&fl- - j- f i l J k * d l & 4 j discrimination of size test ?+Ll C 5 9 .I$ ,L?~;I~.+-L j~ ji &= & I ~ L J J picture parts test ij+l & -iri fl+l &j L ' 5 J ,i .J+I 9iJF+l .&51& + J U ~J ~ ~ j.bw-iri A 41 ;1& picture completion test ij@l f13 - ~ & & ~ ~ ~ - i dot &id&?>I jL?l;Ij .LgzI+! A Uf i + drawing test pl+l,s~ ++A F LilJL9l.. &pu Pinter-Cunningham Primary Test LLiLLLYl 11Mp7LL&+ al,&cYl -j &4 .Cug A 4 Y Y Yj A q I ~ Y I&dellJ L L +d+!L &)Ul f i ! j b Y I &> 4fj L L S L = + ~ ++k &i+La & ~ ~ J ~ Jb~• c :J& alJ&. c .ku, common test &LL]l L U l hi +& A observation i)l+ .;-j L j W I .&91& +& ;IK I ~ I. h;+&il jL,;;I + :j h l j- .& L;d19LA3+ aesthetic +-?-!I sj+l dIJ2! + differences test +..J + J ~ ~ A x ' ~ ~ + I :&wlj.*$I hiJ*u di6 IL;~I J+l &+r;$4 associated objects test
  • 173. 5 .Bender Motor Visual Gestalt (($41&&bl c p 9 ~ ! l++LL2 Test d b k p Z &a j k ' d l i,+~ JLL~,~--JKAII~~I- +&a- I 4-ii ~PJI+ 'ALL? Ljb-9.. &I *&i+ b&I 9 I j ~ y ~&+jk&'-.IL. II- .+A' La~~rettaBenderJL,,-7, ~ L k n&.33j&YI $IL( 1 4 ~ 0 ) & &Lt+ j&*dl &a .c~&J+! d 9bi J! i ) ? ~ ~ d ~ 3JLL;~I J L L ) +ja &id 41 -cgj,~i& ' J A Z ~ &is ..~gr;dI +.CLJ;~I 61,iJ j u cp+ LLI,ilbLQI +J ' .zJsi!l+d - " ~ P &;,Kc jl?;;YI C&-J +.J&tl@ & +, Y C ; r ' , L L + d I ~ I ~ I * ~ Q! 9 &di&&+ +18dl J P ~++ iku... LIU19 "It,:8fo?'u F 9 Lo+ *j *I;- bl ku! :&P Encyclopedia of Psychology.- Search Press. - 7 - ..,I U )&) ,*;{I . c Bender Gestalt Test
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  • 175. 4 3 L - S Z ~ L i + a a & l ~ i + ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ f l ~ n ~ ~ ~ ' s ~ U Y ~ ~ l : , 5L - i WI ++ -SZI J-43 . iJAII b3.+~(-LL~AWIJ9 - &bjk;G&IJ;U 4s h ~- p 4 t * L + G Y L & - + s L J I ; i ~ l- LJS L- 3i'++I ' a L L L Y 1 pA l l a Y L p0 L L A - - s L ~ I + j ~ y ~ L b ~ U j g .-&)kfl aLL;LUYl. . 6 9 4fiIJ&Y 3hs3 pi-i+ . & L , , ~ ~ ~ L W I- ,,,di3'@+ &Ll?;wYl & I d ! ~I~LL;;Y ~ ; Y I " I - free p alJLi;l LgrL. i W I-- alJl+l &JL 'association tests $1 controlled a. ts. &I - forced dJ-1l- j&YI &e+Li Thurston 3-9 LL 'choice Homographic Free Association Test d~ revolution U S 'm. 90T L C i,l &h&&iu'dl jw cp+l .upheaval3i turning-round b+ ,LiUl L+L+ i , I ~ f 1 3 AUI ;;i. ~ L L ~ ; I+ .LI+.A i j L I ~ 2 ~-3 'up&L-+.dl +>*I dib~ ijmi3 L J - 1 & 4 , . b 3- - 'Lj+ .3YJ a1:,L.@$ &3 o j s ? j @IL jL;;!GILJ Rapport-Gill-SchaferAssociation 93k3 &a&&! iiU+-+Test GusLgrii,~i,iLe2ilu~> .- 2 1 t . .aL1- LhL> &;ixLmJIp ~ 3 3 9AuJ&w3 '2*!l a b & 3 d l &&I- a1j&Id1 tl+l &LJI ijL;Y13 OL Li31. J.L+ . ~ Y - J I ^ e J L a L L I. . i,& A3 ilL&Yl il~k~3ia3h3q L&Jk+ . . +jJ -+.'&a4'&LA +'J&L l j g A c,'WIJ3Jj .& ;icF3 e ~ l *A aLl+l+ a&lLiJI 61% ~ C ~ ~ 3 i * ~ . ;.. - @ I d .. (%'+ *.@Id1 &Ldihsgi ~ J - L ~ I ~-. &&I &.. .!A!g -&-I4 b+ d3.i,# I&.. ~ ~ - 1 19 5322 J.33. G - 3 - 2 ~ ~i l & l d L
  • 176. tg.dpJl p& &ii5. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) @ 'projective test & L l- J&! &I dJ&&Y! ka& ~~~l~ ' 2 .A& dill L I J ~?J I 7 ,,; dLcI+13 ; L L I l ;LLhYI ;)r ,i - ,i LI+I t~g;i3 g'J9e---';..J G " 9 .$43&fI &I>* ,Murray-Morgan dbJy3 J>Jbktal?J -&dl zJWL0 J l k pjc ~ L l lLLUi +3 , 9YO Lal+ij ~ I J W I~ ~ 1 3 J ~P . ~ G ~ l +?g3.bi,~,>ig -I GI+ L L t jF pLZ JL J&Y~ l&LF.. L Goodenough FreeAssociation Test 1LAa,,,,- L)Y_g!~ ,l arrow ,i +h~- 4 j ~ g z , b g s j ~ & ~ 1 f+JWl&l d i &L9' Z J ~ d I- , 9 tY L Foley MacMillan dY+5L3 L Munsterbergci-y ~ 6 1 3 Jung, C. G.: Studies in Word- Association. E. A. Esper: A History of Psychology.- Foley, J. P.: The Use of the Free - Association Technique in the Investigationof the Stimulus Value of Trade Names. Foley and Z. L. MacMillan: Free- Association as Related to Differences in Professional Training.
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  • 178. L+ J&$I JL;>-, 1* ;,dl>S3 a* J.,+ . . ~ $ l & &WI3 ' L 4 1 i.hZ,L 6&dl+l13 J L t I aL)CLJ13 dJjs3.cI+F;'dl U3rhljd13 C +. j u r I 4 41 +- ' ~ L I ~ A I+JL J* +4sdi 5 9~ h 4LWI +J-91 Li La & 3L. '2-41 J+ i?!:lt;lul >i . J ~ ~ ~I L ~ + -k ~ # h j : l t : ~ ~ ~ J k . J + j i ! k J & a J b js* L L U ~r a ~ ~ 4 ~ u i ~ I Q I+9- iJ&. Hurvich J+ +i 'CAT-H y! d_LL i j L Y l d K p2 +j .&I +J&$ Human LJQ i J ~ ~ H 9444-J- C J p 4 p & J J ~ I + ' i & e ~ , .&I +J&tI ;ra4LW J Laij &+JL;JI J X ; . & 4 a : a . n ? .& p- 6 ~ckb'w~JLLYI .a ~ ~ ~ . &dlj- '2- ;42Jj LWI ~)LL!+I cUI &'&Iu+, (-JE ir,J G ' d I i,+~. h e&& 'dl! cy>JgO dbLkJ& W C W J& r u(J! Y! lfl-! J- i)4 J+~ b+ c g ~ ~ J . 4 PO;& ; 4 e % h K ek;. J j , 4 ~ 9 l&;dl tLidI 9- racial ?LL~ racial 2+ J-d--. I i2;. JF Y C ' (J! d&I (QIJj .discrimination &>.. j & L l & + w $ ~ a ( i l l-. C W Jzl d l dl ';;+LJ i;LZ&l L A +$I Jkt. I bj2i'J&'W +d~ aLi Symonds jLj-1 U l - ;;~grafl J & - I '+I+ Picture-Story Test Children's J~kb'u-A! G. dm CAT) Apperception Test J&j ' (Bellak and S. S. Bellak .Michigan PictureTest J+J cj& d%jj4- +JL;;I &j @ -14 ry2 Jydd+i.&uI pzLu'.lJ . & h I p d I j ~ h I p d aL141J ~ OCAT a K J&$I J&! FA J&$I Lidscr .,WI ;,L+ ~L;I+I p- w-i lj2 hiidJ+J L-23 J-2&Aj ',W ++i &Igo 2- J k Y b9- ~jj+
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  • 181. j+lI& GSLII c &I<, ;,iIiyi .. Culture-Free IntelligenceTest (IPAT-C-F-I) aljL;;I t+ 9;;,,EL,-I pencil and paper type +I3 X i d l ;i'w 532 L-.. c r ~ jY 'tests GOL r~j-1 k3 e ~ k j &i,- +2. L -MI AL+L d$l ,rLtl- pj- ((Cattle3;LS)) W C &&I dir $La ,+YI (jl &&J Y + U ~ I51wI!L+ ;l- J~pi& GLWI~I,J! I,G GL,~P.. IWL+I i d lkj3.IJAI ;,,LjL,Ld ' , k Y I "-I! . . ;i ,b ;L, fl - , ,I' ."; -; -. (j-4 JIG$!- -1 I b 2U & '&I ,&YI -2 .')~iq& & ~ f 3- Illinois &+I- C -; .- ,"I ,& & '3;U '+p (ju+( mv) ' d i -I l P A T W U Ir - J dj3 G X &4 ,-YI 59% .&'
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  • 183. kJw1s 3 4 & pJ J!GLYLC . GP! pJ -41 $ 2 u ' d 1 3 & C b + Y I a w l 3 J& hfi3 1 6 (OUJ Lux3&&>I K. +pl;L J3LJ3g .C)PJ&! (P Woman Scale i i d ! p~JL'. C F3 w-ll l h hi Machover pJJ+ @ J& +b.[& V I , 1 J&Yl ' - Y I ~ ~.Man Scale &&IDraw- +:p~J . GI3+,xi.... 1'-II A kZu .A-Person Test .Self Scale 6p x +k G~JiJ-U LLI + ALI C .J~~ QI-I J+~;;4 +j3. JU'W c+9L~~+wLi;c;U b5 .a .-- .:.I I . . += 6 d a - j +&Jl+-;1I += ,J&LU &+L + + d l & d l 3 .+uL .'i3$;. ; r ~L~r ~ l J ~ 310- L L Y I ~ ~ + , ~ ~ J I(P r - ik;j. ~ i e.body imag +=4 ~ ~ 3+ +, (P .&I_)-QIl d i i 4 Goodenough, F. L.: Measurement of - ICfl 4 3 L o l ~ ~ Y lJ G Y Ji-4 .Z:C: Intelligence by Drawings. ~K,41Jla l J 6 l J J + ~ Rorschach Inkblot Test I ‘d3.+- L LiJb&. L A J d L e O*!&LI - C .J-! C L;;YI Li31.iJk~i9dj5 Y J -
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  • 187. L-LJI 1sj W Y l ,@I;; 0 ~ i ~ ~ d + i 9.++I AI~L?;;W alJ&YI J+Gy2. W u ! W F F 61+IJ+a3& d i j j- LCakU1,ak+ aIJL?;;Y!1 6 &lmJ 4 l akl drive- &I1 irkF3% & F JL +FJS &LSUJIvectors 5 +A1+- yiA&A&&L."Lul- - && bc YJ I I S-vector - - W L + J J I ; J y J L j j ' p .'% q~wk++I i .;~+LLII +dl -U L. .+-+I ZJF J-i3 bL;-xf13;is41'JI + b t $ L F F 4 i C e A3& ~ 1 3 ~ ~ 9 j ~ ~ +dl9 G)LJK &p&,&I 9- ++I Z J ?-9 *p'11 x 9+*41Uk @.)-&2 & - & ! 9 d &3 & $ J 4 j w j ~ 3laJl+U + .+g &-LdyJ19 & a L 1 4 ~ - f l 6 ++I &9 LZ?,LJI- . G W I a k p J l j- c]I - &LII +i,+~ &T.vector & Sch-vector j ++9 & &2&tl 9 L;yWl-*LJl (J-4 i,9L3
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  • 191. .j ~ ~ ' a r ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~- id^- - +:+ +:+ +:+ Y j ' k J ba b L d I 9 ." L+lJJ1 &u& b b J k I *% :&P Pl; jUJkCw-43 : Z p k Porteus. S.: The Porteus Maze Test - +,IJ -+JL;;W & and Intelligence. hi~)o+I+&A L ~ ~ & + + Porteus, S.: The Validity of the - '-am &+de- Porteus Maze. Y hi & ;lejlj ' & d l (P h)a&gs4d )LaF &++&I,,,++, Progressive Matrices Test bhL-9.~&LLI >I bIi-11- L ( 9i0- A7Y ) Spearman rjLS-Y 4 s p&iz3'$.dl A3“h&d13- a b u ~ I J J ~43+!.hi.!..) ZIu9 14- 2 . .fl 1 !I i l l J G Y !
  • 192. Raven, J. C.: Guide to the Standard - Progressive Matrices. - j L - 4-9 ~ 4 p b>L;;i! Wiggly-block Test *:* *:* *:*
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  • 194. + +* identification: J~-+N+L+J+~ + + + L ' & L g L Q & + & J a L & 4 &&A!j W 1 g !aL+! i)a + pictorial associations: J~AI! 'jk,,, LeLo JS ,J+I+ &;i~. +++pi ,uLij+'jUSg L+> iJF~ J WGjF paper &dl j L ; l 1 3 t+j+L.. +h3&sf1 + $2 +* folding: G u ; r 4 ~ + - d i ~ ~ ~ L + ~ d2-!I- 0L;;Yl dJ-4 j 4 1 g + JJS +* visual attention span: ~JY~-LL++(Q~,*J~YJI & LL+AJ+,~,&+I . .5,i ++F J~~ -- block patterns: ~l+C.dI il+13 ,+LCi+aLdL+e EjL&&&@,@a- JUI C .JL;;I~ !& aim~ dWL + ~ f icompletion of drawings: .itle-..p.iJr,,ydI;,k* s j s J I J u ! d i _ L O L L d L memory ?b;Yl ;$I j il+19 , d U I C J~kdll+.3~1+ ‘jl &&dl- d_)l;ill &dl +I3 .krjd&?%I- (L.A.) b ~ f ~- 41_)+YI 0- &b 'jUIi! 'learning age bi dj +,~(P;w 41- @ ++ 'ji A L ,lJi J J ~ +LLAI - G ~ d lL+yi s o w +-1 (P'j)p~i?j&Y13 ~gir& ~ Y IGm [JL;;I ;;-rg LipLLJI +& U I JU~CI C L L a+ d b ! +JUX~i+Yl 01 5 'j!djb-~3 L;+ G u l &b -I-Z &+a j L . < z x LL.IL~A :JuL$.. dlJ&Y! 0 b 3 .jk$$ 41;4- &3. bead stringing: jpdl + j+ +rJu p ~ ,'jiJAII + &&a&J~$lchl;;~.+'js-kfl memory &+I r&Ql j j j g : L L L LqL.EjCh + ~ f ifor colored objects: &A+& @ LP+l J&ll& 'j149l OL J! &+b 9s j&13 : b ~ ib9-+&+ A pictorial J>- bL+ r I I
  • 195. -&+I p + W j l B a f l g ' + + J I.. .. .. biu,L,.UI~ G J I ~ Y I5 ~ - 1 ~ ~ 1- 1;'A3.&L!J!&~~!-. $L! * J y pJ G I wwl 5 A i Nl 3 u ! +,B-A -,;: h b S-T. W J ~ !p i 'L-M +,,+A! w ~ ib~ a~Jb~ J ~ I1 ~ sL+ LguI-. &L?_)Yl + L A ! & pi 5 9 .-,l;ul L+I +iwCrm;+-. irk L U p a L B j ga % L 3,&pat- ~ L J J&j uLJ2 aLbk*d13 w~lJall&- & l J J 2 1 4 ~ L i l i Y l + ~ 9 ,up& t l t , ~ ~ a ~ i41.. k! ,;;)LIL a ~ J ~V~ L,-- (~;i J~~ J! A L ~ Y J I+9~>i 629!JG~JS d+&, &L L-GkdJGb)2- l u &,power test ;+ill dlJ&! + -39 .&w LA!J k ! - .-A ,- aIj@'d a k j d ! '&j+a w l L&tj+ a: . . . A .. o h sirlJI. i l l J k l Lj. ' ~ ! ~ i c l5 J 9LF +* of digits:L $1 L $1 & A++ 'iI ...~J..;4 J !L& *is3 c & L h i l + + U l puzzle :;&I a w l aIJ&I9 9&b&J.- cjle; blocks- LLa b + L t i d I j&Ij !ZJ* a . + pictorial analogies: ;J+! '6& * k i d ! J+l &lk-.. L g i r j l i j U J j + l ~ ~ C c . ( P : s J + l z J ~ .+WI k- &l&i&LL-;l.Qfl - w - ~ J ~ lL~IJI&~L~ILilJ&l5 Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) ~ ~ 2 + - ~ ~,Bennet '-I:; l l L $- . 4 tV -&Wesman ~ L > J ~,Seashore J ~ J Y !a Y k &J&! 5 L G--
  • 196. &IE ,@(J&UI &,+'dl G U I GUXJI JL;;~irWl G K l J l JW &bS d-;s C~~ space relation: b' ~ 3 = ~ = lA 9 &* 4J3 & 5 JkLLl-&;,;,,L -. &+I SJs-f! m '5dI J w ' d I j .dl,, &C u +I G&Q y A ijA J 3 '@' J+l &A += & W 1 3 M W I Jkig &P :&&-dl- J Y L L Y l jL;;Ij !pG3 JU;~ +i?&is mechanical reasoning +W+~ Jliju.*& a~3Ji3 4;lYJ3 iCe4II &.A 'i,&A &+ &-dl3 aLJd&- z & J l & , j zJw&' G k & u i - MuA- &+I ,,+Ij k c u j clerical speed and :LX-. Gd3 @ L&l J& 9 3 accuracy &- &&Vl Lpu4, ' L A +LL- 'a+++ I ~ J ~ IJL~I JGYI L~ +ALL., 'LJP3TJ~&i t i + J J ~ J$ j i 1 1 9 &s;Q L + -LJJsrL+A9;t! GYYJ a 9 -
  • 197. - ) A - L h L g l.. 5 &lJIAgl Projective Tests 3L&& ' 2 4 fijk&.. a+! ~ L e Y l + ~ + l L g l S ;r .ssg,u A j dhl?jlj o F ~ j +j&Yl ZJL.3 f dl+&! i,+ b k ,unstructured .elIJ- .* ji UL fjF O- bA SL) did99~j ~Y]L;~Iji z+I,, v!fi~,lt;i~~ projective techniques or + b L Y l oLs;;. bidLUj methods '-,I ,: {ji,, ; ;;f -+jL;-'dlL - 3 ~ 9 1 , )c%13 .wW13j d l j zp J ~ Y~ L I + - SSI ji Y S Y o b b l 4dl q Y q L L. K. Frank - -~n t I - -.1^-#11 +$I ;,c;LS '++;dl p,Lh,ol* d:,'@;, -&j- t b j ~d L . 9 dKj ,?13 s L +J& g e Herman Rorschach Bennet, G. K., Seashore, H. G. and - Wesman, A. G.: Differential Aptitude Tests. + *:*
  • 198. -+513k ink-blots+! + - l ' 9 L j,/I &dl ij1331 - Alfred Binet ++i hU3 L I J ~ & d j j A + b-.. I=' L -++13 .,I+~I, JMI & b c W ;i=l,,+WI +I iyG I='+ GLLI,. . ,lssi +I 3j+~;JI- L..,'wLill +9 4 - 1 & M I .pa+!..,63 L iyG 4;1%..,L3 4;1+ A iSjJ114l j k Y l ~ J L&i3 - 0 . " ~ ~ ~ . . ~ *1J! i_;rld! 'hL& raLL;LuY!. . G%JLJ Y L + ~ ~ ~ln- . . -+ .+& '&dl I h 3 ' 4 i ~ 3 cu'& - u l & 4ir Cf9 L 1 9 & I ~ ~ & ~ - Y ' J !- L J L Y !- . a ! J L ' d ! &4 !b r s ~+ Lj2id3.I:.---. &.,A 4ji S+I 3i a b Y 3 L ~ 1 3 ~ ~LLGa & k ~ ~;?95; di'-;--..,.-i+ wpidl 2-4 '3332 )49 ;ic+ +3 +ag~-ii... I dJ+b5 c p 3 d l IL bi ;I,p a+
  • 199. ~.1&++ij L J b ~ ~PLZ++j -laill i ~ i. d ~ ~ ~ ~. . J.c Lyndzey djli,J +- j+d c ~ a:%4i3,++YI ikhrvLi associative -1 d l d ~ i... ji cp+I b3,techniques 3+ ji zJF9j u sjji F ~ b I - 5 :mi+j,414 A i+ Word Association Tests ijklSJl +A - Rorschach +I $tkJjJ~ & i A l ) ) ~ ji ~ L L I:L;Ld h j !Inkblot test a ; C: 11 ji a ::I ; :I I ~ ~ ~ ~ i,+Lkzj ,construction procedures ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ i ~ +J ~ l l. 5 ~d;+~i+3 ,LUL +LL Thematic Apperception Tests t94Qtl Make a rJ- L A hjl,,(TAT) ji ji WJL~. .. : h ~dL;Lbj !picture story g~,completion tasks U&JI Jki ,i *kkS;p9>;1,f l &I au,,_ ~ . e ~ j . ~ ~ i+j,-LA L~JJ3)),Sentence Completion eLAjj.4J+! Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study
  • 200. 0 J k & & k 1 9-. z J ~ ~ ~- WI + l k ~y*9 ,i4 c - - 2 ;lJi l b & +I3 . y b L Y l ,I - .. 6 .. LCP+~ 4i -l-4 4J G - Y l --wbJ +&+$1 ++I &3 LbJ* Y L b L ; 4 L l JS '+us3 .i.&L;-Yl ts" &'J&L b o ' JI i((~ + + I ~ ~ ~ ! ) ) J C L L . , . , - L 6- LJ..d 2 Z&4 - d 3 L ! Ii j I + 1 2 L i l 3 - l z l A ;+33 G ~ ! ~ ~ Y I ~bba13--I3 02+i &b ~ & j.&id dL;lb9.Oyrk; J&L4 L ( ( G ~ ! ) )t&(JA f i ! J k y I (JA 41 jL& U I ZJ+I jw!))&A P~~ 'Symonds Picture-Story Test ~ i . ' L k a l ~ ~-.+I9 W ' L ~ J Children JU'W p . . t l J&I~)) d)CLLLf-. Apperception Test (CAT) J-3,) 'Bellak and Bellak 4XL3 G. C. + A Blacky Picturesd& - JF J3A3 &J~GJU~Q,,'slum ~ 4 1 . d+3 .GGG~ 4441UIS6 .- Make a Test ZJ+I -1 J&I)) -1 o J ~ !d l G b Y L. d ~ i:'I+lJ 4 b 3:J~+~u3 choice or ordering --$dl dl ZJGICP+I i,o+Uii3,devices i+ GX+ZJI +3i,,+I dJ;9j- J k l l. mi+3 , ~ J L U ~+L ~41-9 J U I3))'Szondi Test Tomkins-Horn Picture b ~ p j+L+! :+LA! 3 :Arrangement Test a+++a~ 3 4 13i++JLLI p,,,bJ ;$&,., 'expressive methods j w I- +L3CP+~ ++i I- I))Figure J ~ t IYJJ J+l e-JJ"13)) ,Drawing Test House - Tree - 4 13 ZJ-7~ll 3 c 4 j L Y l 4 13)),Person Test -4 j f o ~ ;fl L l J d l j ) , ,Projective Play .Psychodrama +;i - (<tLLJ9s-flJWl3)).. ++i3i-+A- GL~If i ~ J w ~ ~ ',iLdb f J L + A pdj&Lq.. 3i GI~L~;.I p . ;7 . . . A I .. i' I ',LC t&L"J., L ~ + 9 i l l J l ~ Y I - . .4 1 . A - ,:JI & I +?13 &L
  • 201. Schneidman b L + W Picture-Story cLsw- % $ e l L l j ~ ~ J L '--I d ~ i~ n i ~.b+~~- ' b ~&j@dl W S Y ,i +l;s b~ G L ~ Y IGI Y! j- ++i J-J k k ~ ;-h3 &3 ++.,.., +JlJ&bL4 4 . A & L I - w314+J! bCS3' i j U I +IJi- &l3i +I( 9 7- AO ) Ebbinghaus A 4 V L ++dl I L (P '&d19-&Ldl ijdf j ~ ; ; ~ubL 3j3ibK Payne 3~3-+ L+$ Payne 'i .-2 . .- 1 1 j k & K b-1 ,( ~ Y A )Sentence Completion Blank & h j b !5 Rodd J ~ J~ $ 3 es;LI, @bL;13+ U l J S L stein hL&96' ( 9 i 7 ) ~ J W I9 b & Y o j b !5 Y I h b l91us'(9iv) ++I+hid ++i .-+L ( ~ i v )LG ?UI I . 5 d j 3 3 ' ~ $ 1 l h >j b l. C &&I3 'Sachs -LJ &,dl U .Rotter and Welerman $ 9 ~ l j 1 - I A 3-
  • 202. ?ALdi+,++-.I a~3Ji3 L+ b ~ ~ 9 1 t 0 i y u 1 ~ ~ 1 ~ 1- -3L%+z+& LA&!+ L, +I,L, W,L" s3 oj- La -Lll J-+ .diJI dll;u Lag I ~ L J I2 4 1 o h +3,pfp.ll -wa*+ &jclcc,,L3bL& d9-k,1I i,di4,b&JLLk;13 L-;?,'l I h *i,&'J, p L t lt 0 J . -. 41- &A& UL] & 4- JLL% UL g- ~ i ,. ~ ; L P r h l- b- pGJ1~ ~ k i .bi j~~ gSki- di L L U ~2, 6J- i& 4 @I ; , L igjbJLL~Ia~ b JG~-3 i,fi;;K b & l J ~ I- e u I C C 'miniatures ;is- el du3.*ki+-A v- ci- a j L (World Test) e]WI jLG-1)) &4j b & b b ? , ' &A b-1 A3Lonfeld k t g L di jw9 - u%j3Charlotte Buhler P vkL,j w Y l I h - b & ~ i 3 o . &Ic i u l &4 41w+l 'J j u l .cj+ Y . . hi+ U J4,.-&'id1 BJWL&+I b? J!~ ~ y q.?A >iJJ! 9 3 * " l n & 'Jl aLLJ+.J ,:,<,- - " *I3 "I3 J g I yjj&I)) +LI (House-Tree-Person Test) w ~ 1 5g y44 ?% die+l di + ~i d~ +y3 &-G +i F j j L i ; l ~ Y 3 . y j L a. F JF + +&i, di s W u l +++-ji 4p--Jp 9 3 4 i 4 j 1 ~i 4 ~ !+y3 J ~ Y I41y ~ i t aIj&?,' +j .b+AI JF dlp YJ)) Levy &- j k l. C - d i S m))~ J ! 3 J b 1 3 LC(& u3 Wartegg Drawing Completion YJ))Harrower ,j[-rb JL;jl Form .g, , ~ l k - r l+i LI~A,41W]L z c LLK, @ L J b ; d l cLc JLU) &;I-?- ...A i l l P a*dLC T & l : l i 2- bl-bt fij+ U F 51~ p > i +.&..LI~I, J-91 JU~I 41- - ?IJ-&-YI . ...L - 1 ' - ~ + ~ r ~ & ! & j ~ ~ ~LUI, &o;~Ic i L j - j ~ 9 1
  • 203. ~ 3 'p&! (a-rl u l g l & 3% I iJ j~. 3 ~ 9 . ~ 9'auxiliary ego A C U I &4&3 G3. p e l y a 21- ,i ai;,.&i ;it:? UWI @I &4 J&dl ij+ Gj '+zL4 al.Luyl d& , a & L d & d l- aL,IJI 6-1 -1 a J k Y j , I ~ J ~ Iaji ,1~~9+.-G~ 1 w-k2 uoFz WJ ,a& Aj ' u I ~ I @I Js + d l Uiid!&I+ 3% $4 'ij+lj '+dl $'ijL++l &4 '+L13 '&JL&dl JSLZellj '2SWtlj - W l +j .&&.a ;i;U13 i j j ~Jsr, -1 L I j J I p l ~ l3~ J l ~ ~ , ~ 3 ; , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l (1 5 i"L ijI p,'&JL .j%&d9 ';jayuL.39bL+tl+ p s 9- -&, :L-,!l ;;-, 11 b;;,- di L ~ S-- -3 c , E n I r , l b w 1 9 ++A1I L A ~ ~ ~ ~. L & L e i l ~ l- 5 ' 4 3 4 J!EL+ Y & L Y I d+I *a& p&+ &I klL U S * ~ l ~ & y &( ~ 1y! '&I$ -
  • 204. GI~GY~ '5-i +, G J ~GJU ~2L-,: -~ L L I L L Y I j&YI J& ?&-j. 4 7 4 -&;*ill p- h+ zqb'dlLa& L.+A c p 3 - - z t 1 +&GU iijy JL;]I +L* +- . b ~ i41j e i n -LL- . Y- 4sj ~ ~ ~ 3,;t;e o &dl. . c yJ-,3 23433&;"9p+3L43+4+ Ju & L A Gl,L;I 4ir -93 .WJ &..Ip&J ;;&IJJ - 2 i u 1 4 2 1- JYl;Y13 .L&AJI p..+lkell 4 k b & ; j d i j iLU1liL&lj .GL&iJl bLi+ j&YI I L + & ~ $ ~ Otis Quick Scoring L-i .dl+i &%lF K A ! pL;;f Mental Ability Test a1931 JUL i cs+i - a~+- i + I A I i~j-2&!+I 4391;,- ~ c F U ~ ~ + 4 w U ~ ~ 9 j&SJI &&U J cs+d3 i'it4;Lll &I+ Cjge;l13.-MI.. e&fl &Ip 2- Otis Self administering Test of +QI &if j+l 9 Intelligence *:* *:* *:* :eb Frank, L. K.: Projective Methods for - the Study of Personality. Lindxey, G.: On the Classification of - Projective Techniques. Anastasi, A.: Psychological Testing. - .. Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test
  • 205. P=1 ~ + l I s ~ L k i i b ~ & 3 ~ I L'W &%J& L3+JdI .FJki3a+ a~~ &klP3 c> -':";fl+IJ+L-3 &ijJJ&Y DLJ.c educational age 3u-41 GJsfl u L&+ &LL&dI*-(P &.3XiJl -&lJ.d 241&&I L&C 'Li- +-4d33.1++;*L;it - educational quotient (E.Q) &+tidl c r " s J & l & & l y l I L +- - -1 +G3.chronological age achievement quotient (A.Q.) ;=tll,--;Jl achievement &-GI &I L+- .mental age &I +I &age & L Y L 1 ~ - 7JI ~ I J & Y ~ &+ - a++ L&Jjd! &- &91y~4& &JLB1b ~ 4 1 ~3~ &bWaJd3,&A + P +Lhfg r,&j i j l j k &5 w3 s3. a J d +;d+ jL+?(l & accomplishment 41 1 - - p " ; @ ' ) ~ l I -La .k :&P Dictionary of Behavioral Science.- Wolman. - f . - ;i,-l.... iilll;;idl Achievement Tests + .:* 0:. Lo zi 11-,--; 1l a!,-Y I*'::-i && &!I 4- - alJL1;Yh)L ~ ~ - & i d l ~.a18+& P P - . i ~ & d ! t $ I hz:l:,--y- ir.IJl+GYl p- LA L + L p A . 3-rj3 hJ3-kw 3 ~+43&'1 .kg3@- &l..&ill p u g bXL 3- t+g; i r . I j b Y I r b 2-3
  • 206. J L i l l. i)& i)iJ! dlg. &a w l-. pU1L J 2 .. 2194JIo h &Liz 5!+ ' S t ayiLj C +9_lr &A i)! fi3-&-u~lJ-Lf( - +~g;ia.A-- - ?I a J & ~ ~ J ~ Y I~ 4 4 1m3,~guu+-I ,-&-uJ!JS]a L w l + I 9 ~ g r iL+L a ~ J ~ ~ ~J~~ .LWI- - j.91 L r~ 3 t > *i J~L;;~ 2KJl .. by-al,L;I ipj.. kr4!gl YJL~Id~~ g- t ~ ~ ~ * j- LG+~ c ~ l u i j L +i)+ ~ r . 1-r !,4(j L Y l 3 4 3 J d j ' 4 J U&a- +ku jk13,LgL3J31.1 +,I,;.,, - . - .44 n r - n !I &ijlJl+ .. a b y ; * d19ij(~ml&.. S k - J d ( 3 a l J G l dh3.&291~- - a 3 ~ ~ 3 I.A~ & jmastery tests &I & j j r l l & + - a +~ 3 ~ + l h L S l j l u b J~~ g3.Y ji LIAI~.. y-+ J-fl v;L inventory test .ad l 32 9 1 '+I+ - h& L4 -1 3 3 bij-jl ~1~61419 +j +,dl 2194fl&4 i,Lfi&f 2+alJ-l 4j+j 1 1 7 I LS- P L;;r power test 3-it1 dlJ&j '2194fl >-1 ,m~~ltiplechoice test 2 b +-. J G Y I a & ~ ~. zJr3 ~i @gree~1c ~ j p = - - l 9 4 1bk+ J W + 3 4 & 1 w ' & - 3 selective +!+I JL;;!alJ&l. C -LL~ hi&Lg;L 'answer tests 42jiz b ) c c l -+% p ~ 2 p- +&i; r t - ~ ~ 9j,bb~t~.. & d l- . 3j 3i--lJJJI ab+l ~ 5 9 4++ p3 .WI ji -11ykil13i d ~ i-d+j,+.m -Z+.UI pGjyu?Jdl fi&JU+ L&A ijlJ&l3 alJ&Yl JAC 3 i)& batteries 2 l 4 .. 3-211 p+ '-&+I 4; 3 3 , W l &,lJJJl JY L&A3 tinformation tests aL+dI . - .( n r I r a LCWL ; ; t ~ U , k l f i.. -I . ? lL4 pui .++I LjL*l
  • 207. J@K . ~ + I ~ JIIIY~ &- 'U d2'&LL+YI- Ji 3i*I 'LSJJI 3i+&$ 3iWI ~ L + J I JUYI~ ~ , W Ip- a~g-l,i o i A y ~ r : 1 > '$! '&1'+13 A d y! alj&y educational achievement b&lI- i j l J L K LpI&l3 ,....l;-;;, 'tests .?IJJ *3i &s? ;LW readiness JI.I.;YI IIII~LL;;~~ - 4 - .:;. 11A I ~ I ~ Y I3i'tests a l m J k C 'LL~4 'diagnostic tests- (JLL5 . &u UL 'IIIljA 3i +L I ~ J + IJLI U C U y ! '> ; A &~AZ bh+jd p;j+JkgbJh( w c ~lJI & L Y & '-+-;I a J j L j i Y I bj'+k f i j w y !&4 *LL~ Li J ~ ~a ~ J. 5 a G p !dJbJ& >- Lk3' d d e1-1 +...I.--LA! a~ju~ a;,,,tLGUY s;,a r , ~ l ; OL 0.4d + s @j- ' * l r j Y I ',J;yl &&G K ~ ~jk~
  • 208. U 35 L ~ L J !&a +Ab F b &dl 14i+lA+j c l y-l-,J$~ . L - j-q .&&.E]$JI.. &'k+ &+LO +I a~~A i;l?id~ui.. .+A' &a I ~-4-3 . - -.- (11+lpi3j ~ w3 4 1- algkt13; i o 9 L f l j kc& - +~+b r , t L Y t 8 . i L*;, ,a -I ...&II ;igp i r l j L I. C ; i J t - & m I >&)I 3 ,trade tests vocational 'i ; n 11 J d n w TI -LAu2 achievement tests +j bTLlle j i U d3&+a a&Ii J-Zttf I dlJ Jjs ,,&Yl J;L3&a +&I &i+dl sw +3, - Yl i,j- paper and +I3 Gj$I jL;il d j Gj hJ3+ &kiSl13 ,pencil test j&I ifb- 'j+sd' )&! ZjF 'j& true-false test U 1 3 +I ,i ,U L* t4 L+- JIG! LL ;+i ~g;c g- C- es-il]tachistoscope +&++SbK -!+I a ~ l l+pa*& .. b - u . 1 &I allp s-'+ ophthalmograph OL 2 ilkJd13yjg .;J+~I +wi -&ml-osl+al ;Icy & a13LGYl bi&JI -3 b . ~ l ~ & l ~ ,&&I3 i+l+l j-I &j .i2-ll eg9j- +& directed reading ~i Airbky c-~ - 4 1 j&I3 &A ;$@-* i-2 c j ~31j i ~ ,41.. +LkiLq .* Jl+ +c J U I& l y J l +I c&3# - L Uwf?jm1 ,A2 7 *,'A &JJ +I ~ + l ~ + i r L a j = L ~ ~ ,+l3 +'+jL3 , & A 1 3 +I-$! &>,,It *J G aYjatwl;, $3 . O L dikdl 'L*;++a! 9& d l ~ A k i f li,& - .. . .y3 .421n-;5~ 9- ~ i31gi+gvl- .. .. - & - -4 - r I . # , .. - )13 4: -&I a ~ j i + ~ ~Li Jlpbl dW' 2 J+ G - + U I ..
  • 209. .& J'4t i 4~ &Yl J-iI! &j .;4?1;~1JLLI a ~ , ~ ~ * L91 U U J I ~ ' d j-1 &L3 o h L);W +j .JljiAYlg lsjb,J c i'-'dl J9kGI>! fiIJL';Y4dl .LUl&JIJY fiL&d13 &+I- y . . , ~ ~&+i k;y+ G~ L- 2 4 1 wLL;L &dl C-I - - alJ&*d La &2 ~i -9 .oral trade tests ;t& b,,,---l I u2-1 &I ;ij-ltF - & L w l J@ Jk91a ~~J~~ . - I Ihgq&2*4]i,&&4&&.. .+3d2+Y+J.c+9rJI+dI - . . -I I A a I~ h l ~ ~ Y l3 I L 13 J&I 2?13 ju &standardized- J&I *;c &L3'&&.&&! J>id ~ L d 1 ~ a ~ (jLgl+W aw&r L + & d I Ld_)-L;J$Ip3 L+JJ-L~~ . b ~ h +b3 1& aC_LY(j liJMl3l&l;rf3 i t * d w I + dl .X+&dl V c J.55 dIjL;;Yl o h bl yj.i+&dl G~.GQIp F ~ 9iiJ3-jI 4 pi^.9iL+-91 p- L . , , ~ Ia ~ ~ & ~ ~hi yid c~ .+nj ~ ~ $ 1AI~~;.LIJ- ~ 1 ~ 9 19i J: ,--; 11 a l J G &&l -LJ p4;; &jJl i&ll &4 +Js; -1 - .G hgsj ~ g i i91.L+$! + J u ~ ~&.$ ;;IL k i ,at ..I.,, Ijid~tjl;us.&+~+j+ r2 .- T J ~ 4 ! e 3 u l l 62%- &U aY'd C@ &LY .miniature test ,i &WI .. GY%K Y3 l J k ' d >b& &4 - Y3 .+d3&* J&Yl j2G . ~ ~ 1 9*+I & 9k+ Js;z gL,,.GII 3~ &+i++di 91- ... As,& JGYfLyG+ w + Y @ J ~ J ~ ~ + ~ + + J ~ + - 41- &-I && d l J ~ J J G3jJ-b c J ~ ' I L J & 3 ~ l>&dl- &IJ& &&_),dlbL9 aJ&Y- J&'d &A 3& L & w1&C &,i .er;+;;'d ji +
  • 210. Anastasi, A.: Psychological Testing. - Literary Appreciation Tests literary &?I- 2 I d-YI JLLL
  • 211. J-.-! +a J d l JL;;!aqlza zjj;rl ,@ 3iL ~ J $ r ~ L l 5 J W I p 3 ~ 4 1J k J!L ~ J Y ~ i j ~ a~+ T- -- $51~&$I I y ~ , ,d j +j .&iY-. 5 Abbot a%Y 4 1 ~d Trabue: A Measure of Ability to Judge + p j L 4 Y L W b i j K j L P o e t r y & alJ&Yl *,.l L&w a I J k Y ! C , ; : I + +&aL'd&L .Idr/r:L++ +La! b e el& 5 ~ I + ~ A % ~ ; L / . ) IkrJ&i$Jg3- +UI :J;$ll L a Y b &5(: 2 i& - !&!+I L L j i-- b& +!-$I b I I L L :a;erI9 :-aerIj ! & U I LJLi-J;LQfl i_>;iOfl + J u 4 L &>&!I- t L Y l-5 L; ~3 3iL b i~3 .3 d i & ~ ~ + ~ L i & J ~ + &, s + ~ Ii ~ iJ-Y J+ + .+UI ++I &+b+ +s l;MLBj!*LQf;-;t;iL)&IoL2l3 i a J ~41.. - J+YI-
  • 212. &.!I. 3 9 ~ 1LLI~LAI 5 Artistic Appreciation Tests &- eJJ4i;i))& ‘ &lfiIJL;;YI Rigg Poetry Judgment d l 5 +i+dl- 91Y ;iL,+idl1.. ((Test .L &-j qbb y ~ y juyiJel b l g l l I 3 1 p- x . L L d l e., zJkjY 'Lik+L->+& i?-ilI+~ bi91' 2 4 1 JA+= &- LI+L?JY~ i l ~ ; d ~-. ;r +jjY ' L..WI &UI 31+;dl ilrl-JwI bjJ~klC;&.dI p l ~ ~ 3- .J+ &j&??l& &Lz Y JI- -1 S j S &.. J ~ J W I ~ , ) 3;a ((Carroll Prose Appreciation Test c P p61- Y!.+wI~L;~YL+~+~ Jl- ilLhia13'@I &- +J3 91 ' J J L a a ~ % + 3 LJl*;...! +iL*L, &L+dI q u ! b4Sj + iJdf1 JL;~ ;,,Ji J- +M +GI31L+d13 '*WI a+‘a- +;rtl;nj '&JL- - J & ~ ~ ~ c h l ~ ~ ; s _ L s ~ ~ bL09. Ll c;Yl t u l l j+Gj Jcj ' i b l j ~ g l l ~ b i ~ k k ~ wi+-+ k2J
  • 213. Meier 441 ~@-lj)) - J+'d && +u, ((Art Judgment Test ~9-3 s+f 4--~ JLrpfl& &L a l J w Y l &i +p3'Seashore bKj '&I 33iill Jb9L-l - el. p 4 ~ 4kz. 41J~-!JJ 5 3 3 '+I> & &*L ~ & N + i ~ ~ I + * ~ f i. 1 1_ .-~ p j . f F * a J L J@-'dl 1 d J 9 b L - &J+ ($12 ;i;s3pA Jki& + +b G 3 J!p&?> I++= +a cjjJS 'j+l +ciZL '&5Ql &I &d!&QI &b Z J y h+u3i GWI iJ+1 5b$13 (jjI$l9 kr-I 2a&N - .2Pi3 &i bJ+9 .tLk?y1j 3.3 w+( zJ> 3.3 J@-'d{ 5~9 aesthetic &-fl p t; ;7 fldlJ)!-
  • 214. . a d 3*9l 04Kaj3~e.I++A ilba 3 &IJ +I + d l ;LtLLt)-. &&IJJ &&I A4?yidIowa lq,i-L& ~ i ~ 6 . k+~-='s+. / LJL3J ~ l4 i l J k l5 u31JMAI &I c;s.*+I & U l &I i&-. >id3~i. i k n ~ ; - .I LUL ~5 - Surr ..& + L i + o f ! Jl&4dl- aJl+dI :&+1+3 k l i l ~slew.. &A1&i2U13.manual skill $41 s U d I g.A+03 &I+ &c .aesthetic intelligence JWJ- J W l .perceptual facility IAIJJYI + 3 .creative imagination@I AJYI.5 - a,+~.aesthetic judgment J-I- UI OL ,@ J! LL~ J4;1! +y &Sbll g- 4iki C;K~.i+b +l&Yl.C J w l +- - .J ~ IJ+ i)~- J9bg JJLbi 91.JL+I- L J I ~ J ~ I ~ d d l 1 b p &~(J#J&y'dl a u ~ % L L ! & ( Q l g.++I CSAK- - 3jx? +ii;ihlLIJl d l -ebYg i l l J L I. C -d . C TF
  • 215. L + j l J ~ ~ Y l jb3&IIj ~ ~ j l $ l j Jwlj . t L Y l j-!z luuLiJlj 1 L ~ 1 9 C C @ $1 jl IUI hlsgi~?hl+91 ~ W Iji 5 JU 2+I ij+l J3j .J*Yl o h + - a 3 J!Lw242d.C rJ3;rj 1 p . U +,Id! ++&Lb9 ri,+ 2 + ~ * i d i i ~ ~ - l L . ~ ~ I < + JL$~I-9 .wlJ p , s c ~;LIy .pLdl92-$t13 -31 d+J$tk c r A l j i & p k ; + JEA! .$!. a L 3ijLApj;lj2 +'AIL c P c kl;nfl ;,dl i j l J k - c -& 5% .&I&,J U ~ & &,LS;?Yl - rjL,_GlL.- 3 4-. & )4 $ijj pj +j .@- '%2j;ii 41L&- LLbJ&L @I ~ l j & Y l o L + j .L- 1 -1 i 4 1 6 ~ y ~ ~2 ; 1 ' + ~ ~ 3 ~- p-+- a,&!)) : ~ & i+j.>:..'+ - @~ ~ 3 1a I J d>,j-! - Lewerenz Tests in Fundamental Z J d l J&L19), !Abilities of Visual Art !Knauber Art Ability Test s?+l &LJl Horn &dl JILW ~ J P;r&l))j..
  • 216. 9.. J ~ !LIWI~ .'% 3i +& 'imagery & d l wq+b l a L L g J 3 3 L l l ip._! . D L +a L J a l j b ! ) )b F TLJ G t 3 +I Jl cLjj((-1 LsIJI_L~uYI &++I!j&l,,3 Art Aptitude inventory- 'Illinois Art Ability Test &id! Z J d '((j4yIJb.bC)L!y j;j$ jJ4;ln3 .((&GlpI13 JLbjUb j pj4;;l))3 +JAC JL IjYiY~;rljL;;Yl 3&;1~ &A! s 3 d l & ijjL?;lbtl .. .. &!& L Y L '-1 aLR$-f13C . 6 J L Y l&Z J d l 3 a l j k $+I1 ZAWl illjI+LYl +h3 L-.- ;+(bjpj&s U3 w G J L ; S ~ ~ L ~ J ! d i u l z b ckk,dj'-%.&l.Pfl -1 a l j d l &&udpII.. ... WI(-J+ +.'JL JL &Xu3 '+dl w j I d &s M Y I Tg..~~ Jw!J ~ Y I.G~hiz m +~ + 2 'scribbles -1 L ~ I4t3JL u+ bi w*l JK;~'LS+- 3i+LSJGI 'hiY+i-14.ulgll ( a - r + ~ ~ , C @ ; J w I 3 +uum3 3 s 6 s l ' U l pc&idl.. '+i>3ir..,l j@-1 +ijI+ j W l.. F ~ J I ~ +Lh+ 'doodles + U l c-,lLILa +UL.,t;or ,;~ip+~
  • 217. ,intelligence quotient (IQ) ,Kill +i :&Y 2-4-4'3!+'.-""+4+3 - L Jx+2; L+ i* ' ~ ~ l- ',byd l & +I :I& - .. A w , ~ 3 ~ j s , , n ~ p & 3 ~.. d+iGI~LLLI. 5 3+I C ~ ~ ~ -22- &IJ&+ L L akJ1 .Kj -+A .Kill aIJ+I LI;W +j ~j+iLVY&ia pa Jup uC45CG . ~ jb ~ ;.. ji ( ' c k z y ~ i ) .KVI +J!; r s ~ y q,gJija- uL" pa J m l p u .UI e ~ + i )+GIA+ :bS u d ~ j + l j L (J,u$ individual i. Ts. L J ~ I.Kill a l J k I. f Stanford&J~+LeL JL dl Wechsler Scales +.i3'Binet.. 5 r i j L 4 3 2 1 9 1 G U j we group i. Ts.. &l+d GKIJlGI~LLLI~ ,hJ+bi.KJI a~,+~ gJAJ~.. ji -~kll F;;~- p99--af I L%i;i WY I A U 6 b l & 'd3 .d;'dl.Lh;13 &+ -93 G V ~-ipj-y~ 'F Anastasi, A.: PsychologicalTesting. - Intelligence Tests standardized i; ; n a a l J U I U S a bl 'tests a b u3'zj& b2Lg'~J,L, +L2- p ! ! ! j'ir&j;gLa -+.iA I; L &I ;~J-X,LI~J ~ L I
  • 218. rt 11 L ~ I9 3 ' L P F ~ 'a:<: I : LLG%LLYXapJl +AF b3Li~ ~ k j+a ,+G6 L&j . J k Y I 4?LL;YI3. . L P W I 5 ,a1 ~ l&&ciA&+1+L&13 individual i. T. ;t~pJl+KdlalJLi;rl. 5 k;tjsll, . , a > i&I.. ~ ~ 4 , a l ~ ~~ , + ~ , , ~ 4 . 9.. . .. i!,- L&&f Lp&d +id' FLdl-- 'GI., d h Li ,+T s3pJlDL L!&I' a w l & b3> iJ+ ' ~ l $ lp i z d l &I2 s2- *3 'J-C13 -91 s9S-ef&Jg3- . ' x ~~+CI?Y~ *L d)4-I Jl 5 2 d J W l- & U l 3 @I ++"b ' ~ +I L~ dlUi3z ~ ~ ~ b 7 c j 1 G l d +->$&- LLU535 'iLvll LLUi +j IFK;Jl -IJ@ J.c ~ l p b l C W C a k k d l * 2 w J l d l J&l ;I! L I J ~j i Y l al+l i i ~(jP+ &2 &tat1 blr, ' W I ,bl ~3l;; s+., , ~ L I A I~i GLI- . + t"UWluWI3aLUl& p
  • 219. & L-&A~W~ K d lilJ&3 w3.2~+h~dja~u1 Jk~3),'((ArmyAlpha I.T. ~ k l iJI+I. Army Beta I. &+.dl FKjC)uu P ~ L I ~ I~I,L;;% j3iL.KT. l & w I &*I &FKd)C)u& +~pa!I+Killa I J b ! &b w J J~uiI .&$I.ilxe;.~g* J! j+3 & ! d l p- --Army $&! ? U It A: :.A:TI JL;il .General Classification Test (AGCT) WLll ++I JK;-3 pi &dl- &dm! ++I JK;Jsr $ 6 ~ j % dIJ&w Fj'6?-LdL &w ilrjd+J '-1 i & L d 'b;i=r+ illL+d -ntjw-+dl L LJ!&Wl+s?+? +L3- .a! 4&? 13-I;,, 5jj-a ?LC 35;1 i l l j 4 ; i Y l e+~ 3i.UI$ U I ~ IJ~~.- & . . J J + . C I b & ~ L ~ d c f + Y G K d I i.t.;;4dg .JY 2- -Ul 2L k ajLp -&A& J! +L 14-;-,-i 3iJ .k ' d I iJ12!
  • 220. Y & ,&WI ++I alJ&Yl dJI &All &C &A examiner ;Y, . - ji ILL + L ~ I + A ~ & + G J & ~ I-. , i s ~ w ~- + ,i ;JLJI ~ L L4.. eg' Glb Y +dl g j&3l Li u.. . a ~ J ~ ~hiG ~ +A &JU~W .Kd alJ&ljr ((PreschoolI. Ts. L ~ d lJ+ L;iLy +I Li JL-6 ,%J+ a ~ J ~ ~. C 'LLS LSi,&- - 'kidJgbi*I +j, ' i JAJ jut^ LL)L.&++'&L+ t411j4&dl3 .- +wi js pdL ,&)) :dJ+4d ,j l~i+i ,Merril-(Palmer Scale) JAul $5 o-'& +uj sj(+I p ~ )+J*j~.Ju ji zJ& b ~ id- ji ,LA& + ~ L ~ i , ~ j i ~j k J m Gj $1 '$MI ILb b& +Iji & +-ji ~ ; s e * b i a ! L ,zu~j ?AAL+ji , c ~ ~ ~ Lj L b 3 L3. a d ) ;) rr ,&j)I (Minnesota Preschool Scale) LJd d p ~ ~ o L ~testeew9=efl L (9ZLkrll Jj-'ukr)3~ '45+ GIA a ~ J ~ ~. C j&tl +A+G alJL;;I LJ3,i- --. K ~ I~ I ~ L L I .- C j-i wj. L . , cfb((infantI. TS. +dl - g- j L b C ~ Gesell k ; l k i J Y l &jL?- - +I+)) &LZ &I ,((Development Scales- 2&&19;113 -641U L J IilYLLpll -4 11-k l%1I4jby~jLJ& J;C L&13 'I- i J ~ ! &4j- d + l ~ G i,+J'&&LiiIl- ,jj.+Il a>++IdlrJahU j L Z j V 1- &Jk+ e191e ~ t l&- .sL-jW&j& .&WI3 , - ' ~ I j ~ ~ 1 3 ~ l ~ 1 3 j&%.&A J;& ,&)) &i d b j &! && ir,(((Cattell Infant Scale) j u j C 1J+- e ~ , ) j &% JI && +(((BayleyInfant Scales) . .+u al,+I ,, .-j i,-Y YI C .+.% &dl- pldl J&l ;I +dl jW3--fl d ~ l i ~ L- -
  • 221. r ; > - r j U l +&I kL+ C W JG!))+~ K d l (Jp.. Scolastic Aptitude crULJ41~l&'dl- j u ' d l ZJIJI JIuI;, 'Test (SAT) ,& J i j I & ~ $ l fiLuwL. . :;pJS&p+Lili-i+u- -L+I- *iill j ~ l j ) ) Selective Service College 't;L;;l;'dl J;' ,..g Qualification Test (SSCOT) &dl&&I f i l + K J l ~j+ &P@i,swp-&L& j&'d19 '&.Ua&I e L I J J J&! r I r a - - LJ'+ue_ef9&-f' &A91 p l s d J L k ! (-)A & d l- . ku$l-. j4;il), - pe American Council on - *bi?AYS'Education (ACE) Y C Y aj- 4 1(j( Y '-I d3-a - &j ij U I- &+dl JL , a l & ~ W filjskll a l j u ! ~:'&- d L a (SCAT) Ljl fiwljtgjlJcaLf Cooperative School and College Ability a k ' d l 4 C ~&I C ujjg. 'Tests tgG9 9 :j&&'d ++ & paLc4]i .. 'SCAT f i ~ j.L_I~+u~cdjij *l.ps*;li b k LgLS :&A LJ&& .b++l yLkJl.. c 7 1 & j A K f i I J e 1 ) ) 'California Tests of Mental Maturity 'Clark dJ)rd3 'Thorpe t?)9-L c.3-21 &j&U ij(jL;;I3 .fill, filjl+l L ~.Achievement Ts. School and :J-! a L 3~ ~ l , A lalJL;;I &i'College Ability - f i k j k d~& &j' ~ W l jt g j l d wJ4& d l j d j k - 1• c - iL , ~ I&LL: ,J4'-J;I< tlji, - - &J' +'d* 9$?+ ~YJ*, GI,L;;I . C .~ , i+Ju+ sjiu!L+ ' f i l J ~ 1 3'')dl &G cP,j '&>- +. d l.. J ' d ~ ~ l j,+LAa j b j : bi fij~+~,AIL& >i J-;,i ,L...LII LA A -.- 9 Jl GI+, A+k,)Q.Jl L A j&SL (JLS~L;il))dj3 9 .-L (Terman-Mcnemar Test W I ZJLU +&". &2 .of Mental Ability) W b j .LP9-;rfl &j&bul
  • 222. 3 -‘LA&iL-Lh;Ll;?$I+L4 ' + U & ~ * ' / U ~ j L F U i + i + idi,.~,+Au biGUAS~I LLU~ ,wj,kiji ,+U~JI &l,L&dl ',LC *hj@I C;L;L$l '+A$ ;,;& sAic3'*&dl GIJI-~~Lu!aIJ&L @ JI$$I ,& .+KjalJL1;16 &j i&( &lJ@ht &lj 2>91 ,&+ Jb',3 L 4 ~ lJ - - -sY.' -1 &I,&Yl)) :-&d alJ-!))j ,S&;Y T:-.^iI ,(Personnel Tests) i,&+l (Verbal L 4 1 adlrs;tl alJL;L.l,,3 5 i j l J k I u3'Directions Test) &Uwa L J I pb L+ ~ k i j6&JbJ-! &4 C t a k u l j' L J u l +?I+yI &k:$13 ' e + J l &+ I , I 'JL dJ-95 t&! lab &4 ~ 3 l ~ & Y +*j .$I -41 UJUp ~~A Lp'J $4 bl@ ,A& d3 4. - -. 0-8LLfI- ~l+i~'dlj .VLij2 -;4 U C GL+ 9i b~-I b~.. &LIJdIj it4w ,&I &$$ L* t k J ' d ih '&!I jpl+++j~&U*+ &c pj-wc'y+2 & d l ;I ,&) speed test &+I a I J k l. C ~ 5 2 4 ; +IJV j&LC . ,Kill w=191JI &lL '(2- d3&- 'ZqLYI. C I;& + d l , d l 3 =dl ++ d l +&Jbbjj+-L-+ +Q3 . Z G I J A l 'P j-3 L c 5 s ; i *+Qj '@&!I.. JW+WI aI,+Yl +LG U i L I L A il;U J&3j++It~:;L~Li+F L a d l J& &- J k J I 3 i,@pJI aIjb1j .',3&13- & u l- J1?caf13 g ~ b& ScreeningTests L;..-;l C ~ - Q Z U & ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ? ~ , L I P ; r- +>+XLII~ .+-i ,wig 3 z>y zJF ijlJ&y! , ijui biji , i + ~+i - . _ .' -4 A.*! c;U 6+3 4 1 *j .&-A>+! + L U ~
  • 223. o h +j .i+l+!l& fiLy- awJ&!)) : a l J m ' d l W-~ L i i l ) ) ~!(Knox Cube Test) (Kohs Block-design && a& I&; 4 I- i&1;;nI9 +kdl&U-. +UdI.. a I j l . C &+.Xi verbal i. non- b M f l + .performance i.- i l l j G I&GAG ddl- verbal i. kj1~.Z&ilII +J GIJLI + K U I 3ie * ~ ~ ~+UAI;,-. &+iL L ~ . .+I Yj'-Jlydl dJ;r.4,p] diJI- rl;ll ,i d i g .~UI a~J4j~3.&I Ju giJi.;. Lgf +% L !& LF -1 + K d l 41Ju ij+iLII)) biUI .(Discrimination against the aged) L++L ~ r q ~ y ~e ~ ,G 141L L ~ & m ! d L I J d l & aL* 3 b$r +I1.. -&JJ-JJ& I 4 1 + dill.. jL;i'dI JU Y3 1+ +j 3iL I ~ A I$1 +LL & J , .LI~I&'"u d l LLi-4 & d lU W I&JIj - +1291a!J& 9+ u d !a ! J k &g,a l J k I 4 3 .Performa.nceTests- i-uo;jj .AL >iJ! J32 J;L? 4 9 L ~ ~ 3 i ~ p a 4 Y3 L U U I &- d l al,LiLl Is-... (picture-J 9 4 f i J L ' d l illIJLiii.1 ,, ;tgtl +~ l ~ k ' d 1 , ~ ~.pointing test) Lgf +m &i9.Nan-lingual (Tests) ,i 19;~+I* j u 5 1J~ i,+&.;id1 *LI-- t-QS1- - .khl3L;L4-&b i)LI ++il+h13Ls& .JL;;YI LB_I (jg,Lell - d lb9+ Y
  • 224. C W C &I ;I k r ~L,, UU,A; si3+2 - L'w ;I& iji + Y .'GI I L + ~ I ~ ~ I ~ L L , ~ ~+ Y $ Q ~ &i- +GI;+ e3 ,J+I G u d ! jwl,)b-9 .-~jb Jm IPAT ij-I $1 (pjyeld~ hJu+,sr~ - ~ pGI~LI. $ .kuji . .i j P L 4 + b L c k ~ , $ ~ i I I * ~ ni~ JLL, JAi'zj, ~ j ~ p 2 jG!))Jdj .rjl3J9l Q tu-&LA Progressive c c - L J U Ia 1 3 n d l +aIJ&ZY I -i Q Matrices Test &+,L~L;Yi+I sj- w l JL+ 3I;Li YJ+dl J+ iji 3+;li,,~L-kj~ C $1 pit& i)3J bL g i ~ e .t";lLo ((&;Y G u d j : -t kn3 9 performance intelligence test ~ ~ G I ~ Y I r* &a- j@Y L W I i j A I & LA,?#<< d=+I - U I ~ L ~ ~ U bi41GLYL C . J;..;L~+I +&YI L,, 3iL ~ ~ I U W IaL,$ @+-j4ry!)) j3+j~ 3i .LSU w3 qr ; & I 1- crystallized intelligence ?MIGK.iJI3.;+I uj+dl PU I &Lk GLI9 fluid i. a ! j L y j . a w l dl- .iuj ,aMI .Kill 4 $1- ;I+! &i J! ~grs& A d -+j L w j ~ 1 3 ~ j L A 4 1 - - I LLL a x - L a L&L ji . (cross-cultural tests) G J b Z ~ W I ;i +iJ2-* . -I 9 Xi& ,(culture-free tests) ij- (J+ B(Beta test) L;je!)) e 3 L+,!e L 3 w - 4 3 ; I 4 +j~~~3i , k J ka~3Ji 3 . w ~+,i i j ~- bi 91+- J&!)) &e J A s j . & J b d I- (Chicago Non- bu ++&A - ;#I J;.a13:h fJF Verbal Test) 3 4 1i*..-ijb&l & j L j 2 ~ I d l j j&'al d3. u I wj- %ju~G ~ 9 ~j ~ i+fj+ a~3J9~3iJ~~ ;I& ;i C+- : a I , ~ IJs +-. k c b Cgo-
  • 225. -;JW &=JL;;~~ j p J l?el (Army Beta Test) & & JL1 ;r J 3 .+sCJ 14;! J3i 9 .i,- a b L 3_1, u3a L b L L+l+ alJL;;Yl +3 ,((~sJfl& Pintner Test J ~ I N- . . C Q b ~ +Y &I; p i,&I 93 &K 4d3,+*L,i &A3,kill& C ,I &JLiYl kill! pGL+JJI z=-kil - cu ~ 2 3.pantomime eLL4+ WI p 3- ,@+I y L J Ial,L;;Yl c~ Y b4**-ef +&+i . c S W (j! d! b $ * L I l ~ s J G d l~ 2 1 p ; d i+ 6+a3 A#iJI ( j l d r* & 6 - U I-. &G d l Jl.. +I 2 1 4 1 y & L i &- ,UI-. puio J I ; ~ hJh3i >+dl GIJL+! ~p;!+4 . 3 3 W S Y I& UI b~YI , L , . ~+I2 + 'jL +L;,A 3 '+AJ+rL& +* J&& 6 9 1- J k Y l +&I '9- j+ Y JsS&((&I,,) ( j 3 ~Y G3i,*+I JY G~~ 04W!.grlll36+3&4?L3& ~)LL!C9+13 .(Kohs Block-design Test) &!J&%I3 b N q ~ : ~ ~ dlJ&!)) V 6 (jl , practical i. Ts. -1 .LSL!I 6 &I- .UUI Lglyjljy?i+YI ~ ~ - 1 1 . ~ I ~ ~ . , p r a c t i c a li. $ l ~ h l dJ&Y I +i- e3,abstract i. C a l L d l + ~ ~ + + - . K ~ Z J ~ y3&&!&y krY3 w%J9 i j L b L aIJ)&I), & &sJ" &3s;; &ill (Porteus Maze Test) P , ~ % l p w- s!L&A&J9 ~+?ga:f-,k~;ll ijdwt;l,( . L S ~ ~ I-1- ,~p~9-big .WYI pi-*i +;dl- .practical social sufficiency #I- (non-lingual L . . l +aIJL;;Yl,, .lgw .LYL!killizljYJI- &tests)- L J & ~ ~ ( j e 3 ib u (non- ;tLLfhkLfl+ ~ J L & Y ) )& G h b ,verbal tests) W C 6 c,LcA N l (jl '$+ aL,& . L JuL&ilI c2+p+ &$I G I J ~ Y I&- (jGG3 3i, ~ L Y I-C ,i w 3 z ~ ~. .
  • 226. Anastasi, A.: Psychological Testing. - Littell, W. M.: The Wechsler- Intelligence Scale for Children. Terman, L. and Merrill, M. H.: A- Standford-Binet Scale. - C t - &I&Yl.. &>dl&I>Ul' 5 5 Creativity Tests a&$41a!J&! 'Lap * j .&+'I +Id!&- L ( 2 ij(~I-1;~ d !- 2 J Y L 1- . -1 cL$!&J+k Guilford's Southern California Tests of
  • 227. I 1 'ideational fluency &@I sk bi + +A+ f -UUI +.)-+i- 6 91 '(hard) JAI+,)JL -&kaW d l ~4;;'d aWlj .(excellent) $IJ,) i . ~ d Lg ; Ah:$L;;; 9 0 0 J - A> J k l .&&& aL1-1 JAG&Ji-1- - + w&l +I& &3j . ( ( U l S..&I,, J i 4 4 - .1 1 3 , a fL - 11 expressional &&I GIWI J G I djP ~~1 wd~ y iA fluency , k r l l + i~.rcti-+^ d r JL dfi US JS i+t . : ~ !L i d 1 i c z . ~ ~ s ; j i s ~ ~ ~ ~ d ~ ~ ~ ~ .& '((L+&+3+ p A N C &Gll cib flexibility ;i;9&13 - &!&'dl .6 &a G W l ~ j d l & ij-is A.. LC h t - 9 1 C J ~ ) UJI-& L . . I ~ ;tslj Se &i- ~i- j ~ 9 1%i -lgcll3 G 9 d l 'A+JJ>+ sA,2. b - .&2 LG&~ g & l 3 4 ; n ; ~ ~ 1 sensitivity to a%C + r ,.- 11 -L&A p k ~JP CIIJL~;-~problems C @&I &l;I1, Divergent Production - e+yl& k,hWl d-9 G L I J J .. 4 I L II b~ u*i3 I ~ ~ J d "&&" LbJ.L+ JL3'&JsA~3 .&$I J-L & JLJ' +" W C ' I b l J>'&&-C ZJS &$ +L$I 2 *I 3i3. t ~ u ~ ~6 AK; +U~JI" convergent &LG p a +ELI1 e-==;&13 k l c ~JL 'thinking 99 k;,' ~ ' 3JS g ~gsl+i & 'divergent thinking L-.; .'LA aelu‘dl.• 4 -2 '4Uug ~ ~ l . 4 't+gcll eh? w S gl &IF d b j 1 3 J+tI @ + d l i IAYL ;+~9AWdiJsj e -.- x a ! l I L ~ ; ; . ~ 6 < LZ3J4J!g LGWI &j L @ w ~ 9 1" . ~ L P $ I ~ JJ& W! L-$1 word fluency -1 GXkJ1- JX; + & & &i9 +*L3I+iLbIJ->j ,i wi . ' iLP au L & + G y L L4I G W l g .;i&13@L zw1p9 L ~ J - , ,i ,i
  • 228. &ijG originality ~ ~ 9 1 3 +ALLZII!. . 3ii+-jmi EL;;! y +j &as .&&4 4i)tL C I U J !- ifl_LiJI GI jL-Li;.! +id! U !C4^, JJ! C)d+I + j-3 & d ~&c J ~ iuj3i+ -1 &$ 4 1 & j d !- .UIJ4kef 3i 4 a3.+L;~YI ~ " ~ ' . u ~ 1 3 ~ 1 ; ; Z f 1 3 ~ ~ t 3-- - bk;C +A& by.-:&.-. - +w13 ~ 4 ^ ,.ulil~+ LLU~ g l L+3i + ~ d ' 3 &@I 2- & eL3lj .+&AUJl3 M I 3 d b j .$d& J W !- ~ $ 1 &4d@ 4141j4;1! JG+I , : , i , ~ ~ ++-dt&consequences test +JU- +i i;lw 3 e l ! t * ~ . + + ~ ~ iAL~JI- plgrl~ 1 - b ~$M bh~-9!+A- J! - + ~ ~ ~ l i l ,,ubi a d 5 5 JS JLG di 3i Y YI 3~.,+I .id3iJ"4 clrl;& QI~GYI +&+it~*idb3 5 bE b+ldJyl p & > ~ + . I ~ J i I - . J S L + L ~ ~ ~ L . L ~ ~ ~ ~ P + I + 4jL~;ko?J& &problem seeing +. G L ~ I 3i+I &s=? ' 9 I w+l i&1 + ~ ~ I ~ l . ; A J I $ U lI+A s3.&,m3i 3iL~.IJ-~I JS;, a - s ~bi jiL+ jCL+ r ~ ! j & l d.&Lkfk @ & J L- > G l j k l- 5 :Jj* %La L j d l ,hidden pictures $F3+i-dl .hidden figures ;J3&I ~ ~ 93 .match problems +m1J I ~ !$L3 ;;I J ~ Y !t9111p.. L J Q L ~ ! ~ $1 i++lo*ll vLw9-J 1 J + I LB~P+ tA &j W I t+I , i J p J l &- - - C'-&+jsi)iw@~ +i,-&pJ+~.. - ++WI $L +LZ~ .i- 'PJ b 9 uhi!&A d +- &4 & I d JG~I - - -A ~ A I&I ~ J A Cs, 0 .II A I!JU~I .chL",l',,tI3
  • 229. ldg C.tUq ,Creatively with Pictures) 5 ZJF (O-LV* dl ' P j 2 = 1 1 jp d& JS; JC &..z ? b Y J c-~ &di3 L L l j F F @ l & f i l ()Adl3,+lL Z J y As- ;rc~3ji-L+ +?*$I .>I~AI3ikj+l $IJ* ~1-i()u3 v L 4 > v I ~ ~ y ~ 3 + & &$1 GI+y aljdl &+jk P 5 -3 .&-!I 3211)CeYjL4-? Y h'.'-. - Y &+i ijd AC jL;;.!))J- ,+&-dl (AC Test of Creative Ability) +I+% >&Id-!! -&Idyl fijdJ&tj)) - - F (Owenesji,.$ajllPl A ,Creativity Test for Machine Design) 2 ~ J d l&+ld+y! a I j d 1j@13)l .(Pordue Creativity Test) F aL& &+ji & 3 3 - L A l 31?LG di Ji,(Getzels and Jackson) JC$ ZJ- AL~ p 3 - - ~ ~ A+L~I9 k - j+J!+J.L,~ .&.LA .- - - +IJ L l S Jj3i,(Wallach and Kogan) @l&yI. F 2 a f $IJ+ aJ&,,- Torrance (Tests of Creative Thinking) JS Creatively with Words)
  • 230. s ~ ~ + 4 i i 4 ; 4 a ~ ~ s33-~4 ~ j & . d l rib. 341 GWI ~ K ; U&+i+lgc. '-$; .ineguity i+I ji UL~I G3+I3 L W C dl J! i,j*I3lj* j ~ iAd3 Jb9 p . ~ . ~ l jJ Y i L Y I ~ l j k I. < J ~ L A t + d l & l- j&?l w& - :- i , ~ t , ~ ~ ~~ . i l l&i&-I +I - - : ~ ~ l j L ; i Y lo h +j .tjit,.j+ 4;9 Ship test -1 5 .J U I N -1- JY-Yl & Destination j-1 3))& Logical Reasoning Test Pertinentt*+& U l Gj&id1 t+dl #I p . ~ . ~ j ) ,Questions Test Watson-Glaserjj b3rj9;l+ JL Sj).lrj (CriticalThinkingAppraisal) T+ ~i-31 3%+LJ~-IL ILUL %e &k &Ip 4a j d&id.! v - 6 ~ 3-4ua-3 a l i d l GI~L;;I 5 sA- - abWIJl & U I h3- ~ I & y l- 5 aLlJ-L!l & 2d-C (ylwj idJSUI AA Li-L+JI i r l C ~ j ~ ~ j ~ ~ ~ k
  • 231. (The @ d l a l J ~ + ~a l j b l , ,- C PMA c'.: -'Chicago PMA Tests) P 'primary mental abilities JU~ - 115(j4 b~u! *L? Goldman, R. J.: The MinnesotaTests - &I 'L+ 2.&Lp9l u 1- . a s 3- of Creative Thinking. . ..Tests yL Guilford. J. P.: The Nature of Human - Intelligence. tV b>_)g'verbal ability k,&l z J d l spatial ability j U l dlJ.3Y1 z J S 3 40- - *,Go11 ..I)@ ..JYLYI +;ijJ;LJ13:S bj-ajj .. u u C 5 S J d l :R L - ~ b j , j j I reasoning ability u 9 $ .. word fluency L J I Primary Mental Ability Tests + d I SJJ-hJ(g iWF 'ability C &-b3 .N 'number ability Q .:.+ A w l L pq2 k ; 1 ~ ! J @ Y ! +a&J&A% - h aL.2 L B ; l j k IC +w7-Li 0 +A% + y J s l & G K I l VL;it C ~ ~ j I i r I j d ~ ; i ~ & i r g ~ V JI +j ' JI V + j 'V JI - M ~ , L ; + y i J 2 J Y ~ ~ - - A IA-I J T b a l j L ~ ~ Y I j.L C - J3Y Louis Thurstone&MI kjlllJ.c G K j i....y Y C abJU3+Jl .jwI& *Lz-d J-I @ ' 4 L A k i , B F
  • 232. Vernon, P. E.: The Measurement of - Abilities. Spearman, C.: The Abilities of Man. - Thurstone, L. L. and Thurstone, T. - G.: Factorial Studies of Intelligence. -TI- *dl ijl)sIlijl)Ll;ilG Musical Aptitude Tests *:* *:* *:* ~ I ~ + Y I 0 ; ~ 4 r ~ ~ l ~j*i + k-&!+J+ ? ! _)3& ML)) (Seashore Measures of Musical J+ JjK d+lI bwi JI49 'Talent) & &+I Jl&Yl &il- 6-3 U N Y I +I41 alJ&Yl ?s3.bLJ&+LlAI 3j ? ~ 9 i - ~ i ~ j i + y ~1 = aL;I+ '& ;i&lfI fiLlLafl vGg 'LLul t?a& 1;,"&dl+ - e?);9b+i_)g u.- di e ! !
  • 233. 5 '5- &+I +L &A3 . L . , wb&4wb w &4 d_)&'d ~er.. I ~ ~ I++ bYlyr1 &at SrJI ',A+ l.&,,Z ',is1 d l _ ) d .. - ;++ ?.++ ~4~~ -$!U L&J~ d l j k o ). 5 .-3 Kwalwasser-Dykema Music ++I c ~ , : -+J~ ,La; , G~L;.I .Tests bi51.b:~7 4141O I ~ L J I .. j b .rj;tp l e j 1 ~ 6 1 j+x 'L&c 4); & J d l + U l &A Gl-5 .~I,L;I i+ UJL bi ,'YUcr,-& i -, biL+i3 L ~ & A & U ~ ~ IS3UI,I.+ L g j I i k I- 5 JIJLI &+.J.%+I Z 3 d l I - ' d l o h 9- I+~&LL!&.JL k r $ t d ! 3 & ~ ~ ' d l -, _ ) ~ ~ ~ 'LUl;, ,j, 'd ,-.g$ &$Is;liuJ3 +&7 1 I - - ; dl dL+Jl ;G3 &+i-1; + bi+.++I & L ~ J & +S__;IJ13 bjE .&*J+sC!+Y*a&l
  • 234. 6 bj?k&- ~ I ~ Q I ~-+ t3+&j- ,~IJJSSJI Jhdj rjgaJlgf13- .+A! d l 4 L i 3 & + ~ j d I- &J_)JU!,,cv-g i,a9 (Drake Musical Test) & + - ~ + i ~ * ~ i ~ -. - 2 '2 -8 2 - ~ +iF='O'!p3+biw3-%9 4 & 3 b - ~ ~ + 9 ~ 4 ] ~ j . U & +a ~ ~ i d !WI J+~ +-. b&hi 4 SX~;-YI .- , ~ ~ I U I j h l- j4;;YI3 .,aLi;dIj +)nj c U 1 y @ &A $41' t b Y 9J& 9- & - 2+ L;;L E C a &w3>-h.I iJ--i9 +I3 . a L L Y I-C J3+ +a L = L Y I- Cwlr(pb b b~ l r l ~ L Y I o h -&+dl LIJJ&l ji- & l J d ! & l J b ; , l n (Bentley'sI;L1 2:2: *.gel1- e ~ i@ J! Children Aptitude Test) :&- j~kb;dlit +Y= G I ~ A J+3 ' i l l e i i l l+L3,alYQl U S JlJL! 21y 3 . d c k Y l-5 4 3 3 ' d ~ h ~ +JU'W *&d1JG'dl 0 h & b + i ~ k i r l , r ~JIV+ a;;nnll@.... illJ%l~ j+j Wing Standardizedb-gell ,LjJ_t - b J b L. . Tests of Musical Intelligence ;Jd4415-41 d I J k & Y l - g + , ~,UXji ,LGijd J! +JS Musical Intelligence- &jr (J.C L3G* dlJA .J+ G I , J L . C + I d& &&iG illJL?;;Y 3J! -&hyL ,-.jg,tt-lI&~'~- - - 3-4dL3jj~a J*lj 'iJ+ Lul gj +- , - L i i ,aIL~J~~-bw~~ u]u+ bj ~gi.+i LA k~ba 1 ~ ~ ; i 3 ~ L&bd* ' d I , d dl;y & i A J U I JU'W 'd d l J F K +I JwjuCu'LL~&gj +I+! j+J!~h+3 r*dld13 b ~ i ~ s ; l i ~ : . ,,+I @@! - - k - -&.u~lJ-dI 9& i~L4yl~+dl L I j - d I & alJ&yl 0 d J U 9 . w I F P -i L A,I+ dJL~.+ ,4;4J&~~i j ~i;4+i pr-41
  • 235. .. GI&IGKAI&A)$ cJ$ j G Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Tests jLkd~l&zL, GUi ijIJL;;. + + ' L 1 3 &+ dsP .GI- a%++ 4LIA-fl J! G L Y L5 . 'S* l i ~ l l i 4 l verbal & L J SJ-&uI,;lu ZJ9-fl3 I non-verbal &Lil4 3 o h yL- L)L. t.,&ill .&kJA &2 &es&ifI ijJ+~ Aliferis Music +++.&t$l +++I ,l+hL> Achievement Tests 9 Y el,r;;l n~ I ~ L I. L~)L;& &dlW I Aicb-u+I.. 2 I J i L Y I '+dJbLUP1L J&.lYl p- 91ck;ub$3 bw&A3 &3.. ' + U I LLLLI(L4Iifb.. L&+z 9u'$2--+fI +I+' . k r c k l Y b- - C GFJ@l3 &J&! Fransworht, P. R.: Musical Taste. - Seashore, C. E.: Psychology of- Music. Sturnph, C.: Tonpsychologie, 2 Vols. - Wing, H. D.: A revision of the Wing - Musical Aptitude Test. J. res. Music Educ. 1961, 19,3947. *:* *:* *:*
  • 236. a l J L ; i Y l .$!&L3dI- . p2 4 1 .. c 6 2 1 uIF&4-m! L J ~ I 4?uF dJjJ G Y l cp+ C-CLY3 . & Y L I 3 ~LmLc319d 2 L 3 i+i ? I J - ~ Iy alJL;;Yl a i a . a 1 ~ ~ 9 1+ LULU+3i*YL j41 ~s;.&UI- L)ulLhfI&IL j W l- +$4 J9--dI9 b y & 9 G-JI - 3ibp+I +2 ::iaL& c w-ij . G I J Y 1 1 - I f e l . L - aL& I -ib a ~ ~ ~AI~UI a ~ J + ~ ~ t 9 . 3 .. 4 I ;.n - u 9 1 ~b d 3 ~ ! ~.. . I ~ I *i+ic ~ -LLULUj3b;ir9u~ w c w +&UJ~I Y! b & ~ g !alJ&w dgC- JW';! &- ~ 2 4 1- -3i +iLbj d l 3 F c;aJL .Jl>YI JJs p i 2 j k L 4 - J m wb u ' d l h+1 d3$d! JlU91LLjub J y d k LL4+ 0.4 Y GK3 &*& b J k !5 2 1 d 1 1;M'+Ail-&L+l alJL;;Yl > , , >&t( cj32j19 .&Wc,y' uiJ ~ ~ , , p-+MI i l ~ J ~ ~ (Army Alpha &191.. &?A b U l l- - f A - M I4. filJl+Yl PsychologicalTests .:..:..:. 61-L &]I J G Y l- ~ + J I- 3iJLJI.. .IAILSW .u":;.-'- ?u;; ,i ',AJ ,& &jj Li&ib- bi +Flel d;i -3 .. %A 0 2 s zb3~ l 6 l - L -1 pJ . d l p p l l Jsp- & s g ! b W L i l & y L +jJI &a ,L JLJTII .J&YI & &4 a l J w Y ! -3 aIJ@'d!)) d b -*&& ,+&~i 3 J b& (individual tests)" (group tests) & M I alJ@Yl )) ?A &I31 k;,-. , J I + ~ ~ J ~ 9 ~ 1 3i ,I d 1 - Y i + a L U
  • 237. JL;;11))3'(language test) ;i;UI J&!))3 J & - l ) ) 3 '(vocab~~lat-ytest) i j l l p - d l J&l))3 I (arithmetic test) C).LLSS & '(analogies test) i j ~W I L61Lg LP;51! C;Jl ;il!A.4Jl +' l I J L Y l ,i j k 9 13i.ij+k L~,J! - K ~'G~+LI 3i'ikh;l~ +i,~cOcuJ' g ~ 9 A ,u b+J+ Y & d l '&&I$! '+3p'dI + L L f j ' J ~ A !u ip&yd3'&La! 'lLIJLYb +-+ Y bK G Y P'53 '+I3 +I ,i e " . ~ i ~1~1-qJ ~ I- +C 1 & 4 0 L . . 'p+ilJA ' s i j & ~ l*Jab& L61Lg',.aL4 k J ~ yu 4t~~ ~LG+A3j d i $3 'pL+l13p A J ;kLLLijl+ '(Absurdities Test) ijbL;uufl J k l HL JL;ll))3'(Healy puzzle) & ;~~SLL),~ .. jwl,) 3 '(Manikin Test) b&Lefl Y 1 3 .(Ship Test) a+@ Gg'oral tests L+2, i,& A +All k y 2 3 .written tests ;)+ &!-4L b&-1 J&rjlJ&'d .(Army &A.. +I;L(... J k I ~ ) 3. 'Test) &.. eLkll J ~ ~ J L L JBeta Test) a j k Y !9.. & &&I 'l!J&Y! zJ& & ~ J J A ! ~ JI $&.Jb3 'jL;iYI rjL& J.c &bm'lj&'dl &*y lFsJj '4Lf)Ui l , u t I$I+JI +14kZ4f*L &I+! i;x3 Lg4I&iLI v,fi*.J - - I L I A Ir ; M ++JLj .+a-dl *d b bL - ijlj&Y - &L +',&,+I Lg3& ;LIP biLA '$! 9 3 '~~ ++I pp ci'- + ipg i ; ~ j- *YL4 .&I u ijlJ&Y! WI GI~GYI)) 'hi4 b 3 +i r l J L Y I ) )JJLL;9.. (verbaltests) non-lingual or L+l+ 3i-&LiJl ijlJ&Y I 9- J-91 3 non-verbal tests -I;L,4i;u~ 3 bi.. d j ipj'Lg;L+L e . 3 bl+ 'information test aLgLteJ1j k l )) '(comprehension test) +I jL;il,, 3
  • 238. typical -1 .IJ$ 4 5- d~WI .I231 .(,performance tests.. 9L;Lhl3 ~ p d l+JA+ jW1.. - - i;;slgell 3i.;42WI &;I;& dl &lgpll & - ~ ~ + ~ J I + + & . J J ~ ~ ~ d s L c J ~ p & L ~ & + L X 4- .LL+ ~ I J L ~.~L-A!+ &A3 .u+;i,ctljA a L 3aSM3 a l J k ) )& -&&I 0 b - LA+ .personality tests ;i d n * - : J*& l d j G - - - J. L 1 ~ 4 3 '& & L 0 2 L 3 .kr5sLcJI &Ip dj+i F! 3 2 8 - 4 ~ I J ~ ,aIA - & ~I ,,-~~LLA.J.questionnaires ijlJAldJL;.;l,, &tests a l J L Y l ;I&YI 3iJ b i ; Y l ((aptitudetests -LLI +uipijI+ .$! 3iQLG! 3i-L$+ 5 . :- A+& 31 +lT . . . I +l+k ,a&& .LaGlJi3LgJF9 i .-; .:.I a L - -:dlJ : T t IUYl +dl .c2 ;'4lLbg .opinion qs. &$13- J d ! f i l J L l - . . 4 - ,LJI3iOI~.GJI , 4-, J u 3 L 4 i&L. - A3.personality qs. performanceGI 21 3i.practical tests W F I a& d J k d OLA GI Y .tests 5 &!-dt 0J-L;itI JL;I5 &A i+%lj dIj2L i;U &a3.~;;dl J F l 9.. L J G Y !&- b3&- ,Ll;;t aiming test UJJ-~I k 3 3 i +- 4 1 3 d I & ;lu b,-+12i a ~ J a l J G ' d &3;d.&J ' ~ 3 '&- .I2611 ;,&jA L@ + Y &U ~I~L;;.YI +3. J ~ L I;,J-L Block- 0-1 (4.ep;J U I , ,. 5 ~ l ~ k l .&$I r,ex' J&I.~ Design Test -a .Object-assembly p .maximum performancetests .l;kl Id +!&JJ .aJJd!&?I- GIJ&I 9 3 414 1 J& LP+ aLA 14jJSyrsir GL JLL a!2!&Y o b +dL.4j2&t a++ a I J d+ U I ;t;L!L+ + 31 b J L dl 4 &+ pJ JLL ,am13 speed -&+I d J k ! ,, .&+,A d l U l , , 4S3.((tests .t+l lia.+ accuracy tests
  • 239. +jj Lw9&1 L L Y IL - L I 1 .+L=yI 3% &+ pLjI L L Y 1- L d r J L I. + -ULYI GI,~;L*~I +3 J+I&C id$+- *Z j k 4 3- ' W l al.&Jb &ul;3izJ+ au j.4&J&~$2Jbljjpgreel+ fi3i&'vu d+iau 3!@1-+LJ ~ LL A W Ii j & I L;+ dijiilblblijij~+&j P association + ! d l JWI,,,- J ~ ! , ,i+ljj 4~JL+ d 3 '((test w C d'd,((free-associationtest d l & l d l - 3i s! ,$141> d+ I ~ IIL- dY& J? 44l?c;uu! J k Y w+l b+ & J p L Y &Iw W!t @ d A filJ@I,) A .o-Ld &A +j& - - controlled-association I @I d l - eAZ &I+ & w+l JI+ ((test .GI 39- 9 a u I dU 155 I+b& ~ a3~ i .--aa1~1-1. L & ~ Y I 4~p3 ,+i Y +i a ~ & Y d ~a& f l3a L b Y g ~ j d lL U55 2 1313Z j d l ~I,L-;!+~ .a ,.--. ,..If I +lGj+ -d 1 , A - - + I & a 2,I L . L & ) > 2 y - - ,(tEysenck Personality Questionnaire 36,): J ~ ~ ~IL ~gl?u i+3 .,2++ ~ ~ l ~ k i+>--JI -. (Lw ,i (QL;~L! JI+I A LLYI. & ( j ~ J+ 'jA>&l13 .% 3i ,,u& L y l d+Z.!.-- & f t .'uLKU3i. + I ~L)CL!3i&Y+ projective tests -&bL I i j l ~ & * d l ) ) ~ J+I >I +'aLJA&,:#!I a ~ J ~ aL"U*&A $414 .: ':A1 aJ&y[ &A $A! &l 'alt--l*&!- L .am1+-LCw L & u 9 '&L j L ; Y l kt&>2&fl- 4) ~ > k d IJ&$I & d3~ 2 ~ l f i - - d- ; J G I N ~.d 1 n - - - l a ~3i& Rorschach Inkblot &I . I A ~ $ ~ ' t ~ w ~ + ~ & . , ' 4 1 & ~ i ~ ~ & 4 j l ~ ;
  • 240. r L y + & L i j 3 . ~ I i k ; ~ l t l - ~ a l J ~ ~ ~+i 41+ i L l ) ,>I :a t < 3 J . - - -;1 JIL U I+ Wechsler &&I+ &L.... ,& &&I+ ((Adult Intelligence Scale tkJjJJ L I ) )- - * J &~;;d ,((Rorschach Inkblot Test 41+l Bender Gestalt dh& J& J&I),~ t++legb;J L & I ) ) +,.Test J&I ))3(((ThematicAppreciation Test Machover Draw-a- &dl yd >$L a J I I;i,,g,((Person Testb : Minnesota ; .-; .?.II+3;dl 2 , k d l ,((Multiphasic Inventory of Personality J-31 + U i lJ L L 9 ~ & L l ) ) 3 Wechsler lntelligenc eScale for &- -. 2 ~ p h ; L. ~kk;sl))~,((ChiIdrens ,Stanford Binet Achievement Test House- &Al3 d l-. J L I , ) ~ 9 3 ~J W I 3 ,((Tree-Person Test Rotter u l J . . - = 4 2 1 A ( f JL;;-I ), 3 ,((Incomplete Sentence Blank Vineland ++Yl i + b 5$1i ~l+iLl),~,((Social Maturity Scale --@I O J ~ L+A@! l h 3 g b - J! +2& ,.a :3-; .'.Ia u&'&dl i C+I- I AA+I GJ&Y 2 4 1 Jld- 'L- abL?j'dl ,JL3.&lJA3 a~ Y LbJ&kLB-tw- &&a&+ h + a l & L b *L g, 21p;dl a&&l jxi w3. A I ~ ~a ~ g . ; 3 ~(P I - AlJL;L*dl ,(tThurstone scale (js;-& Lka , J J ~ . . ,Likert scale ijJ&f3 C W C j21 ;rl U ,<(Bogardusscale a J J ) k I &ayA&if13 a L a b Y l - +J$ 3 3.. ,Strong e3-3 ,Kuder ~ 2 4 &pialJL;iYl o h -J ,Lee Thorpe cL;&L L&4 +-6*L rI ~ Y I~~ - - - +I+~~u b+ZI- -1 LJ&W C > w f (- pl+ll +?+ +dl ~d- 41j ~ i u3,+I- ab3-I13 , + d l +- ,++-!I &+'La + Jd,LjLfl- k,+1 jp&jL L ~ ~ Y !+GbL +IJ;~I
  • 241. L a&& +2 +*I ,d 'LLS j A J* -3 +'&&IyI G k j e-b 3!6-1 Stanford -lJ+L, G L S j j k l ) ) , 9TV L Binet lntelligence Test) bi bk LLII +L k i C;Jd 3 1 ~ k l. C Wechsler J l w I , ~- I. .*i3 ' , 9 ~ 9 iyJ ~ Y I . I i+LL +dK JIZSZ. . - & L l d I G L S j l , , u 9 w & ) ) '((Wechsler Adult lntelligence Scale JU;~! F L S ~ J ~ I , , . I ~ + I ) ~ ~ Wechsler lntelligence Scale for + k Y&&, (*is ,((Children jL;JY JA LA - JLL~I Wechsler Preschool and LJdL +s;l;j .((PrimaryScale of lntelligence & '&+ G K ~ I + &k-%=?dL?+~+&bj ,L;JI ++A .'up4GlJiJ I ~ I b b d!& ! I A J ~@d$&J ,i *I >iJ ~ t ~ZLYI +L d ~ j+j.;~kj,an+!J- +I+I J.- ~ l j k C & ! ) ). L & a J k 5 .((JA1 +I3 GJdIje1))(JELj3 +i & paper and pencil test
  • 242. i P 3 -J++be;3 4 1 -3 l a f i ~- - k ; L Y l $L$l &frequency distribution d J I J L fl - &9%F P JLFr- r1-l >-u+A & , % M Ia b J d & & $1 ~ Y + L3ia ~ J ~ ~ -41ji &percentilesd-dl ijLJkdI & percentile ranks -1 - ~l>;dl a k J 2 2 i d , + r I . - - . _ .j . d A I , - d l &@kJ2 3!t x A L ~giriF -I e l F 9 &*j+1 percentile Z&L aLJ23iijiJS; 9- c g S L t l +a I t , y l " l ~.scores dXLad-dl L L L Y l L + l Lg;09 lJ4;;YI ',.LC aL-)-JI &$Ig arithmetic mean + U l - L$Ld13&modeJ I 9 A t I 3 &medial -I b i&MI- dX 9 1 2lakJd&+I ~i.?jg+gdl~9 j l L$i.d JF +a akJd 4lyL+~bL+.dl+Lg+l&! standard dJ1-l &lJ2-,Yl 9- &J-! dl-3 &deviation
  • 243. dJ-1.. o-L4LJI tLL'L2 kJ&d(~ J A I Ip~=$iInormal curve G L ~ ~ IL+Z ~ & 1 ; r r 9 LiFY_rCIl 4.G p.. +& pj '&JL+Jl ~ l j r ~' L ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ i k ; r ; & i ~ u e cj$i bb ~ l + Y l + I+... IJU p+Lt JIj !A&id1 JL+++ &Jl ~ I I ~ ~ ~ ? + ~ . ~ e-!'L+i +L .. d J ~ l- b-dl 3i.curve of error 'UI ,&.bell-shaped curve j ~ jL i l b j J I ej+ -&-!ILL! +lJil41 & l L i c Y l vj+I -+ +I+ "--l;h $&! L ' 4 &+ .+5 d'w)! ~ 3 d 4$3 ~'b-ylJp ,yj;*;Il d kc g r b $3 -&&I akJdI b L ! , Jls;cYl- hi& A,., ji 31-1 J G Y I & ~ J J# & . M I a Y & p- U I LgjYY.,j I k Y l ju p-P=3 . al,L;;Yl p- ",~tl (Q+bL'iJl ;tr-JleJ&4dl j ~ j1; ; tl L@JI,,L~~ I,~LL,LJIUI.. S ~ s gba,h&standard score +LC &aF2 .L+l$ LJ&A &&+I LP k m d 5 t d ~ L - J- - ej+l p i u ~ ~ + ~ j d i + a k ~ d3.&I3 d J U I.. linear wl a%...4-i ;y! U S Jl &L . kjwl- c j L j A I I &arA;2 A &JWd&kJdIL);W U S &bJd fJ+u$ P+LLJJ&j L ~ L(J&&Jw &2 @ ~ J J &4-4 >I>$I w)! ++I ;,L~J+I~.-&+IL+ dJ-4 khrlhajA +I a % J I ;,&& p L a I 3 &JWIALJJJI . & J d I J+L&~a ! abJdfJ ++i + K ~ IU;Ip ~+IL?LLL+~ k f d n t l h~L.111kjdL>-t! 'W.derived standard scores- 0 . b @ + K a&JJGLC I I J ~ ~ b+k f a ;iJJL+u +JJ +it &j L '1 $Jub-13 ' +Isdl;4--;@. +- JLsaI,L;;I " Idr?,+U~;4JI+4&_)., . 0 .. bl#13
  • 244. (J+I j- - a , , , , ~ ;- p:~A b u l l- j d I 3i'content validity J + L I I &C diJGj'logical validity &L+&(jl 3 'predictive validity concurrent e j W l j d I - eJk JAL$2&- - validity factorial &Wl j d l . j d l - j d I ?+ jpk;' 3L; validity J3d &uI M I ++?- J S ; . j & Y l j d & A J i i i &- - JLj&Yl +9 j L l- &L 2 ~ ~ ~ ~ 9 . 4 1 ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~- - - sJLKf face validity cspMl- j d l .+ jlij~~Li gW L J! &A Liconstruct validity &+I j- j&'dI d~& L (J+ a#5kJ! j4;1~~+LLij 5 '&+Yl al#13 5 j l a L , Y l O h L'-' I L1 1 g L Y l - .aLbI+Yl &J9-J Cf!jL+W &IL-Jl- .,I &-L.af reliability a L i l l ?- b9 y~~ -i ?i g d ~?>++LA J~3- Jb ~ ,Lpi 'b~~ I-
  • 245. - T 9 - k lwA99e L j 4.. 5 Bernreuter Personality Inventory aL&! J& &4 UJ* & L A ,Thurstone i,++l C > ~ Y2: ,A- L ~uplYs 'Allport a3d3'i3'Laird .A3 % @ ; * ,.-,i+ Y O J+I DL% +ld;SYlg,neuroticism+U - +1 3 L Y l3 'self-sufficiency $1 U I " 'introversion-extraversionc l o L Y l dominance- t9-11 - aJ&J! 3 'sociability ~+C-L+Y 3 ,submission +& I self-confidence&b -1 3 .(S 'Y ',) ZrnI $I.+ -6 Lg?L ++I 31C ., L Y l ILA Ld* ?El3 -blAdScij6j I + i , l k J + S d I- *l;mgA-aiL- , q 3 a w ~ u - & e L 3 ~ 1 - lni'I &dlJI9 'i.JupJ,kll + Anastasi, A.: Psychological - Testirlg. Cronbach, L. J.: Essentials of - PsychologicalTesting. Lyman, H. B.: Test Scores and - What They Mean. Rapaport, D. et al.: Diagnostic - Psychological Testing. Historical : Watson, R. I.- Review of Objective Personality Testing: The Search for Objectivity. Thorndike, R. L.: Personal- Selection Test and Measurement Methods. Bass, 6. M. and Berg, I. A.:- Objective Approaches to Personality Assessment.
  • 246. &$J -1 ,,**u .. ..5 .. 4. 4 5 Eysenck Personality lnventory (EPI) ~ J ~ A A>(J&.dl Ih(J& ~ * & ~ l o j u ' i j l j T ; 9 L JgX4 (jL+ - & d l- LLVlLJ13cjC&Y1". &UI3 'ki ,:#!I&I&>I- " 5 &+.. &LUl 4iE > L q d A l & 7 u l ov (JLJj-dlb e j . & d l j + - a L , ~ i * r ! i n b g , i s ; , wL;lr Jj+i.j3' + U I j L & Y I (-yL P L k p ] l ~ + y L C U I L S _ I I dl Ljg,.-l 4 (j&.iu!r *LL (Minnesota i I 1 +3;dl 'Multiphasic Personality Inventory) aLdl w y ! d l &&g JG 9;!i+3 .+$I +J;?! & rh&Lki &)) :JIwlL L d I... ~ ~ C L Y ~ Y IJG 9;!i+3 ..$is-11 +j ..S'i., +.;;i &, :JI+JI J+ JA,) :JI+JI w& ai Bell Adjustment Inventory
  • 247. Q *:* *:* i L;;YI 3i~L+YI ILy 3 + J . a+3 'fj&, ; 5 - 1 - & ,:*Jl a l j & A l L a L l j J - 1 1&a$4-9 cifF . a j u Y &a dilO -I3 &s L+ i j L + Y l (.. &b- 'Hathaway &LLb- & ijK - 'L! b I & d l McKinleyl .rsj &A)?!-2 . ( ( $ d lJ! ,.a&! & &. jl';'Y 2- *+'w by++ & &+.dl i , & L Y l b-9- Crfl &+-I 3i extraverts-introverts b- C f O l L j Y l+L3'neurotics 5 &*+I FY+ FIJI3 ' @ 1 2 ~ . i j L + " Y l u GAW.3 S I T L Y ! o + ~ - @ ~ P;jj.ijLJS &.. &a3 jb;dl~;& akLUJ!A J d l' b iiklidi Eysenck, H. J. and Eysenk, S. - i j l _ L c l ~ A L AIL ;i 1 .-- . .rJ: I B.: Manual of the Eysenck U C U &l&I i)l Yl ' ; t . . d C - 2 ;!I -&+I Personality Inventory. &I,,,%, J! &ul&Wlj3Lj +ibj!. L ~ % I,&13 -- + 44 e J G Y I .b+;fl + d l &4 Fb&&&;dl &,L~I >- - TI' - U 2 &I Yl i&3 Lhs L J U I+ d6U&dL w.... L',... 5 9 C jli;l&- zJlu &I +i L - i.. ~ 9 9 1 .;$LC L J ~ !i j j ~ Minnesota Multiphasic Personality ijLJydJ L3 - ;-I a i)bj Inventory &;dl 4 ;4~&1j :-j &J+ (M.M.P.I.)
  • 248. ji b ~ t ~- d~~~ +@ u 9 1 . . . . ,pW e k j .wn 9 JI dJ,(nll- 'j-4 kcF JS +& ' L < ' - ,.. . & L Y l $J jc,#MI *L& Al,L+l p y :&*lkn ub 2 u - (HS) Hyponchondriasis Scale 241 &i l d l & i l l a Y L ;r' i i L U ck;Ubg? &+I pIalll3 U I p ~ u l kJdlj.p4.z7c11 ~+++%&QA+"+vG$' Y F V $&a 7 0 39 G j J J l 6 ~ 4 j Y! d l J b 3 L ~ - +IJh! &2 L b i +LA :JL -I- IL ;k"&LJj .e'J13- &'.aI 'j-4 a& 2- +I 'j-4 T,s p y 2- J A l l +%I uL J S u lG I * d1yLl'+LJ*, .L L Y I. +=Yl pu3,,.&lLL+Yl L(:Depression Scale (DS) &jdIj L + ~ ; S K I +IF$! + i w & L d l l 1 ( & g u l L P c i0L;YIj ,L+l c3Jl 9Ji L J P L b r L5 . - ,&I3 1- .iFL~ )J,L!
  • 249. pJ*Pi" Jd-4pJh9-I 5 p,pJbi,I ;;+I +j ' p , g L l L 2 p-+2+9p-@L- ++ p u l Ijd, &dJ@19.J&f d 4 u p i 3 i i + J Z i ~ : ~- 'SG.. ;,JL;,YI~ 4 uJi I i i LM @I LJL, ji ;J95;lI pl+L43),.+ lj-0 ?-1]4 ((Masculinity-femininity Scale ~ + b l aLB,+3 i,-fl a L b l & ~ W I+-JI sS'kisx; J ~ I ' L i t &I- G3I-l& p & L d I &c - '+YI wiT-lI oL;IL?I pa L L e ~ c b Y l .. 4 4 - i L ~ ~ : J ; . ( J - ~ & I J & ~ Paranoia Scale +IWI p@9. .'L;! J+LI~+ d l d+l & 'a(Pa) '&+I & u L L L d l j ~&iY4 .&i+ p ~ ~.. J+ : J ; . + G I ~ ~ ~ ++I :3l ';i&~~i.I .;rj UJL Phi :i,iji 'J&Y& ;i bk;l~.. p ~ ) ,.dJmi- Psychasthenia Scale &&-!I * d + I p + U l & 3 - 4 c ) " ~ ~- &dli,+uLlI cr"&I2 p3.2'L&lI Y $6 L b i +i :J- + pu~ 5 5 >I Awl + :jl ' - d l ++.. -2 &*I pLI;F43), . ~ ~ tW I J&? +JJ w-~ '((Hysteria Scale (HY) '+dl dgLgp+I d+ +lA i,++ p u h ~ j,&2-d& i,*s,t. Pwl&&)L-+JJ ji 'A.LYI~ d l ++L p I 4 ; s a&9;+& LO c;u < ,:,J &'1 ,A: ;+i 3iLL -4 4 1 1 - . :11ji ~ ~ - 1 1 a ~ ~ 2 h ~ ~ v"s;.. :&A +p l & d ! J U ! j L &I+- ji L ~ 3 U S ~ 4 .& L-'" u+~.- @I+&L-JI &l-Yl p&), '((Psychopatic Deviation Scale (PD) p3st-1;1 d& QhGJ2 ' ' i+I ji S&AWI ~I;+LYY G b Y I ++i,3-t&iJl a141+;;JL3Y13 ';ikL.OLfl - 2 . L Y l J L Y l j 'I-&++ &I- J & 4 i 3 @k3 '&k+YI ?AT-&+i a ~ + ~ + I LLL+ Y L: * !'&43~*-'3r-yc
  • 250. i wi; , ~ u (-+,Ai*&l$*l&31~+ - rl+d ,l+r '% b3, ~ k d I-. &A- ((IntroversionScale (Si) &+'dl- +UI -I w~-- JLL-~ & pl (JLJ I--L ++ '3Jb '*M 'L& +&I ,&id1 l b ~I+YI JI L+I w++ ~9 dj3 w '(-J+s;Y1, J L A Y I &c Li3+13 2 ~ 3J G Y ((Dominance Scale (Do) Low Back-pain Scale (LPQ)S&t 1 "I>r-i-' & 3&-+ &a1 & 41& GI&1-j A& r- - . .. . .. mlIjb,i j l ~ I + ~r(jlj3Ylj:&+, - pe4i kd~illl- + J ~ & v iJcipl 5 .&$I 4- &- +I :3l 'p&A Schizophrenia Scale ,&k3)) "Lc+n-'Io;" (p&Lu+ ,bH3.~&++i3i +a ,Hypomania Scale (Ma) + ,dl
  • 251. &~jbbyljs2-*I+ ,L+ Correction +I ,l&iA))9 .JLiiYl +LC ;ic;jSaJl +,dl $9 L ( S ~ o r e(K) -+jdI -4b b ~L L I. . Jl kL, ~LCPS~S J F g *+I 9 - 3 J 4 L 1 ~ a , A A 4 ; & I G J ~ I J ~ , : 0 7 - .$i b& ~ L , s ] lp- % bLiL1;I&h , f i n 1 Af. . 1 dlJ&YI" JI-I- k;lg I?+++ i . I I ~ g ; ~ L ; Y W & ~.., ++s;Sj +WI i b ~ i+++~ + . Q I ?ILLLW a-1 & G ~ Wd3~o k Y j . .'4u-;( + z J a~IJL&Xj -24Jtl;;fl ( f Y T - - A o T ) KraepeIini,+LA .profiles 4 1- i j b b L g J l + ~ t ~ .Hathaway dl- 9kb&I + - i ~ ~ b-fl.. - - J4;;W)) Meehl: k9 &;;dl 2 ~ ~ i d l ;2 A Atlas for the Clinical Use of Zl..--,dL . ;1 G the MMPl ,hIJ. L . +ki~gf 41- ,@ ((Prejudice Scale (Pr) +I .L +ulgel~a-it! ;4-&.&dI ,G3*.rjuIit( ,&A! Responsibility Scale (Re) -251 k+!$-& , L ? l G-1 ,&-4))9 . & l Y 1 3 Socio- &2YI3 L I n = r . d l & J economic Status Scale (St) r j l , b Y L -&+.dl -+.'a1&l$l .~.&&&I~~&L+I - L a d l- . &,i LU:, 41GLYL l b L & ~ u Y l & jdWL *+I 'j-p 3 d 42 y d d I j ~ p ~ , i J ~ ~ d l ~ ~ 4 ~- LwwG I J ~ L L Y I. . C 2- 6 4- question score @I+ &+,dl9 .5cb-"Yl -&)Cr &&Jdl IJl((LieScore (L) +=I ,l&iA))3 &+ U I *3=&.L1 L % sdL4 &Jd%s3L ~ L Y IC J ~ J G I .jkLtpo,L;;L Ud--=?c;LII zJF +i +L - 41- 9 9((ValidityScore (F)' j d l ,k))j
  • 252. ;J+& k Y 3-. .?@,.,,I L)G all&.=kc+ GO& ~ % ~ iI ~ 9 iI++ 1++;4ky1 +=s+19 .LSJ2i- Y L+i 2J9&Z &z u l i j L U Y kl;t;oll i j L J 2 c!2-k-ul & b 2 d c 3 i+-.CLU . L ;t-tiYl G U I- ;Lew (j9JLk3'Lyi i j L Y l- * o h 1&+42J-U-Jl-CL;IIIIJS2+A+l> + b ! p ! b b ' d ~ & & G9 'uraLeuJI 0 4 J~YI d3+ &+I 9~ $ 1 Inventory of Factors S-TDCR (S, TI Dl +a & b Y l- &MI &S LC, R) :+&'dl += 'social social &ILF19t,YJ 3;& T g ! introversion-extraversion && thinking - introversion-extraversion & l Y l - + u Y l &L D9 f thinking '; J U I 'depression !depression, unhappiness, pessimism >I+$ c.;;;tl 3;&g 'cycloid +a C g awlp u g cycloid disposition Guilfprd's Factorial Inventories
  • 253. P j-LJI & I & l 3 ,hypersensitivity agreeableness JWJWI - U l vs generalized hostility and & 3i(j9WI3'belligerence cooperativeness .IIY$I 4 &dl .or tolerance vs fault-finding disposition v o ;,J ~ Y I;ILYI -. ;+9 ~ ~ l j'Yl* v7 +(,ila13 'Yl* .. .Yl+ 0 -7L- W I.. &lgc G AU1 Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire &iR 3 !emotional instability&&'dl SY &dlj 'rupture L&YIj cLgjYl Lucky disposition, ML;YL~;~d.I$ .rythymia, carefreeness, happy-go. c j b l n 9'JAI ; I L L Y - . j.. 5JLjJJ# G, A, M, 1, N &($I - Guilford-Martin Inventory of Factors :&b- &iII &l+13 (GAMIN) .. g e n e r a l p W I & W l &i- G & U I ;j&Jl &iA &U13:activity iascendance vs submissionr+I I i ; I i.. M & u l 3 -d 1 1 I .If- . I,i ~s-;ir~~ - r bL , ~ Y I ~- . -C 6 &I I &hl3 !masculinity vs femininity- r :; 11) el <LdJ!I:fi<;11;;-;fI !confidence vs inferiority feelings &LJ&l - .I I J A * tI N & W l g- composure and .3*-g-11 & ' ~ l .calmness vs nerveousness b b l... M 9du!cj&Yl 3 (Guilford->jLj JJ~?J JI+~I cr&.. ,Martin Personnel Inventory) ~ + ~ i-*++I objectivity vs subjectivity or ; i _ L W U l
  • 254. I & pretension uL.+LJYI 3 I &= I ~rbautia "+IUl3 ~rbsophistication ;i&ItJI LLfl 3 && II+Ylj f;ilPUI3 + l U l : I guilt-proneness !& k d l A& radicalism IJ-hiJ13 -~1;3 self-sufficiency &I L I I clk;SYl3 .. & A ! J& $ 9 3 !>Id! J U Y l - In;r L& strength of self-sentiment &b&lj iJ&l! 2 s !&lU! J b l• c .&Idj ~rblithergic tension &A ()A J w Y ! &.. # :&+Yk &Yl .YL-I.. .. 3i‘;A ++ ~ Y L I.. ++I ++2 .((dI* ,L. 3i,+...- .. .L&a+ +I & k d l & c p M l 4P-J & I d J* J e w 3 5 ..4 6-k r f l t l ~&~i-t.ul)) :dL C j ~ Y l- High-SchoolL9;:ll L ~ r k l Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ) L L AJ Y + - & + l b L 9 .. JU~Ui: . ,:JI- J : -. ..t ,u~),3 Children's Personality Questionnaire A J!7 & &)-At &L.... (CPQ) illAl;;l *WI LLLI &Ip r n l .&IJ&&uIY! &2 &LLj 3 t - t -. - +i JK ,LI G(>.I~ d;YdTCJOd;JL;'! oL+* i;i~ ~ , i 1 1 92 1 9 % +LC - L U p.. &ill3 LilleYiLjl L i d I +LII ~ y ~ L ; l lf '%k L L ~ IOJ+ bu3- .u*i 41.. .gLki,~--7+%+1 .&L 3rt +JJ &= Jj-f' A 2 sy-kal :&?J- bJi&&ill.. &$Ij GKLII~!s)CL;Yl &Laffectothymia &lk..general intelligence ?WI JGYI- & M g :+JI.. 3i k2j1&l emolional stability @Ij ;J&l!3 ! c ! A Gj l e k Y 13 ep.k;ll JJLdominance :+&'dl JJLsurgency zlJ;Yl super-ego strength &$I ~ $ 1;g3 :-K;_$I j - u l &b adventurousness s Y L d l 9 - b h J j i-1 &~jJ4-xf!3 "ad! protected emotional sensitivity d l ' & a 1 3 ! d l 2-3 -&)CJLjl
  • 255. O u I l- .IJ a; l"Ylj !&L$I dlJ.Yj i j I JL;~'verbal aptitude ‘+id- :+Lid13+Wl :@LJ G ~,numerical aptitude 'spatial aptitude b - l l l d I J ~ Y l 3 - !~k$-@%G L + i c j L I dIj~!j&I+ J&& .form perception JWI ~ I J J ~ J 6 l j 'bJF &4 tools dJ.y13 :-&uwlJ ~ ' WGklllM JL;IL 'clerical perception & W I - ~ ~ I J ~ ~ I ~ ! ~ L $ I&+klllM pIi9GJj J+& 'motor coordination &I. eLfkC J L ~y~~' ~ J L c- t!~ $ 1lib3:-r- JLLi - ~ L u ~ &G3@ J&& 'finger dexterity %-J-p?)~J413&+J~ & 4 ~ d manual +&I z J ~ ! t ( o ~ ~ ~ ~ JL~LI-f J-4 'dexterity 2 L ~ Y I+3 jL+ .pegboard -b$g Ly oJ&A I - To - Lkllijldlsa;311 iL>h.. General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) *:* *:* *:*
  • 256. d$dl bAi &I+I +LC L-+LZ Cronbach, L. J.: Essentials of - p S & - J & $ ~ & b + ~ & + $ l Psychological Testing. ~ d L ; ~ & l ~ l g ~ t l @ a O L & l I Dvorak, 6. J.: The General- Aptitude Test Battery. -r7 - ..J U ' Q Sorting
  • 257. b - 3 W! i& _is j L J l :ely.. G3.l+J! ++,S-u3. + S i Stephenson, W.: The Study of - L J i ~ + 4 7 i j ~ ~ ~ ~ & l ~ - i + Behavior. .. & U I- '+I&++'+LLz.. ALGJ+l & +3 .:..:..:. +ijbL;;YI ,&> &j L d I.. r%&dl- p ~ $ ~ 3i$ljJI o h - TV - >-I +SUI- Li: J + ~ ~IL 'Wl~JL&w .* &= L n ,roc7 &-,I ,-, ,'WL 1 ; Semantic Differential o+'LJI SJL +-+JL.. . ( ~ o Y ) 0sgoodJEj3iLg,L1!,j y y 3 ,( 4OV) Hofstatter y b p 3 ,( 4 0 ~ )Tannenbaum r3&L3 ,Suci -*d+ JL- 9 r-3 9 b l - ! bLL & s3b ' b j ijLb&Yl ,&I3 ;!:I n - ':a" p,,, . - &dl.. b-113 .-I L3AI+I'J ~JYstl- +I i)& ~2+! J! d3- OLU M L i A& bi A,.. G I A ~.P * 5 +i)J ++ ~&LLL!I cto9+L1
  • 258. - r n - )J+ iiUl4dlJw Kuder Preference Record (K.P.R.) 3i ~1 l h p- G~-T+ J k l31 2 ; : - a - . + n +& j j & Y I (Strong Vocational G9+A J ~ I I J J ~4kl+ +IJ9L2,Interest Blank) :e'-r' Suci and Tannenbaum: The - Measurement of Meaning. Hofstatter: Psychology. - Osgood: The Nature and - Measurement of Meaning.
  • 259. U-W:&z p k J J ~JG:- L;& ,L+ -141y j I;; &ICJ - - 3-1 ;;u 'outdoor interest b + u l &dl3 !&IJ$! b&.d J k ; d l jLl p &J 'mechanical i. - C - CT!U l Jt-e113 t ~ U & d l d 3 d J+ ~ i3 'computational i. !$!~&13 +I3 y G ~ 1y &L i t ! $& +Lj scientific i. &I LjLLQfIj- L &4 'y+k J m ' d l &dlj :"dl $Ldl+C L:.: ]Ij +.in &I9 p- &i..literary i. dl- bk artistic i.>I- MI3:Q i k ~ ' k i J l ~ &I3 !U(c s ~ 3 i' 9 2 l * ;,lp1& J U i ' d & musical i. ++I (K.P.R. 1 1. - I J 1 i 1. - - I)) - K.P.R. &I J+&Alj)) '((vocational - -4-1- I J-. 13)), C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ p a t i ~ n J++ JJI. '((K.P.R. (personal) ,I& 7 + - , - t ~ L ~ J l ~ ~ G ~ J&*dl fB;(pGt&l J&dlj $1 +G% (j=.! forced choice &I ~ ' L B J W C P & I & > &ezr~3.0++pibQrrr ;;i (i)& ~k $i +$1 ' J i (+I 'iY J 3 ~ .i i ,'b J - 0 3 ~ 3 3d (+) (+) &l9 (i) .QLlpJl &Ip (+) .J+l ~e'UI~ b+ LLUI :,iJ;USCI~
  • 260. &A9';1: flijy : fl ij.g.J ! 4~ L J J&J9-dl J+ k;gc YA JAc 4; -Lilzu ' G U I , 'kljdI4.,Li;Yl ~ 1 3.+!. - L , U ~ ! ~'+13 Y 5 bl p a '4:a-L >?,lIayA'ALit1 a).I+A'LfI ,Li;!?+&!A&&jK j l k ; ~ ~ w ~ d j i t ! ' - ~ &9 ed~ 4 i l K&k!9 ' ~ 1 3 G k L & d S L . f I & L + 9 LJ~;;UYO'traits ak, j i I ,J$ J% + & ZJY-U U l p.U! & aL ti 4; a u 'ak+]io -&+'dl U!Cfbg t a u 1eL- J!GJk - LgLsJ+&ifI3 - 'social t. &-'dl 3 ,m! y &LiLJ J@! ~ l ; r . s L ; q c ~ u i g w- ,-I JL wi-~i-I ~j_g! practical U 1 3 .&I-. + 3 L 3 (J9lA'+4-tl oL+ 39L&Lf13 It. --,i,IJL!L+, d l- w~~~i y Z , ~ ~+3iL W ~ +I+ 1 ~$3 theoretical t. ?% L 4; l3$k bi ji by*
  • 261. a;Qdl'Jjdl*.. e9cYy.I Strong Vocational Interest Blank (S. V. I. 6) .:..:..:. s ~ i 'J-~~3+~ + agreeableness J+Jl L9k L a w ! &-J $+I w&&Jl (j& J '&+ 't. Lg -(JA3 '(OBL. i ? F 3 v ~ I i r L y A 3JI J j.. J+dIpu$$ d s 3 ' W ~ JL d lL+~~.JJ ~ ~ u ,i -+WI JL~ ++ L+ ,+MI 3i+MI- e J ~ ~ C i) ; a r 'dominance t. J-j ;i~m~ +s+ z L U K +kii L o p 3 ' J & J l L L L 3 a~~ w J J ~-, ~i~ Kuder Occupational Interest ci,l,,/r- SkA '(( Survey (K.0.I.S) '&+LI GI~LIL~! ++i ' ~ 1 , ~ 'LQ- 9-'&id'J 4 - 3 Pl_Lko"J= ,+GJJ& J+J ;4iko- 4 r p 3 + A G L o b ~ L 9 + LL;~iJAlOL g p-3 .-+ ' ~ ~ ~ k A - ~ ~ L - ; t u j ~ ~ : J+l(JA &ikh 74 31& L Y L ;,&L -4r- &4 Z i i L &IJ-Jl c &.+I wL&lia.Li LA L e s J ~
  • 262. b J k ;i=;UI k;u-. LA -clrtF$I- . &dl .+ YA &K p3+jL;yl ji JLI~I ) 1 j Strong-Campbell InterestilrLb).u 5 I J ( Inventory (S.C.I.I.) JwI))& ,!q;s f V L kLu &Jb ((VIE3 for Women GUe9- k l , , ,(vie for Men) Jky$j+ J . - ..9 Q l d - + a & L b b j&YI -3 &>I U I p 'ilrLp+lir'-u Y))& $I+ zx & - 4 1 Jb+- J,&, ((+&i Y,, ,.wi,3,,i - . - .b 4 4 1 - a'&' JF @L+F bz&dl ~ $ ! jb--lJdI JAI3 '.,L4 11 GwuG- &+i7 L d:s-,i3 LL;~, I cx-!ji b ' ~ &WlG L ~ ~ I I&j.wLiJI+- '+z~~+li)a&.tzr;iI;;:;?II ,&~.i+-+ -9 IcPt? *-Lb'b i&&rl!&+ JLl;lY3 ,,w~, ~ W I,i .&%I h~31 &AGdl- &&&h13 . .47 c , f i * , "L - ;-14; + - 'L'd L&i Lid g3- J L + z ! ZJ+ &-sL!j
  • 263. 7V &A'+ Y i &iieL.. 9 V I .&-I w- O V j 'J b d I w-iL &,c i A ,:#< -, 1 +,LL;;Yl ~z&..9 i j L b L Z j L & l a b ! . .G U l - 4 '&I+ J b $ I -W S ,+j+ j&I jlJ1 L i L Y 4 j .Lab >b'&+dl J+ j k !. 5 &Ql &pn- c I ; L & ~ L & - ~ l j & i d I + - i++J>di+3,&ip+dp w-A~idb 'interest maturityJg,Letl Y C S q f w b L + * L + * ~ ~ + I ~ ' L J L i;'+d3.j 2 Q 1 j pj$~ilLIjA 5 & 613 '91y &LilJ d l + c ~ T l & p s k i l l ~ g L 1 Y 0 3- O - c+3 '41J d l p 4 1 3 't)ri k ,A&41&u &+I3 & M I oia. p+I jSL;I 'J d I @i L L ; S '+& i,& i j l d b-- &I L ~ p 2 + 3 4 + l + u s k j ~ - . .. . -+JJ '& -4'J? JIS L4;ic4j.. A~L;;YI ~ b p ++I 41+ ~ ; j g Lirt &J- lip'J&l& ijIJ-Jl --
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  • 265. I -11. :-I ,A Edwards Personal Preference Edwards, A. L.: Edwards - personal Preference Schedule. Schedule (E.P.P.S.) Mooney Problem Checklist *> *:* 03 L J.c Lipill k$lhfl+ LiJgfl j l J S L + &a+ '-913ifl+r,-t~ +1+1 ? - ~ j j .j U l j L u lJ S ~-&UI jjk3 L i r L J 1 3 , z ! j ~ l jLwLJIjLi-;dlj &L3b & j d ! 3 c&dI3 ~ & d ! j 5 .J+l Lp;c=) i)l ajd!3 >JL k$W3 &>l&'dli r J I d I A L J I ;rjc ' d p + j L 1 - , 1 3 hr+WIj . - ;II. A - ,-dl& Murray dlJe4- 'Explorations in Personality :+L;S L & L o ,L;;k'l >& l+b L>w3 b i ) 1 3 d 1 3 L&alyiiwd13L3L--Y;tI .k&- .. kuu;xJIg- . +G ~ W I+i A- r+s ~ J - = J & ' d j ~ ~ f ~ J + - L h ; f ~ It l + 2. c ~ L l l&WI(+3'JG Ld+$~2 4 1 A ~ W - L L I L;iLhk.dl &j uJ--? LadU3 +=dl24 -3 & 3 b i)J-;;fP ;rhui i;r;+I --ALLI. - C
  • 266. Gesell Development Schedules +ko;L;JlJ& L-. -. - l3 .&&Id1 (G.D.S.) .:..:* .:* 4 %.I&! & L b i +A+ ,+I- L I ~ J +A+ 3iL ~ J Gkj 91 LGJI ,i c w ~+i; i ; d ~g- p.";d~ kLp&J&fI G ~ j u L 1 ~ & d ~- ~ . S L I ~ - J Id iL G J ~.o++ Z* Jr*Lgr+@'+JL,pJl l b Z ~ & + o @ j ~ ~ ( S T - A n * ) Yale JULI ~ L J-+p9~ A -,.~t hU3&Clinic of Child Development J L ~ . S ~ L . L ~,',,,,is+k o b t ; L 3 4 9 L A L & L I x J - , .I@;iJ+ i l L l J 2 &?I 2- $I$ C &&&+I- ~ k ~ b l l2& J U l- - :&Y &+L9 , S LV ;i;, SYV -& Dictionary of Behavior Science. - PJU~ - V + ~ _ ~ ? J & ~ ; ~ - I I Wolman. - - 3~~~ +A3 -i3L J L ~ I OT ;, ,~i -+,i JS ~LUL + .:* .:* r ~ J S ~ 4 i &h;,g+.LYi i l ~ ; . ~ ~.dl* c- J! ++,+ - ET - -lJd+i ill-+ Z+UI U q I l & ~.. +I$
  • 267. d j s ~ 9 1 & P ) l y l ~ . h ; ; S !JddL&19;U &+91 aYjL.4 p&3 personal- CT-k.&JI &+I3.. .. a L k ~ l. . u9social behavior: &ill &I+ h+AiLIJ JAM- '&Aj 1 ; L U l &I+ ,+I Lk" 41 &I+ *dis3, ~ I jlcl+y' 9'3' b+i,J;rl& Lg;L4J-?+ i;J( bJ*?>9 . y L ; r Y ' LgLLse,k *I- LW irss.9 A W L %. & ! d lg4jJFr- 3i.&+91 "&JJ pLl+l o h +J- ' 5 W * + 2 ~ & & 3 1-P J& LJ#I i-(JJ,+ 1 j k j Y l- 4'.. - + J b l a Y ~ ' + a A a Z J b iJkb-Y L e ~ L (2- 6kJjJK ];LJ&4 012- Y73713 A j 7 J ~ 3 ~ L A j 7 A 3I3 -W)+* ze'2-A Gesell, A, and Amaturda, C. S.: - C o h . - L K j cd+l aLIJs! LL b icpyj3+I+I ,Gesell Development Norms k;kJ'dl +hu scales -Lk. J& &i3 A* a ~ _ ) ~ ~. C J& Lbi3l x L L pilqkll o h a$L3 .Gesell Tests &LC -&kJ!a,&! h J b L. . 470 ~ J A C .general development tests +j lr+&&J3di.. + , 41 V kl, C.S. Amatruda i13>~i 5 - V 3~ 3w &J; j - ~ C. h3H. Hetzer >-A & && c k J Y I &+A pilqkll 1u.j~.Buhler a Y & :&a- *,aY&p&+lJ .. - JGJJ motor behavior: &+I &&I- $41+MI3 +I aKp + djI9 q - t i h t d ! &i (p3, ~ L I I 5 ,A+4l3 ,,+I3 l,lAl , , ~ b lJ! ~ ~ $ 1q L . 4 3 ,&Ij- & 9 L t 1 3 iu3kjLL& ~ 4 d l j JS ck;19 :adaptive behavior &I- ,+dl JL ,jLLii'dl $L3 >Jlj ip-?tI allF3 l F L l ‘ d 1 3-L -UU +A 41a~FL4-
  • 268. ,j~;r~~ W I9i+$I a ~ t , k ~ 2+5~-;+biG- . c :&I - LCWI9&I ek^J S9+l- i59-49.s"I' 3&tl9 .a-lgll clr'd'd~F 1-1 p sociometric analysis + L & c * ' , A l a L L J l o L ' %- LLUj3 ' C ~ > ~ * J I J G Y I- +a +sf! aly pb3' & , 9.. wG G L ~ I-. &2 9 .J&YI 5 91J&Y! o& k3jJe$ C b y &J G U I wl ;$ 2 9 '*$I ~ y q+$I ?i ;$ ~4jl-1'r;.l91 e ~ Y I.. >&I- y ~ ! 3 .-$I ab)CLU Z J ~pJ-sidl sociogram . L ~ I.pi;,;LLI..+YI ;c,,A~~I '2 ~ p 5 ~j c i;i J+YI IL~i 39 ,2iJ&d ' ~ F ~ 3 ' ~ ~ ~ j l S J a b *L Lo+ 'GJ!FyAJJI ;A 91 ' M Y 91 +4., 9: & J!P~~J~;,:J,JI+JI J~ bi -I +9 sdJlP -pa+ & &&j +a 9 1 $& (ji2 9 J5 +a 2 9 ' ~ 2 9s;;L - ~.*$I ,i J~~~ ,bi Development Diagnosis. Normal and Abnormal Child Development. Gesell: The Mental Growth of - the Pre-School Child. Gesell: The First Five Years of - life. A Guide to the Study of the Pre-School Child. Gesell: The Child from Five to - Ten. -LT- @&sn. .. Sociometry *:* *:* *:* y U Y I p c f L i + Y l ,&A! & b y ! ~ h u !J G Y $m! J-YI 91 sociometric test MorenokJF .@-w+l 3 a k w l Fk,lr;J ' 4 0 Y kL '41+h2pijw ' 4 1 p&lJ&! ilhG13
  • 269. 3i+$I b d 2 ~ 2 ~ p 9 ~A 'LLLU~+$9 a~,c;;!;, GI;; w mutual 3i mutual rejection 2&& iJFJL &&ii,j &+ -L;iq sub- ++I ijLl 'choice 5 h I > I JI groups - O L + G . G ~ . ~ + ~ + + . S ~ 5 g- ~,+A~AI ~191hu I ~ IL L 3i.b3,~. - 3ii,+l;;? L ~ I 5 ALL+i,&& 31 *& l&K Ii l .&+ &*9t"+l A L l J d ! &j W S '& 1 4 s 2 9 Js (jl *+ '&I:, 'b21pi;,e3L ~ Ig 4 ; ~ LU'iil 'gild1 '7*& &(jJ& G3- ~ ~ & j ' d - - L ; r ; i ) c ~ C ; . J - ;,+I3 LfpUU;;&I- Z+@I ;,,+I $1 &,dl3 L ~ > ~ . + A A + !- k l J d ! ~ + 4 i J Y 2 d d j L l d r g ~ ~ . .~ i , ~ 3 4 ? l d r t o + 4 a L I j d I OL+aG-7 d3 ALUI sl;-!3i uP-;L+! $ c i L e ;4r&YI JI- 4;i3.2~>d~ ';J@I Jb&= +&Yl & U l 3% & U I * ++I! J- &A- y d ! i j y d 1 Ui,+ 'profile Z d L W L + L + Y l L$l & M I 3 ''+MI & W U'+- .. @I +3 .$!.irW13 g stars T99?ill&C W)Li +- ,.G +i 3, ; 9 ~ d - L ~ I , the overchosen illlJ-Yl +a popular a& i::.& i ) ~&dl L L L $1,. b3+ &dl 3i'leaders p "d+3 .LwI9power figures -5 $ A &&dl L2LdI- - a-1 i,i ~ u . w + ~ ~ w- ?psfI r L JXi+Idpii L $ p d I a w l '& &l+YI the &J~7-dl+3i'the rejected 'the isolates +13&I 4,unchosen +3-1.. 24 'A= 3* &dl p 3 p J hY &a '&dl alyI 5 ~ ~ & ~ ~ l S ; . l l ~~3 ,&I r-fcK-'4 ~ ! 4 7 t ~ ' ~ p pel-4'& W ' 3 p - 3 d+ii i,i '.+i &I +3 . L ~ I
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  • 271. & d l ++I c.I..')--14 - 'd3'=- 'K +3 +9 4s;..s;3&4 LA.+j&i LAM (& ‘-kG+4 CjUI i j b ) g U#I - fiuI J3+ ',k ;i~oj'bflo h gk .&I +I ',&y-wbf- 9- LS &+i s3 &I191- . _1 . !~rL+LI )) '(Pintner-Paterson Performance Scale) five- -I J C ~ I -+.I &LAL,+ ~ e iU >-3 'figure board :&Y Wolam, B. 0.: Dictionary of - Behavioral Science. -Lo - 'JKAill &Lcy boards - Form 0:. .:* 9 jb j K i::1 % ~dL.4@ J9j ( " 7 ) Edouard Seguin LA,++ qb (dr J+l GILL ~9 b & L I ~ I l ij&U ( A 0) Goddard l,+IIF- -bJbs~i-L+L~.+ELI 0 L 3 ' I& -*;, JU~ JLJ!
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  • 275. i,& i,j+.l 'L* ~ ~ ~ y u-li-jLLS+.iISL- .jbJ.,&4 +uz+ L&LA Lg;b)_, Ls;.-%9 .aljLJl f( 1; fr kiJ9b e @ -1 i-~ki~ , ; 5 - ' j ~ lalJ@I ~i~.iJ4JOLc' - VkYg .-L.::...:+ i d 9)li;YI (the &l)) PI OLGL&! b+.,,$ ;s),p,!,,!&+9 method) (the method of equal i~gLo;.sfli+l - &a 6 3.appearing intervals) - ab,d 4- ali&l -3 I;J ;,LJI~ sJ&l h2 4 1 i , ~bi LL b ~ i ~ ~ji d bJZ- bllYI;JI i i W ' h 3 & 2 4 >,&id1 .i3dl ji ; d l >- - ~ l > ~ 'G h l JQ,> - & U l 4 j j y - -LsL;!,&+.Ldlb 3 G P .pP .wiij 9I a l i ~ ! &C $1 al,Lyu ,&id! 3, 2 9 1 +J., .bJk& tj-+ Thurstone Attitude Scale - ILouis i,+,,$,i&~+~ cltLbL;r)U ( 900 - AAV) Thurstone & O J b l j & & +++ -1 &?+'9 '-&",.dl G ~ ~ ~- - aI,l+++&Lp+Jd t+y3 +a b L ; r Y l Lhji;L. & + ,i .,+I ,i bh+U .~L++I2 .,kj.&.A ji =+I a 3 ;jltyb 3 C fL g ; c b *+ J!bJ44-%23.%-&42 raters or #3i;L;;4 :3s;-$ -6. 2- &&I Jb M i 1.judges C C ‘,J~YI L+I ji;.. ,&.:--! I&- ji .-L+l al,LJILS$i &C X k L Lp . +bi b $ 9 b .&I a~i@~& a ~ J ~ ~&$i ej-L- +.I J! - ++ Jp0Lh;rlI &a!+ A3 .UWI
  • 276. ~ j + + 9 L 9 1 ( & ~ k 4 & i ) J?* +41- JU~I AI~L?;;! + GsFj'f+ &Sj &. J & Y I ~ ~ & l ,&'dl ,aui W l & 9 ' & d l mental test +Jl J+Y w..- p L 1 1 3 s+ld13 d.!J~?lo- rJ& JL;lYl&J .La*9 i j x A L l 1 &j p+I J.c oJl;rfl motor test &+I - z j * L e ' x l J I 2-9 J+"J3 d4J4l9 ALL][ ,aJ_CjLZYI i j d I & w;..I- .- -++e ~ 9 1 3 behavior record&w1W I .. d+I &a c P d l & GLk?jYI 0L;;YI &J_oS , J G Y I j + L Y I pj *+I3 ; j 2 U l 3 +-Wl ,a+- aI*LI-.;i; .&wl +G~~~ -1 +&b.. j4;;l u s J.c 4'iit;;13 (j&j'-1 ijJ&Yl t,j,*;rI JULI !+*3' e"& j ~ ~ jj - I --fibj~ &+j .. - L 7 & J W I.. Cgsl+13 L . :E'P Thurstone: The Measurement of - Attitude. &$I ' 4 U '+I!U 4 - Q jub Qm~g Sap"+@ The Bayley Infant Scales of Mental and Motor Development AL*L)) e-ulb ' i ie,- .(Bayley J U I JU'W G L k i J Y l o b 3 Scales of Infant Development) 5 9 &j&k jel))@ e u l California JL&'W &+I- G k J W (Infant Scale for Motor Development) $19;PYJ+ i,&,j 9 Y 0 L L
  • 277. P $1 j 3 - 9 9 J- &d- ~ - L k e l l ~c ( r ~ J 9 h4~,i ' i JL+ &ill- d l 9 (JIAI +) ratee r 2 L i i f l ,&L & j J J+2-G'Jc ;A GJA1 +&j J&Il ;A 'behavior rating ;A ,i 'OALG A'ks(;.9'ul,+ 3iLe;~+4;&du;9fii;~"Is+ Lid+3.trait ratingke,*JLG am1,&Jx&iJI + L a- t-ljLij 6~2U13'&I3 ' b 3 M I 3 '-LL$L --1 $j&13 ' J L Y l -IJ - &41LUI 3 3 .LbJ+L3- - ,L;9 fL+& s;&LIP J I ~ I-&I 3iLJ+I +- .LC(r3+1 2- liIj ;&i f,I -? & ~ ; ~ , Y L . ~ L L ~ . ~ I- &JgLJ ;LA '&I9 & ' + J + r h i l ~ e ~ ; j j ~ ! d l i i l &- i a p u l OLLLJ!~ .y~ie~ ,i LW GLJI A~~ 2 LLA- , ~ iAGUI ~r';i~ .-- . 1 u ~ ~ 33iL S , I J ~ U I - A+ 'ji+ 91d~ 3 -t9- p&Jl.. @!!&Q.... Rating Scales
  • 278. .+J +3i-+J + (rank +dl ~ & l + L rating scales) 2 ~ 3-+& +&-dl nf 4 e k d j + ~ ' L g O ~ + U J checklist rating -&dl $19 & ~ ~ i-+I,. 141uL;JI~ 'scales ,i i p U h l l + LUI ~ U I A- >- r U I i,& A3 .-I - peer rating sbdlA- - sbJl+, J3-JIG p 4 - C JL-G=YIi,& +i ' 0 ~ ~2 l y , J l ~ l'-p & - 4Lyh;l -ZiJI + i,& A 3 cj& G3- self-rating aldl,- man-to-manwL A+ cr.;.;LY *&- o ~ & i~ I ~ l - ~ L l lL J Lrating b3++ &+& 3i$6 2 1 4 1 - Z A i$Gj i2&l f+gn +ju 41 3i- .P,,,tl o b 4J U M If l ~ 9 1 -&&A , d l -L))-- ,&La1 fLJl J& '(numerical rating scales) wJ,i &.I.. L + , ~ ~ L+a f$l Ib&y9 .LbA-l;i, 2l)ell u' WJIc j l j i ~k*e+LLJI + d i +L +.. ?UI + L++ .uWl@+ &&I * d l &j abJJlL& (graphic rating scales) &ii.L a ~ u l ji
  • 279. ~ 4 @ & & 3 i i , + g + J = it49J4'9 'b92-J JL1% LL ( u ~ + i ).&i A ~ L I Ie 3 - .. .(i,+&l abL;;'dl ;isg&l )+.Gal wLkQ&43-- &&99 i)+jij j2b- lidll~~. (Haggerty-Olson-Wickman Rating aLA1LPl 15dc' 1 Schedules) *+ Jl;ltl *;c &l,Jj d.cLJl d F j- 'LjhI kLS-Q1l+L W I 0-4 $4 0 &&;'dl a 4 L i l l I= wayGus 'U+ ays&LII (JA - 2 K L Js,.-j ';ikLcJl d&j -5 +-- ak,J e,! 'J!-+,J *L;tQ q u l GL;;fl&gx?g .U9b- JJ!L -L- gx9- 4q L U-. q ~ - ~ ~+9 +-L--+,i +*k+l a& ~.l;?ji-&k+!j .'bLp& i+LVb),'L.+i~1~ (Vinleland Social - 4 Y l c+U - c-l' w e Maturity Scale) +kx.ll + GI+! 'J;l6iLI ~~Y~.. &I +I9 '$Wl *+li&dJ 'dl2&- zJluf & G3LLP+l +j + b j L l ;il+l U L Y .I+ l i - ~ ~ L d I j - &iklgLk4-ll ;i+l J+zJl -L".)) +j alsrJ.;;;fi,& (itemized rating scales) - .h'fibJ-&j&&& MI&+i ~ ; Y I Z , ~ I G+ +6 ( ' ~ L g V u ~ + i )-41 i J t I I ~ k ? j ~ L J IAI,&I &$i a+.I JJ! 14cj+13 .('% t4Y~~&) ' Y L . ~ e = Q J ' ; r . ~ g i l l (Thurstone i,9i.-i-l aaLL?Y Attitude scales) u mJ+.l ;;;La) -- &j.. i,& (bipolar rating scales) alwl L % & ~ - ( + i j ( ~ m ~ & b ) l '&j '&j W J L a '+91 *A! *9 b 3 ~ 34 + Q 9-3 '2+3 L-9))J i - 4 1-j . i r g L i n &jd))j(Q sorting) 3' ; f l &Lip9- (polarity profile)&&I '&+iQ&&+&;rJJ4 i ~ ~ ; ; e l li l k v ~ ~ji ~ U + I+= d;d
  • 280. .:.9 0 :&P Weltner, K.: Informations theories und - Erziehungswissenschaft. .:.9 Q Wechsler Intelligence Scales ~ ~ - 3 ' P L ; m ) ) ~ e ~ ) ) (Wechsler Bellvue Scale) (W.I.S.C.) J W ~ IG U l c l J ~ g Wechsler Intelligencescale for ~Ujif+9 'P&)) 3 Children - ~ ~ - c e l ~J+ L - L L ~ ~- JU~I W.P.P.S.I. Wichsler Pre-school and) U U I&'.&iAJl U I c j Y L & d l.. +~;IIa Y L 3 + L Y l GgLl h i )~ a ~ ~ ~ i k l s i l ~- -41.. .( i S b'P&4 *I* *G'P&)) &+*-a- (Rating Scale for Pupil b&l .. .4: .VUh b$LC hiAdjustment) 3141:&j.. i W J d lLJ- L e L i + Y l.. c ~ l l j.JLLk;Yl F ~ ~ ~ Y I ~L ~ I j d l jL u U Y 1 3 +Ij L ~ L i Y 1+;dlj L&&YIj L ' , J G Y l- +I3 L ~ b i Y 1 3.. .ifO~d- &+Ij rCtulJtll1 ~ i I l j w S AA=J &L+n,l+j +*++ JI.~b~c j s ~ L & ~ i % l kue1+&-J~ e - 1 A j . I m s j i j ! ~ A l jFKd *ILLS .;j L 2 A I p" & U I p U I &lL= +JJ JAIA- 3 aldl A- +pllzll+;&rIsgL4Ykil jchL ~ b J ~ ~~ L I>~,+LLJI- &+ d3.+I$ Ji+l*.G L 2 d l 9.. h l $ l o k Y l J l d I ,i L;h~j JS bjJ-
  • 281. kc^ &p -%-+?+I 2-94! 4 ~ 3 (( Primary Scale for Intelligence &.LA141 + L S d>u3,&A))3 (W.A.I.S.) Wichsler Adult Intelligence .((Scale -12 b3 a& 5j< 9r9 ;t;,JjYl LJu a + + i L 9 i 7 k L , Q L i l i l l ~ ~ + I 900 L;r+ZlpJ13 ;Lt&I ;ij+l w9 ,k))(-4 14sgjJIe 3 +uj,L+,) ~1~ .((&.LI~I + E ~ J C a+p , 9 i 9 L J ~ & ~ ~ J L Y I (-L'GJ.C 9 v i L L l p & & 4 1 ZL ~ i ,IW I s C-R -141 a G LJd..d! &Ljz i u JL~ . 979 & L b J 3 ~ +Uj -. All; d b 3 y J ~ Y I3 h! ~Lbhlj&..&Id O +J jU13- &kL, 7 & &&'-JLL;..et+XjLLglx3LgL b&Ll&.. L&uJ u 9 1 j ~ $ 1 W C L" GI Yl L+KdlpG &- bL>j +&I 'a+3 &" w9- .. , k h l GL- +- J iP L ~ h ~ g i ~ % ~ t + g ; U _ _ b -
  • 282. a 9 o J s j d u l- JY~c;suYl& o & L Y I A $ & ; j d I d X & &a &A 41- &,Id & U L 4+k k i d ! $h9',-I JY&Yl &>J -&l$ F w j ;i_LfL4dIa4duL W C vocabulary a-l+I jLli.1), GI 2l I+&i 41LWLIi~-Y test ?MI .KU ,& 'ki4i~g,u w p ~ u i + b ~ . y - l ~ - l u b ~ ~ LLL3+I &ijd,&L LY S GI G~.jui++LJI 415 .dk ~ I ~ + Y I s i p d ~ - l ~ ~jm~ rs;I-, Y car ',&JI3, LQ ai+-Ldb+I ?L+ 9 *$j&! 9)),-*&I &.,' $ 4 9 +d'TWJJG-1 's A& &JA!zJ> J+ LMI ;91v9 ~ L ~ K ; - Y I ~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ . ,- . ~ g l j+I *$j&l &a&&YI 4- ' L . 2 3 -*wI &dlI-LLIY-) & I d & LAi;,-k,Lafl &I$! L+L a ! j w Y ! 41 J-Y! .-+L YI vL+JI ;,j&I JS d2.j l l t l- 6 5 +yl&i,,-.n,t; l;i,;r;tnIt;9L - - 9 9 - - GY JJ-4 &d L w lj&b 3,-&jd! JJig .;++!I 4i$!j3 2 4 1 &fi- kl -lpJ c+z Jla &j+bfl + U I 'jw., . + W I & d l Fa ?>LS& J ! 2 s 1 1 o w aL+d &&I), &.,.JIj+;YlJl +g +I -l)ell 5 j - G (apperception test) (ekell 3~p: +j ' G L d l dl* y..,3, & u b q B k o & 3 + A J & Y ! L&p3 'reality test @I41j G l ) ) ec,kzJ-.ll 3pjLLhI& sder. - . & b Y l ~- *'tSL;y (similarities al+Wl ~&LI),&., 3,ijd13JhhUl ?+I +..&test)- i9 & G & G ~ I+= b ~ n ~ l ~- 41-. ?L;YI AS ~GI), Li9. ~ + y &ALQ! ,&A (jbnurr~berrecall test cPi&.lI5 . - -k p ;$IA! j k l &k3ty.ty ,+#y1 L J d I d i g '#& tL3;hl ~ J L Y+& 'ki,.&I- ,L+A,.~I 43,++ Y arithmetic test + w l j&Al 3~
  • 283. -01- 6 ' l ~ y lw Arthur Performance Scale I- +~?SYIzi+ &J- ' ~ l J k ! G L Y L Paterson ;*$& Pintner5 - I . < J ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ i o b j e c t a s s e m b l y t e s t J G ~ ;izs-f9 'Knos Cubes 4s K C ~ i ~ ljWJL;;I)) 3;I'$-I o b L j Seguin Form-board b& .+iYl9GAIj LAs&& Stencil &&-!I aIJ-l +:+ +:* +$ .Healy Picture Completion Test J ~ ~ ~ A ~ . ( J & Z - I ~Rapaport et al: Diagnostic- PsychologicalTesting. ++&i,-4f14++ The Measurement of : Wechsler- Lp-4 ;*',ill +$I a w l Adult Intelligence.
  • 284. R. Meili: Arthur Scale. In- Incyclopedia of Psychology. Search Press. Vol. 1. *:* *:* *:*
  • 285. Mare and Foal &I3 w$I jL;;Ia s ; j & ~';J- abb p3 'Test5 w 3 w 9 ~JF Lgc LjJ&= t 9 3 .+J J- Lbl~4- 3 1 3 % ?LJI &dl+ Gl+i C ;tlG C ',IJJK&l +j L*LYI p9-*nntI 'j&K] +3 ' L ~ Ig u ~ iJI ~ J G I .. . G l k i t l J A C ~ +j +jdI Seguin b L L , JL! L] rtpl& 'Formboard Test ZSIJLa - b - + ~ d ~ i +' J L . J '$1 " A L L ! 1 3 (y+I3 --js .& ~ iJ!~ J G !,+I CSLII.. +41w ~ iy~ -L~JJI d _ ~ &$ jL?;;.I9 .ay3;C4 &% &- Five-Figure board -1 JI < <:tl 5 ;i--LY& J e l kUYel. + A L ~'Test +uuy9 '(is3i4J! ;i+ $w*4*ip?++ JLk j d l Lg3'LgI+4;L &sf jL?;;.13. G L ~ I 2-3 -1 $1 dill Pintner-Paterson Performance Scale
  • 286. & 3d;r;~Ship Test 2+ul JL;I.I~ '+ +'c &2i* 4 42JY '- -+3 g w+&-f13 ? &-+JdI -3 & J k I 9 .~Lk;%l - 9 3 'Healy Picture Completion Test 2- Lg;-9crcc+) Z J y +=2JLLL Vs" LA j> +wt3'z+ fibs" &J2J+I i.kpe3'+L & - e J - d ~ ~ j ~ ~ ( l c 4 ~ & ~- I I I J u g +$I f i ~hJi bs~;)~'Cube Test Ui;p4L;&L&+I,,? . O G ~ ~ ~ + I + + ~ + , + L I . U l -2 j d l fil, t& L+&Jd'+3 .AbJl+04Cp+l :&-Y" Encyclopedia of Psychology:- Search Press. Vol. 1. i,Ss;12 'Two-figure board Test &I C C Jl I+ J3Yl '+d4+ 5 6 'LJl G U I 3.. '~l>l -+JI + & ~ C ; 4 J S ; ' P @ + W ( 3 J & ~ ( ~ $ I&GJdl-3 '-&$I j+13 .,lAl P L j W I- AL+I ,Casuist Board Test ij12,.;;1Jl kzg ~ d ~ i k ~ iL , + L ~ + s ~ & ~ ~ 6 'U -1 & ;ijp J U Y - '-+WIF~&L~I ~ u jGIJYI+j && j d I -3 Healy &- LabJ&-I3 . G ~ % ;i+ZJ p9'Puzzle Test + J p b 3 + . + - Q ~ ~ : ~ ; - p j & = k s t ~ J l - 3 j&I3 .dL j W l ijL+13 GliYl ,+ +i)Ss;I,.. 'Manikin Test &iLdI J i c i 3 ' i b ~ ( - + ~ - ~ % + ~ l J L j 1 31 ~ t 1 3ViJJl t L j l & -+Jdl &d9'>Wlj + d l y)L.)L;;19 . G C k ; h l 2-3 +2 J L e 3 'Feature Profile Test 4t9y~L++J &dl-+ G l j J .&A&bjdl#j '&J
  • 287. Binet Intelligence Scale d--; ..UjllV& j3i d d +LC &Lug 619.0 L d-9 5 Rnet- ;lm 4L;U L;&l +dl+ (jI;L1&dI "$3 Simon Scale L'Annee @-! l ? L T L9> l +C +Jji&Kg.psychologique J3i;lK3. + A y d L + JA-,u*k; & ~ + 3 ~ 1 A 9 5 k L U h j l ~ ! L *L+g z ~ ,G+. ,.- .,J+J! J L J ! &1- G ;I-U-J>;LJl-. ;)-)Ij3
  • 288. ~ I ~ - - L ~ G J S ~ i j d I qLjpl djyj.djw 4 2 Y &Ul 9 k;Y1 U d l- & i J 1 3 ~ f . A L i J ~ l i J ~ I- a ~ ~ i ~.GWi-d!+y ijLg &I;l+dj l S ;A= pb~e-L +3196 9 7 &U .Stanford-Binet Scale QLLU- -.JJ+ (Jk&I lJ+Lb k 3:& hd +I39= 0 3 G j j&Q+ ~ l U C T c u r L i 2 i j & 4 l- . &Uir&-iibg - . 4 i 9 ~ ~ & ~ ; d 1 - d &bJ+13 ;?-I +j L ; 4 j 9 + 'k+ yi L ~ ,- .pu-+Adi p L + & L d _ ; 4 + Y l ~ i U J - t.- .(+ Jj+~pb+i).+ : e l 9 Binet, A. 6.: L Etude experimentale - de I'intelligence. Binet, A. 6.: Le developpement de - I'intelligencechez les enfants. .:..:..:* LgLLlYoJdI.. +I L e j d & J l P - J ' Y . 9 . + 4 l + I L + &J&ly&&UlydI- - L t & l.. 41u4;.~j.&i JS A +I+ A k $ .&hY basal age - &;,kL,&~sLal)pJl- I L J I st~lW1U- a d3 9*A;i;,&&+9.dj k L U p ~ ; , ~ + l ~ d l +- & I ; L L U ~ I + + ~ ~ . ~ - O P ILn i l l 4j yj ..i- U W I +,,+z 6&i UhL? 3i p w ~ biLS .+w -i.+IjJ-II GL u L + l d l p k L g b & p J- T ~ - t ~ ~ k ~ ~ ~ ~ - . - . I jkjll d h bA!9 L ~ h lJL$ G b . 9 &U &+iip p~~&A 'ar+ LI+ o i -U~'bfJA= ill?> ~ p b l u - ~ ~ f 9 L ~ W- C +A= L4 L L I LUG & J A G - +j .. ~i a pji .r i9r 7, r ,I-~U ~i JKr +GkIJI2- r l h ! k ~ .G L ~, u iLS &LLII- 41
  • 289. 4 s ; L U 4 i &.. ...d J + L pl+~ Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
  • 290. J G Y I +j L~J&&YI +3- ,r;$ctl ill+' Pbt;,ltl- " & U 4 p- rote r n e r n 0 r y ~ I b ~ l d 4 ~ ujLUS c ~ 3.&h~ ~L+I e j L o p L S i ~ y " c " ~ L ; ; 'J! ~ J I 3ill+ JA&iiu!A+ C j 1 i 4TV 4Lj JJ+LpuL & d l /-. . - Terman and i)L$ &N JL~;!i)& i)i d& o-CjJj- Merrill d l c , @kJy ~ iAUL~I +il~J4;i~~-ij .G ~ uGL, (r WI illJ& t+! h- JU?,i l Y . i L i ~ l ~al~+dj F c 4 L 2 j j . i l U ~ I 3J I J A Y l j L ZJ+ -1 j wwi)LJF .%I+, 4 4 ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~7.4 U b 9 l e - , + t ; r , + -1 &- +jJ- .Gd3 L k L , 7 &+I & I d IdL;& v (~-4 AL'd!j JGdI&+ L L dj (JAJSL*- & + ~ J + - L L ~ ~ I ~ ! ~ && > kL, Y r + wL?;ieJl PL+L-Ap-L+ 4 L J >&'I3 4YV
  • 291. '(9161) 'ale~sa~ua6!llaluluou!s-lau!gayl 40uo!suayc3pueuo!s!ratjpJojsuelS ayj40asnaylJO~ap!n5alalduo3 epueuo!leueldx3uv'a~ua6!llalul -40IuauraJnseaWayl:'w'1'ueurJal d,S:
  • 292. Adaptation Level Theory. In S. Kosh - (Ed.): Psychology. A Study of a Science. Vol. 10. Snijders-Omen Non-verbal Intelligence Scale
  • 293. JJU~(JA & d l i)t aL+I @&SLj&.. >i&+I ji $1 JL ';--ti +G+1ll ~ ~ ~ ~ - &The Vineland Social Maturity +, .. dd9' 4 i L I - Scale J* & + L Y I & 4 i r J * l Y . ~ L ~ ~ ~ . I L ~ , L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Y.:* .:* .:+ ' J 4 & - - * k2- 4'JL;;Yl &= J+l t w dk9'(SA) social age @+Yl- L+ @l,-,Yl- ,LiiJYl + (SQ) social quotient +&'dl +I-
  • 294. Leiter International Performance Scale JQd'++' Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale
  • 295. -7. - ijlJOLi;uijq.. uol+O Likert Attitude Scale P u++,&idI IL+i+ GLL;)U;-+~- -3 'Thurstone Attitude Scale a& 31J!&L ' 4 2 4 ( J j g 2 1
  • 296. C . ,I 7 ,I r 1 j1 o Ll &j ,+- c;u GIF 0 O A J I jlL3 i + ~ji .J+JI aiu I - . C -' I L4J-f iu GJJ& 0 k X f L J u I t* 2 4 - e l + J s f w3 ,,&dl& GLJJ 43 43 43 Lickert, R.: A Technique for- Measurement of Attitudes. 43 43 43

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