الموسوعة النفسية 02

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الموسوعة النفسية 02

  1. 1. i j I d I ,L;;- + + Y b* ++I JS j j ~,+iji *+ ;I!~d~j &3304f5il.,14&i;l&p FP*.+p ++I3 -+-;dl +' :( 7t o - o A Y ) Grotius p%jE P d+I ;li. +iij- .$dl +3k d"L 6 P 6 P $ c"E'+I d"L4 c"E@jJl P i j k r~ ++I3 .++I klL L d ~ ~ ~ji AM+I +&k;t 'War of words f i U l +p9%J& Psychological 2 I ; fl+JJ,+-fl ,Will war i j ~ , ~ y I+~,-j .warfare ++I3 ,Racial war-++ ++I3 j -+,l+Jl +&Ij ,Cold war ~ J ~ L J I ,Political diplomatic war k_lLIILLU-JI .- +jm.Class war i j l h l + ~ j ~ + ~ I j L S u r v i v a lwarsGI j k 9 1i-,+, ++13 .Sex war 41 d++I ,War between generations L j,War against poverty JLLill &j ,War against diseases $41 ++I ,War against crinie ++I ,War against war Lg- & fl , c l d l yL+d3 -41 oLM f j-
  2. 2. sj LLJ@G G ~ I ~Jl>%l $LL 5 P JxG3.I& b;;(j&9* L 5 i + & ~ P ~ & + + l ~ ~ ~5Kb;llu y j J&Lgid &rjpq9 L t I+Y I3 -++I S&iL3 &&J~Lkll+L>;~I&J 6-1 5U3. p d I '&LuIj ;MI,IJ&l +-IJ3 Gamplovics &+l+ ,Treitischke 4 3 2 ~ 9 ~'Ratzenhofer ;I&J L L J ~'Steinmets &L3 I I I Ranan- +I- 2&!l &E+ pdic ++L + G I+3 Psychological purgation - 5 6 +3+1 ij3+3 L&l+ Ordeal .Moral degeneration & + d l ~pJ;ll- &+!dl ~ ~ 0 %+A GLd13 'Spencer & +Y> 3 3 6y1JLall G e S ;e-9 'Bagehot at& $1 j3 .Novkov &AWyIw+ >++I @ A 3 .Animal war L S L ; I ~ ~ - I I+* :e ++I3 'Primitive war kr;l+Jl++I3 Qd1++Ij 'Civilized war +&I Recent -&!MI ++I 3 Modern war
  3. 3. ' ; J 9 d I +jSxfl &4 al+l LILA% ' ~ 1 - ~ y - ~ b l l U 1 3 -$I k l ; Y I &+3+13 - -&&J +jF2- &3 '&A1 I LJL1+ 3 - . y 3 L 4 3 w i,413 U~J-+& p i 3 4 1 3 b-+ +jpj' k _ L a L ) ? 331-11 +,+I &9 . b L$A- ++I &4 &i r !$4kLLL;Iy)?l +rd 3 ' ~ 4 - 3 *XC &L &$!+I Lp & JX;;1Yl'dl ++i - u 9 1 + d l 3 .,- ;1I&l + d l dS9li)9&lI dl2+2l+l +&I p ' q I A y l v J+LLI kjh1U W I ++I .3- i r !"3 g" i r ! ekrY J-+J&+ 3 d $ @3 'UacLU&a ++I a6LUiriJL - d3i- I g- 3i' b ~g . I ~- L ~ W IA l32i ip3. & ~ k ++I p a r +is@ 'Deutsch -2~ JJK9 'Almond id -3 .Bereison ir+* J J & 4 3 frl+Ij>+I (jj-i -11 G3 3i+sf%+! 3i &+dl OL& Heroic age crf@I- - LILA i;Lj .&A&%- dl+ & prWl &A 4' 5 4 w F gG & j I j +&I &Id ++I-. ;;Iy 3 . & d l &+dl LqJ+ii 3i-41 bki+ 3 ~ ~04 ;;Iar! ,+5 ,-WI- 3i~JUYI bGlJ3i r ~41- 41 ..;.',~i 3i L&f '"93'- v , L ) ? 1 3 'y ~ t l4&&11 >+I.. 'L&'+ &.dL y+!~~i&ilk19.+&4+-idl i;--$WI pU9S,7JI WrightolJ '&P TVA a : - ~ iII ++I-5 * A V bf 3 '63~31+.+ & L F ++g-.14~~~~ii4 Lr &-lty T o j ' k J k +&9 witpV A ~'WUI '91a1- ~6 ~ u - u 3i'-+d9+! tF703 '-41 i-41++ 3i 5 5 31 '*'a1 &sJI q- &L*+ .-.- - 3i'4 i;K kL;WI &JWl ++I -3
  4. 4. - L +=cuJ j + l ilklji13ilGlyl13 Lgi+3)---J3 .~LLQ$I u3 J W l +L& ;it,,snill&Ll+ L Y +p 3 ,Combat neurosis ++I bi ~ - 4 9'Traumatic ns. L J U I ?+ ;P j l Y! iplkll I+! eg]L &L+J-.! ++l bSCC! i l p b 5 GYP 2k3-41GJ&)U ~ 1 3 2 &>I3 p&dI3 -1 j j ~& c u l .++I +-. pL;iJI pli ++ +pi41T ~ " - d ~L 9++13- Psychological & d l ++I c L d cpli dlj --I Y$19 .warfare ~ L u l 4 - ' g i l l +3pLJ1 &a .. L L Y l3 Propaganda -+LAJL SL-9J5 +Le t-3. Rumours dd >$Ij ijo! JL&+ ,A&Y AIG~+Y&~ L i j L p L U & i j d I ~FYJ ijb k ] h I jL- . .SIULI~ ,32-!b ,+Id1 + . d l. . .AL,&b ib>t :xi , 4 ~ ~ i++ ,A += J U ~ &~JAIL a 9 L & > . ;JIt2T--3 & 2 @ p _)=~~bcq;tflCL'(~LikJ-il J J J ~ ~bammel J++ ci.j+ +s+! .l S G ~ ~ ~,Cantrll JJ+U Dunn b~LL~AJJ~ ,Klineberg f l ~ I l jL3-5ouldingC &'I+ ipIALLAl &a +3-'1 JL~+.Political psychology ,&dl d ~ ~.~assweII&--a! f3jL G j - 3 ,Riesman b L & + l J C I ; I s 1 O S ~ O O ~ J ~j3i 5 J2I3 .West -2 2j&IJ9 ,Rapoport p- 'ki o ~ l ~J+LL~'G~ II , U I >I> GY+ &"'j '++I ,Fromm 3 . 4 L L - ~ <Alexander GYp9 .Waeidei jL3i j p ~ ~ j I ' cl j,jL L & . A i L~>'+LI lg*S! L G l d ld3L&l jY13 L F ~ l I .&l;Yyl, '&I 3 'Lbl+saf13 9 6% 19;K9. d l ;r &+dl ch;l;r;JI ;La- ,,%I &+dUI ++I 2 b i- . ! 9 ~ ~ in> ,Sheei-shoc~ ++I &I Cambat fatigue -6 & A i d 1- +L,L - & x i J l&suJl-_tdl &LY3 ' + d l Li+L+ 4-? ',tCIJ sLl13 L&iJl L:lL"!dL
  5. 5. ,-,U!I.d ~~.LLLY',~&L--;j! .rL2+sL,,A . . JF;jj.II I*uj +J I ++'kw c3Al +J&.i3+I>&Y JX J K ~ Y ,A;-. - .M ~ a ispirit L d I- --c' : 0 LI,.J&L%X-!' 5 ,$+;9 L ~ ' A ~ . Y ~v ) 2 J .A. I,.;d!02-a, L L - A ~ - i j l q g .dpLul13 &A gs9 .Brainwashing ihlJi J+,L z - d i .++I 41izl;~p +lLF - C . ;-LC5 "&a" &xi -+ .$L I ( :...L 4 3 . j u &L3 A ~ 9, j l w i 3 - epLil -+Ldl i ,d19;.l~I JL bylj,yJ13 & L Y -C dl L(p-9~(& .pa3 3 $1 ,a- 4 1 cAK~ &Fh(&usL&J@I ee"llJLikr;iJ .egu.JJv'j-~. &(%+?4,+ J ~~ Y U Y '( % 3 + 4 3 p2+3 .a"$' p - e @ L i 3 L . G331;Lef&$ L P m :dJ--J VL+p l ~J,++ .&A&i+J . j d ! k & . L I +Iy3 +&i 2 L A . J ~ididjJL2LLIL d312fij ."dl p+.dLdl ',Lk3 .es--."L 2L.3 & &'I 20 . ; ; C J ~ l 3- . ~ l & J l >... -L+3,eiIJ &dlp .+A! c+-i&_~-dL i dI aL9L--Ji +...J ,+UILJWI 3i,++I -I . . L&L.zdl& J.+I V+&."i.$ L A j r& + d l ice+ , ~ l & l .L&alyiw13 ;$dl & L 3 j 9W W L. . +,F3 . j ~ l id J & i +&&Ij s@'I 5 4 VI Y L-LO;M Classical $@I ++I + Gl;; - " 5 o r tradit~onal war@ JL .- - z ,.4ud; .&>ti &!-% 4;: .-- &JJK &++*J b W l Lg?g LO* 3- i ~ l e 4 1 u3.>@Ij @&-L&kj +pj' k r J +F ++I9 - . . 4 -1 1 h - r & Ad-7 +-j b ~ l l ~ ! 4 l&Lj .kni'l al,^;''LJ J j U l &I.; ;& kcL.4+13 A l p 5 1 d+ &.=G(d+j . b L l j IL&Lij & i i J l ++I ;iJ+s3.l$jcoJ'&fl s+lj L c ~JS +ui w13A ~ J ~ - ~ + I ~J A I ~ +dlJ P C + &+i)l & k + i l - I : L s .+$IJ
  6. 6. ;++I )LG?!cbfl~~j +h9sj ~.l,a,~& ; t ~ ~ e ] l-+I b L 3 L;++ a&AdL3z++ Jj2l Fifth wk Huy I&I& ~ 2 %31I3~k I_1lcolumn. F +p&i-!++I ij+j i 2 j L +, +I ijg&a @ +rj .++ d9 KI Cold war &.12+! +, 3j (War of ideas jki Y ;+if1 bt&Lij Ideological w. +l ZL;- +a j r 0 2 L I I ++I 1-39 &&j c a k a f n ~ b f - - -5 .War of nerves +LPC~+, +I3 +jpjcz+bgj G L 2 + i j +yjb ~ L 3 a L ; L x 3 3 a L c l _ 1 .z+L,L.~Lu~.- ji Z+L, klr.,tI +)XU d& &&.I1 ++I3 2 +, ip9 . ~ _ L L !9 3 W h &A bi bj2+j+~$L +, Gi+ AI GYr L L j b" &',id ++I3 &(.xLLAYl &2A p &&J;;;C,~U&J~I I L + & - &3-Qf(j &+'3 &+W' IYJ+ .&+A Ldd&4 akL+l1321$'13 -
  7. 7. 4 (L, &4 a I t 8 ~ ~ ; ~ l+&I A JLI 14 .War by horns j19%ll +p?! , P P I &IJ9-!! 3 9 ~ :! * E da3 & L l d I a+-- . . & Pamphlets @ ~ ~ J ~ A U . L L & ~ ~ I- ~9xc& -p'kil;M3 '+kjL P ~ 5 +p?& tdl p SL~JI?,GLJI d-;i3wg ~ L a j L d l ~ j ~ j % l lJLj! +p412 2 ..,A ; 11 ++I eel- 3i Broadcasting war a l l ISdl C 'War by microphones aL$9&dl 'L9~j+fl- .. G & U L++I .+LLi+JI tut'3L s ; s ; ; S d k 3 LZ -'-1 !J3Lgll ejg;ll J!2 L 1 ~ 3 aYQ1 ;r .4;91 J.L ijh "aLsLAJ1.. ' & a i z l f w 9 L & i z d l ~I+-+L,-I~ & y j ~ f ~- .. 21m%l -&)CC! +!&jL ++I alu3& d l >+I -9 .&LA, l&~-bL>%& L+ C!!Js33 & ! I - ~ s 3 ~ l u ~ ; & 4 + g w ~ 9 w P ?&d- y&l ( r d g i l L l j Y d j u 3.s+ g k,.ln:j klsi +I +..,+J~.-~JILL+I +i '&dl3 A+l3+al L k L* . ~ G l d l- al+a)l& 'Jl Y l '++Lib '+$I ;-js 'fsrll b+@ ' l & u j i i 3 5 .Jpdl p+Jt&lFYl SL.;3 k?~k;ll++I bi GU42 u'+ &ZP J ~ Ye Jb LI +C~Sp- 0Jj3iL FullerA+++ isi, <<Tanks in the War>>bl+- p vi '((++ p.. L,LLJJI,,. . +p l d l lFj; J~YI &dWl ++I I I $+ Ijig& k k ~ - l l J+&~IG!& ~gi. +3 3 5 i . 3 L r ~ ,+L.+A .. g- wh3j3i &i ~JUYI ~ 1 ~ 3 1JP& + I ~ L Ibi3..WI-jk 3- A ~ J L+lri 31d&j e~yit~l+ 41b e $s9' J Y ~ Y I aLsLAJl i,3~&~+9 ' + U l L& lF:l,l L+Lld! 2 u J l &c l F ~ 1 3.p+j15i3e g ; L L A l 5 ~ e I - 3 J* dYIdll u3'@LL J+ b32& i$K3
  8. 8. ilb@!+?WI.. p d 3 * Q k d l tlg;j f.. 'uilK;-13 .dl,, .&Ij ?,,,I1 w.ak&l13 & k Y 1 3 + d l ++I &.. k J U r l j "&j b b 9 L+pJJ&k d L L p+I ;J~-.J ~Li,'t"- 4hl$LfipJ13LgIsLJI (jL+J., e,;;3 41J;Lj S~~ +j .dil,'d +u"& dl3 I ++I &ij l l $ L d I j q@=JI +(+dl t& JI.. ~ c A I ~.. y+l +jig ~ ~ I A I+eJ1.. G.Lj %LA14 o h 3 L191U9l pg L a - LL .Defensive propaganda G b A I JrLCL;;3 Jl &Agressive p. + d l.. .. 5 ~Id-C'dlJ9-kxbA4u41 ~ L I b ~ 4 1.. ji L+~Fj .sl~sJAsbtlGIL, kLPj3& + U I &'J U I &Xi LLJl r ~ J c i e i j - i j N ~ ~ j L d ~ p p + ~ * 3s t-3 6 4 d b pbw sL~9&I- &GI tx+~~ ; ~ - ? i &LA3.,!-L~J~4 1 9 1 2 C a i i a a . 3 Strategic p. -++I+ ;& .Gi sli3+ulJ+&I L&y$3+u & d l -10 4; -'A79 JUJ t+ALd!&4& L p & & A d a ~kJ13 .&i +++I ;;u JI.. c g l ~ i d ~ JI>$I &&,(J&Jm!J-1 y a j WjJPJji g ~ adLkri13 &'dl x+'ll gL3.d&+.lL +ibY13 JA ++ Psycho10gical mobilization Ll&l &A i,&&I:, ++I t* I j I .'lp;d13 ;irkY13 &LA1 L;irlidl JM3 1 Ge4;;", J - - L - LP ~ - " v i ] n l n r i ~.. -91+ LL~:,~,hJbi.. ,+dl... 2Moral-guidancedepartment- 4 L -1 &J_! t9-k~ j J l ~ 3 +dl +$I "&Lap G J I r i A 1 3 21~ i ,.&$I -144 J ~ ~ 5 ,IJ~YI A, .. %+lj +I ejL d 1 2 U I &S+ , W I ;,& L W l co' b3JJ4 I . / . ; Y l ,-Id1 dL:-. ..., 2 . 31 ,&~ A,';tu=L+Y13 - .- 3 ?j--i - 6 3 - 0 &+Ij&.UdI L ~ U40i j i ~ j ~Lp~JijpjjJ&~
  9. 9. 'u.. . WL;;;i+ di LLYI- 'Creeping r. ku-.Wl kcL4dl cfb o h 3- P L L b l l ) GsPfI ;,ti aJG! '(Divisive r. G ~ I z J ~ !3i '(Riot r. +LLII kk!) .(Curiosity r. J+I LL V - 4 - r I i A. - - ~ k ! )+L-.~I Z ~ U !3i LjY bl- i,&4 .(Agitating r. LC- 3iI ( B O ~ Y r. -bjY&LA!) *- 3i.( am aging r. L I ~Lk!) 5 w I, 3i '(Atrocity r. $ M I L h I ) r. of j L L l LL!)-6aLL;& +- -%sf9&- +I) .(wishful thinking .(,dl +LlI h L L Y I &Y - W. Daugberty: Psychological Warfare Casebook. - Farago et al: German Psychological Warfare. - Grotius, Hugo: De Jure belli ac Pacis. 5 & Tactical p. ;iI : ( ;j '3sLT1 Private p. L L ; 3i& I $41 J!pe+"G ;+Lurl QLW L p g . L*; jWhite p. +& 3i'L+-- 3i"h3GI, I.- J--3 jjrll &Y3 && JLZ Black p. + I J ~ &I i,-. hgi Grey p. &1LJ3i.i;G . d 1 3 J d I k f w & i 3 + d l g L L ~ I Li3- " -&3lk4 -63 wU I
  10. 10. ?L~I ~1~ . ~ ~ r i l ~ ~ &+dl +I jY- db• ++dl! Prejuge3 . j&db Prejudice +-dl .2.'~p 3i ( G y J L ) Preconceito3 ;~-Iu%~LVorurteil $"3 3!I ; ; & l l.. (&lbJJL) L ~ ~ ~ + J L + + J ~ ~ + F &+& b J x 3 pL+ F A ' --3iO & . ~ J I +&3 .+I - 5 ~ ~ i . + ~ ~ i ; g ~ e ~ , + - , z + L (JJJ L d L + y I 31 F& ++ & &L++~.++ 3ia+++- d ip3.- 3i4 6 & . P &L9 L-+n-,Yl ijk11WlJb2 ,-I L b i +JLL L, 4.U@Ji,& Tribal &if - L C ;--*~I~JL(&)JFA~+~&> 4i)& .Racial prejudice wl+%l~- AA Aryan &K .+AA.. Crusade p. 4 1.- & d l 3 .&Ul.. &+iL b i ++3it ~ yAA .Ethnic p. & d l ' , :A* y I F! *jJ;y! - L e a :A* 7 IM pG &3 '+LA' I b j ."+I j - 1 Prejudice 6 . . :II , 6 3 1 hi 4 1 +.AM, -++If - +-'d13.G3&j +r~1&1+4i-J!G+ +L L & > d L GLCQ4t]!d,,A& P -3 L c ; a j l ++I 4 1 & 214-, i)& &.IJI-~- . + ~ i &3 4iu & ? d l 3 g + J l 3 !-I e i i'+-J .L3.& P : O J j i Nki41- 4j+ .. ~ 3 1 1 p Prejudiced d l j
  11. 11. &4& 4+3y;J-19'+L-;rYl- +I .. 4 1 i r L a L Y 1 i r l w l j d l P &I3 'dl., d l & p 3 '*&.dl ILL- '+ii +I3&&!- +ki+;gdid i r U X c y W ! ipLLa&~gSj;;i G;Ekj &L+ 41&L;.9 '41&&j>- +j? +Zlj+l &- + d l 3 &&+I- ‘#I- L" - - . +*< - , I -- ' J A ~ ~ l + * i p +pji++w3.&ZI~+JI @ &J&'++I 293 p+ i I I +i (QB~41- +;dl 3i'LWI gieU,-!~ +p+ +3'~.9&+3~.9& J!uW' I+ j b i p n g 1 2 ~ b p t l p ~ ~ ~- , 55 2 , ,, 5 ,P + I - +I-, + :JL 49 ' ( T -1) , ,,e P ,9 P:: -Yl-- j-, L& 3Igl" p$ ;Lu;)P ‘d ilj+!I 99- .( V O i)l+ JT) Q#& c~+I) b::; : L ~ , l " j ~ ~ d - 1+ * i r . c ~ 3 A ~ + b a ; f ~ 3 . ( ~ ~ / ~ i bj&i+ Yj '.egk@+a+ Y '.&I
  12. 12. ',3 'L44+,@l Z J - D J Liwlkfl .Q2LbAYl Y U L J l '+'.1 2 . 7 Il .. ,i + ij- g- i2I+dl3 iwpgI i)?jJli,uAid-. ,& +i 13& ;;1@bg - .. i+3 fl : l l ' ~c',.: -:p+ 1 3 j p ld3 p 4 A + J ~ L 3 ( 4 & + - 4 ~ @ +L+ dk3L@JI+.AA~ 9P ,A* .2+ sL3Ji3 +A egol&13 & i d 1 a&2?$l& I&& Racial discrimination;t#l G+ll E+yl&4 a ~ 9 l& d l b+L&-. - . - - LP &!?33,9'.al+ ir,kh+3,4b w G3 .Lgl p 3 g .+21Bell +LUuq & 2 U ! +'+i UYL +b pdj-p LA9. z & A & Y l jb3 3% ~+J&I r"d' u+ cr~1fl + A U K 4 & 4 j .aL&91 L;.' + L i d ! C . :Ae-dl &+ L+Lddi~+Ldl +.I! ++ 4 4 *&LI - C *&I+! 0- P . G U I JS+ .. ep9 A_LII;VJIJS 2 3;&?9 &-& L+wul (JGbjj +$191LYIJl F L 3cljyl-bLI- L
  13. 13. b1411 I g.. d l &9jJ &El912&13 .+L 315 ULI-. + %-I Minority persecutionP c +U1+ dj2+dij'J91J;tI g3 &L+I -+LY -I ; L & & & ~ J & J C ~ & ~ $- &hij 'Ingroup L+LIJ ;-I3 -&-I +kj2~~i~+J&I T+ L 'Outgroup - J ~ ~ +&*'+L.%+ll&, jl+I L' &+I LLI~% L ~ ~ U J UiuLgi-J&I .+!A1 q&37 '5,;: dJ '.# , A * ?&jI'j'g3 5 zF1 + J& jhj L&L+I-&2.! . i,i j i j ;;L;ipq.2b ~ 4 ~ 9 1 +L&bl p +'dl aJF&ll y ~ ? s'&Iw+w +e'WI +J'i+uu J.,c ZpLdl +913 ,,,L-i .,+ ' ~ ~ a - d ~diicw d,& C9Jc09& L'=w 42* & IL +&i *j. ~ - ~ ~ j i l ~ I . 5 + I i .;5+1 P +L+oJ$j c13j p+j .c4;--JI&l .., d3''. :-*:11 ' ~ 1 2&b3 4 , "," 5 Y .. +d ijl M I TI" '&dl (dc &uL ,;A +&iwj i dj,.Fallacies & J L ~ I , +& .&.&A dlJp &k!-&- Fb9&I i)! G3 +&L+b Psycho-social epidemic d l Mental epidemics -1 k;g~l- +I +& .aL+d -( y L 3 u*:'1 L J 2 J! b+aid! - ,i 'LpO ~ L ; . ~ +I+YI u +I ;& d i i,3J>J'LI+I i.,& I+I~LIu!b~ iriA ,&UL . - i,i UL l ~ ~ ~ J P &.,-!I +jS-XfI p p & L c Lo, '*WI &+I 9 3- '+UI- j+I + 3 p - JY%& +LA JIji d U 1 3 -41 9 3- ' # I ~ L ~ Y I ',L+itl ckl;;.& A 3 'i,1; ,,,;;hf 9 &Jh3&L2 .A-10 $- &jL+ &&A$ & 4 3 +-j .$-'!' & J ~ J
  14. 14. Social *&YI +!$I jlpI &J+ - &!I- &I+!! @ +J adjustment b l l + t l blL a 3 ,Psychological a. -I y &19 FlgillJ!irk+ -4- . 4 s 9 ~J O L ~ ~G~'0~1.49 !,LJ-d JI ; t r k ; b ( - ; i ~ l 1 LiC4 u'.,:,.;dl3 '6Cil;YL sI9;11 .i- .c(4fiki;l g G+. 4;i YI ei;.- &dl * L y &!L &N.-- - c+IS_S &- 4;- dS3'iYLi.+ &3 .&,MI fi-1 ~u a&GCk*&!+i d&u - p5 (p9 ',k+Y- ty+iJL &L~.J.J Y! .ei;r~-;s,O&I 3iJLI 4 ; i + + = + ~ ~ ~ , i + & 4 i i '-qhI&+&&dl$! +Lu& " ir,dj++.-]++M13 &a+ f i L , U l ' L , d I 5 $91 ' z $ k "+& $LJ3 * P +I+ bfi i ] l b! J2;3 .;$I+ i u j ~a ..-L 31J ~ i
  15. 15. 'LSYJ- &I.LwLJ' 0 h L j Y I F L L &Ih Lij+l b 2 cd?g c L L Y 1 9. C &13d19 &k uJb3,&dG LMl i j U I 3q,i9l+ oLL+ J&YI C JL3 j*Y d_;b. Z + i ,AL.II U Authoritative 2 L I ..; A 11 ;i o L Y I I h J d l personality- $141LL+I +*L-i6 4 bJ ~i , J b ~ ~ ~ a L b L j Y I 3 u $ I + '&dl uJLJw 9 1 .ekJ~+i3,&I9 UI IL JL~-J+JI IL e~4J3 d O& GJ-Y -eJ&4 r&&hl 2%kJ,i '-91 k k &+ -1'4 Fb'&L+$I '. :A* ;I &Ylj! &&I&+I -Y-&I9x3 4 2 k J 9 ~ ~ ~ - l ~ ~ ~ - . . - I d i c b Jlpi *i: ;I; :: ,&JIIL t&i$l' & J - - * J ~ L ~ ' j i J - ; ; r s d i c b a ~ + ~ JI&t&L9 -L_LJ13alJGi,-3
  16. 16. sJ3';I LgJ Stereotypes -1 &+I dK Lel- ijFc;LS sJFbi;d! (~_LG++JI - - . .ij-9 :JS;dlJ-lj '4- +b.~pij t + ~ d+k~ IL~W ++m*i&d& $ d l jh! w . w 1 3'i+913 &dl&I- , , wPB;ij&L 3i'iJu ' p + J k j(pejl~Gjp++b & G Y v J l z +~ L W IGjs~ L U S&J.. &I i j I L L ! I j ' p i J & pplEb '(-3kiJ (Q4Lu eg"&L;II ; r e L ; d I 3 +l+Y P P ee;!JL+ dip :+%I -lj p ~ ~ ; d .'b3'k~i Aj .&&dl ~ L L J J 3W l (pc -4 -, ,n; ,;JI cp'~ui; di cc; - 4 -I ,;JI(eu! a&f 2 L . 7 JJ 'Ethnocentric personalitykS-t I b + ~ + ~ i ~ ~ . f ; i , l ~ ~&;dlj +&;dl$ i ; d U & + d l +(dlj!.4;)9 L ~ I J ~ gi.~*iL!L S * ; ~@WIj,&I&$ &% & 45' d l 0s @ ' + L A
  17. 17. JLL$~IJ- . f i L J U I o h & IL++ & k ~ ~ ~ ~ h &djkg Lk c ) ~ T ~ l 'La- &l+13 ++&dJL- +&...&I 2L3 >h2 -! p d_;i -. a ~ a ~- i , ~I ~ ; Kc i ~ ~jai bi j j Y $ t l . ; - ; . ? t l 4 I Gbi,&'S & d b j . + I 2 4 1 a+>~ +.Self-hatred a111 d1 -19A JULI i,i L = . ~-5 7 , L & i , 9 & A + 4 ~ 1 3 ~ 3 k J 3 .b+.?2.p&kkYp 4 4 .-4cL+ 2 L 9 L &+I (J-4 i,& A & L Y l. C &I &13dI o h j - jp3.upguk;ij ! ~ ~ - i d Lgir YL+ A L b i b ~ j &i kc-,, .w.L+~~.II fA-LA'J L Z ' d3.&L&s +I+-~I p ;+&I JI A d! ~ u $ t I& L a J w U I Ja iJ41 lj2 .p++&I3&! OL a w k& ;c;? J - A U ~ . (p$14(o&! dIJ2)11 i,K o%.+ db'Z'",,; ]I3- . . ;* ,A,,L - - .,-i I ; + I ' p ' I & L S 2 U l j- .fi&5!1 3 ( p L L d l3 Y ;+wi,jI '., I n - ;1'3 ,iu.JKAi 4jg;Li &L! a b k d I &j . ' . I LIh2'-*; . . L & k $1 +k;zd13 G3.a: ,--L 'Yl +k&+& cj-Lb+dl L~UI aL.41+ke,&I i,& ;L.;L?. 4i,& L'.:T! 4311-i d y l @ ;+a+,;; jLi+dL.uJj.+p ?4ls' &&l +UL; 3& 4J3' . k a ~ L . i 4 L J I -&&dl * U I ,y?jXJ J!&+)L~>L*IZLJI+~AJ- +I,, 4- '+* 22% $AilF 4?;lF3 c i & & di -++&I e ; ~ ~ ~.JGI di L,+ + 4 L 3.d+ ~iP.: % j>2'diJS ~ ! 1 4 ~ - a & i h l L-ll- t~;t13a U l ji .P+ .b3+h~ &+i&L +J .+;+I L&dI&JL
  18. 18. Y dbwCk&3 L., a !I d ! j 2 ! ~b@$I c L 3 1 ~ ~ ~ 3&&I Y U-)d~ ~ 9 bg A 3 J!p-k!C1yLk3 +I+' 2 1 t 1 3 1 & ~ ~ l p L e l- : 7 11 .i,&&dI 9 . u+ oJ@b '.. --a 7 11 +.c3 d$I&I& c&+& &I oJ-t + Y Attitude 0t;il.S 9 3 f U Y L 1 a L a L ; Y I J+&LjC . e $L33% &a & L d 1 3 iJA4~ bi uuQ3.'A - : $ 7 113 I ' II - &iA 4 Anti-propaganda Z 2 k d I ;--!bi Y! .+* g +.ill * kL. 1- !- . .&I LSJYib~ YJLL+JI I , L L & . ~ ~ ) C C ~ I ~ ~ ~ + + ~ dl;b, J& ;ta9 a L J L+ I&& i,&3 Double bind L & b -&I jI 3i.+I J I , ~2N~3 2133p y lI - 'r - 4ir, L . U I (,*'dl &'IJ.+- +-Liki)i J - l ~ p ~ y ~ i ) ! ~ .-&tl - - 1 4 1 3;-C 'Algxll o h &j I& -1
  19. 19. :&P - Adorno et al: The Authoritarian Personality. - Allport: The Nature of Prejudice. - K. Clark: The Dark Ghetto. - Saenger G.: The Social Psychology of Prejudice. - B. Olson: Faith and Prejudice. - Dollard et al: Frustration and Aggression.
  20. 20. 4'+e;g)9 *pll +a Is+ ~ L l j d IO* - Li,-lr2YLpl+C;Jl ;i+l -a+- b i ji 2 ~ l-. LSLL-L :&lj - '+LiS!*- - Lk-"j.yll ~ 4 ~ 3b'9+*l1 @IF 9;JEY . h ~ ys;b iu1a12A-113 $ 1 1 &&.dl +As+ dGWl&AAj .r h Y l i,+9 .t .:1 . d l*+.& g. b+ alj&Cb & Lgi%kj , L.+ >formation JI>$ jljJ$ &!j .&kj ;g,le;ljLb. ~ 8 4 1 ~ i ~,& F j l '&&dl bMs3I &j!+13 ji .-+wIji . + b a l l ~hiYL1 .I& 2 4 1j ~ i i ,p i group -4 LLb~lpl~>LI-. a)Crld;J13.alrlrlLfl -LkAil -3 *. .-j ;+& ,face-to-face group +I+ secondary 'i$L ;trb-L,jJ-iefl F w Z ~ Y Ii , ~&+i+L +3 'group &I informal group -hJ+L k 'formal group hJ-LbLJ41 29 NOBILIS ( - -7 ) ~;jbj41+I> +I +- -1 - k p + l- -
  21. 21. open group. L+dl LL+l b A 9 b- 'in-group &LldI - & M I 3 -3 out-group ;LLZJLjLJl LL&! continuous g. l LL+l 'ki u.'ullL+ ;ki J+ b 5 contingent GJLb (ji)953 ~2 5 L 3 ' temporary group 3l 'group -&I3 .permanent group L d l ~ LL+l bh small group ;;+.Jl - 3 b i g group ;;2&ll L L majority groupLJL51-. I& LCprll3 !minority group -;'dl ' homogenous group L A W ! L~~L U I 3+s9! a 2 U I 3 (j@ ~3 'imposed group g.L-I +)Cb5 .voted group @i piJLI p absolutism - -&4&e-"J+341&p-3 ~ f bblanket g. LglL yY&1 Lw13- - eY!,..+Y A hllpi &I- &'Jhdl3i. U l + blanket- r k & 43jY+& r ; i k L L + - . . + j s , , b i ~ ~ ~ 4 9 - group behavior LWl L!+~ LJlj-rlo b 'jA &icCQ;ICIl& G+(9 & j .+Jl LAp+3Gd;@2. 5 -1 t~3i.GL+l& -&+I 5 i L ~ Y L+ '(jI;cLis!(jLL+L J d l j anti- ;trl,',l Y Lbgang ; 4 U l 6 LCQ;ICIlj.@I A& 61social group" cblL 41d transitional g. &lkLY- +I -klolq .L +A & ~ e ; ~ ~ c i+J ~ I d we-g. " .. @ ' L L O & L & L C Q ; I C I l Y b *- LL, AX; LL+ hi p3'they-g. cfb vertical g. -141 .+dl + - 3 + 3 i + b ~ ~- ..+I b~ &9 ~ajs.+,illpi $1 p social g. +&Yl & M I 3 . ~ r i ' j ~ w ~ i ~ g l LgcLai+l (j& A3-Lw13 (%u! &> 'Jwd4 J L Y L.. < 3i'voluntary group hJL;iYl involuntary Qj-TI - a l l,,-ij closed -LiL Lb(j+ AJ group. - (jU'I& &+1 J.+iY 'group '-La& -&L+6bc5'9g."+I-
  22. 22. p J ~ p ; d ~;ji~ ~ ~ ~ 1 4.kcw~ Y a G b J! i,+- b ~ L ~. +@I 0 1 6 0 1 J! G L Y l dl Y1 . Z u l 9 k hJ! 3 i A 3 ~ . k ; ; 1 p ~ ~ + + i 5 @ ;+I &K3 .+ +31 JJ+ AdiJI- +&WI.LYI JL.. - fi~kib+i;l-~+:;I- $ L l l l i j l S k ; ; 1 3 ~ ~.&I, 5 .&$I k c b ,y&&dlj &I+sflj A i4i-41.. . L _ L ~ ~ I9L+3 b i j i d ~ y i # + ~&dilJ~ @a& ai9.LLS++L 1e gsiJL ++i UL- . .- @LLYI ++,- ++i3.+ S lr L @ + Y & I Y l .+!I I ~ ~ l & ~ U l- 1 G & i k e j 4 L b b i J I ~ L I& i l ~ ~L4&4 .g. norm JL iAiiL'JI &k;Llj k L U '- . FCrell-- . L L ~ ~ * A ~ L WGE,- - i,-4--,!EJki)i+-ji .L,gx'Aci + JL LC&! C ~ l j k;, Hyman aLaLa.A** ZY J ~ Y k ; U I +496,, +LiS@ 4 1 Y " 1 & L & L ~ + l c t l s L . J I- .. JS w+p 3i.bJlpic t l g , &I-,+I &L~.JI>~I &+ ijj& i I i p group mind 9 5 41, bJ& gJ(b 4 9 J - J-5 group k c l - ? ~ I .T J ~ I3 - & d l?WI++!I p consciousness- - $sillJ&+* L 4 p 3 . @ i ) & 41- ,kt1t.g .hJlpid g ~ ~ $ 1 ~.9&L&ic Lgli,&i9 bj+G L ~ Iji .group superego LL+ &'dl ji ~ $ 1 ~I - +A! ./I &;dl- &.d WI Gpj &A .++I ~ U l 9+L W l k c w l j iZJ-uL~JKi .(- &hi)J ~ ~ L ~ reference group + d l L&IS 9 J d l U!y?A $1 LW'ip, k, L c ~ . r .P 3 .ek"6gL p; A b k l +5 L+u k c m l c+ LL ..;;,.&g,S L ~ ~ ~ L ~JIA~ C C C ,G;;Y h4 ++ b 31 .@ lrl(d3.43b- &*- JF9 o h JL~ J~~ iiI i-+++JI
  23. 23. ;IppAljxUl &ilbLWl LWIi-TeL.j & ilL;.L JI.. LWI normative reference L J U I- - L A 1.. . Lw 2 4 1 k+ i,& 213 group. *+ L&+M i,Lb @ J * - - S , ~ + & & i ) ~ k b i --I; ;i 3, .L%=L. (JJ2 o * L "%-dl LMlJ1-9 &+I , , a - .... .d l ' , A u 9 1&I d3- J& +p i 3 4 reference individuals cj+l Jjd! +i J.= F~~ uk+! p ~ ~ 3 ~ i~lpill4&dl- role-model dlahd e l l d l- ~ b lJ.=~,+JI L P ~.tLJI k g 3 Y S i,14!"4 :: ;iJ I J L w A f I + ~ ~ + ~ i p e ~ ~ v ~ a .. .LB;b&13 .I3L k L J l xL p3- &JLJI 2 ~ p 9 ~3i3 . @ ~ ~ i ~ Le;I--&lcr~ i,Jl(j31L - - ;~rce;lrll+ i- ij3* 9&.9 f l L u J& p La,*Ls3 4 j U L IQBJ J+'=. - .-r o ~ L ~ .IdlC+b -%&I LC-1 & 3 ~ b 3- ;r +C ~ iN P S Y C ~ O I O ~ Yof Status frames of reference -41- . &$I I& tp+',A1 ;rj b i ~ 3 j u . i x;.(egir 'jj+ & d l *$I +g, ' 3 9 - 4 3 p&;IsJ&!3 b63S3 Y C Y ;+.I bl Yl5 idh- - c-Yl i,K $23 +A3-p;*u&1&! 3i-b~~+di~,+&Yl+l- ~ ~ i + . x + i , ~ e l r - b ~ + ,Hartley & J ~.. ,Newcomb -6% ,Stouffer ,Sherif -n3 Y C Y i,l Yl ,Cooley J$3- ,Sumner GY3 jot,&$ +'bpi, ;Ib ;@I 4 +6x1- c-YI ligr 2M I-. dL-.dl +J L- 41pk J&- L p d I- . L L d I Ay+ 2- ;I!j,J+ ,&- + ~i i,K i,!L9pJ LO* &+ i)_)L+ LJ-L b & ; r c p J & w L ; I l ~ t A ~ LWL----+L-4 3!~,,4+ comparativeG J U l -%+I J! ~ C F J (jll Ijb ,reference group
  24. 24. 3+&*dl- tYI;II & b + k L & I ++dl I du3.-LLl&A*dI Z-tI LW"+-+k&'J.J-+ 5 aspired reference 'iJFUI +&I i,+ bi J& AI- &i- L group 4;i;d! ,&-+4;i +*~b b,L-3,454L@bJ-i L+ ~ ' k i14u3. ~ L L + I ~ P anticipative -+I ;iLi&JI +!+3+iLi i)i9 3 .socialization L ~ ! l j & * d ~ 21991++ kb LB;bL;I ;r JlG9l LLUh @ w S W wIJi.lIbI*dl.LgS9L,@~fi*d& bi JI hl;. wO&l- 3 L,U& I ~ ~ L ~~ L + IohF ~ i .bb w c (jl *+I L L + I L . ,(J&i3 L& ++i +.. ~ 9 9 1 ZJJLkS &f= 5%- L!+ . a ,imaginative sociability ;tl;;;- - Z + b l. c 9 +i J-- c~(j3J-1~ee;i &i- 1- bi ji3, i + ~ rjs2i +J .WL bi13* J3 bJl32;dlOL aLL.+i y s i 621 wkd31LL3- LL+ k - i rdL+ W S bl +j , positive r. g. &&!hP +ir13 .+&YL-c ~ l L i Y i& L+L negative r. g. L& -eP- L c ~ W S & S r ~ g L U & ~ d ~ d " + + A 2 G L(2&53. d l- 5 -dii L G L ~+:~:TH d a $ h 'id- a L L + I J! &bb-1 IL 41- 3i~ g lZ~UI .GJLLdl $ &Jk3 -41 t b L ! A 4 3 jj41;+!I c5i,referent power - - 14.'pi LI+J ~4 >+I ;+I O* l . 4 ~ 1 ~L,lLiYi + b,L3 ,2&A &!p& y&dl- 91- d l k L & I J& k.$b -+A k L & I LLUvj s3.&p uJb3.&Lk;l L&j i)+bi .;j;+vFj! L"J+L *p ~ ' ~ i 3peL L;* 4 s JL LLLYI~ .hJwi3 L l&L3L L & I a&&>cp* , w ~ ~ c id ~ ? gL ~ ; S ~ IJ 2 ~ 3 4&=i+ L3.eg;l,L&!1;1 ;-3
  25. 25. 3iGLCZJI JI ,UYI J! w-ti J! b9++ C P ~ 3 1 I&+ bi 9! T G ~ + Y &I+ ~~iL i l ~ ~ ~ G ~ i Y (+- +&I LmIGIp l d I ill4lcolrI +I 4 j I j f g w A f +L -114 d l 3 . ~ b . ~ ~ p i ~&+31 I i +i +L I = ;;.. L w l (bJL;c& .pleasure principle si;!9i.+L +I . C + 41.. biJL;- L- reality p. $1911 iJ, ;, -114L3LL+J10hpBI+9jL& -%+eb9J L ~ J + 0 9 % &&I &;i% ;id+& &I: i, &3 .&LWI+pstr& 'similarity principle G U Ii- L i l L - I G U U I?- L Y O ~ L + ~ L . ~ J ~ ~ p Q 9 iL x ~ L j - 4 ,,,; ;$ 1: A ;; 0% L ' d l & L J G +&u& J ~ a n++..i i, . i W ~ ~ + A U ~ I ~ - ~ ~ * ~ ~ L ~ relevance principle. p LW'J!r y - f - 1 4 9 y +UY Lei.r! ?J+ $1 h.41 e+&d&.I& > L A 3 L& $ &L+ $41& ;ijJ.hl! & GI+ &9 .il>Lhb LL+ .&+Ij3&9 .ilLL&liy&I J I I I I;!y ' - d i u 9 L ~ ~ ( p ~ ~ i i u r ~ .&d i g L'+Ldl GI* ;,9s" dlIsszzf I',2 LL+YJ d~19J-A - - JI bl-1-1l>hl ~ e ; r L L C b Y l- I .+i J! &+I4 3 4 L-YI J!J~2n;r~LegC~i9 - i I I L k f j I g W F bIC,+p.su+bu,p eA uyGLdI++I LWI actual r. g.. L&A k c L kc-! &&I &a.. 3 4 1 9 L J U Y ! JL p ! d I 9 'UI~--d! J~~ J! -u i p u 9 ~3i + Y~ +a~~~ +i @LL+ +&L 41QLL+J bi3i.~b.+v -.. WIw ~ J s i+i bgL-- + 3 9 2 L ;, 4 b'!,-4UI3 r'd-!'(J$& kJ3.J k j 3
  26. 26. +',kbs4 -is4S+34430&-4 .&I- 1.11. +.l&'d -is3 L& L+ iJ3- L + ~b~ s'l+i kJ3 ii3i.i++ LL+I F~- 61J2b b i r ~ ~ , ~ d ~ L i ~- ._g-+ojk;l i,3L+i L.!&&AI- ~ I L ~ Y I ~ & $ + ~ ~ ~ 5 5 F lyL5+I ;y+2l>l 4jLs .&@ ~ 3 i L C r C ~ ~.- - - - . ~ + ~ @ a J ~ ~ & b i j L & ~ f b- peer group GL+!lk r k 9 'L+i JL+ d3.a+-,. a.=k - .I~LII k r b3iL 2 ~ ~ h ~k r b L J S I ~ Cr;LQ!d 1 9 J I ~ t 1 3 i ) = l ~ ! 9 1 6 d l +~l>hlJz+ L i 2 L 3 d l + b 3 ~ - % 2 L * k Jp@9 ijj~u;..L * b Jw eeJg L G ;19;;L;tr - ;llz13 &Lo;z i l L b +I - 0 - 1 4 1 L~SI-ia ~ &- &SS; 3L 99.~aJl>i &L ?+j - b J 3 2 spJ U ~ I k-1 OL iyhI J32 dk2 k Le"i i,+ 4*l~Li3Jnt,11-' L ' - 1 p LJJJ~~ JAdI pAk.JJ.4SgLr~ 9 ' ~ L o ; z ~
  27. 27. LL+I +* GJ&Ij .L+ Id '&Gj.dI-YIj l+Jl p.. delinquency zLLJI +& .LL bllpi J- 41.. JU~I a l i k .'&I-+ L ~ +ji LJU + ~ w ~ f i d ~ x - ~ i sj+., 4iaJh@.. C L 3 l @j'&LIs_fl s;r ;4rL&+?Y- (++-A 04*3i 41 L J u ! t ~ j i+LYI +t+ jui Jsxji41- c"I +J+iLg .-&-I + I + ~ G ~ I ~ Lj~bbi+@ & 4 3 @ ' 'FA'+=(4+ 2 ' +MI ~ ~ w k ~.'&&I + ~g;. ~ ~ ~ l p J L +&+!I Lw &dl- GWI t i 3.& di &I L&spL., +> ~ Igill - b U I '-J41pdI -ZAGp'"!~~! C L d.Jj +j 'adolescent culture a ~ b ~ ~jH ~ b & j.!,I+ 4; +& Loj &hippies4 6-.- L L J+~WI ji +i yiLbi &ki.!l Jl skLfb3.absurd literature
  28. 28. s-.= &b34~ i,& solidarity group &I ~3 . L A G group 4'tblpll3j atmosphere .. l++qr~yJI LUI;CIWl+ climate.. F a b W l j+G 3 1 3 .bJI>l (j+J+j +L;;I sg3bJlpi+Z 41 group decision LGI~ 1 2 3.JI+! y ~ J3i.L+ J~+9~OJ+ LP F .p?)254j elGJ+ 3' .p%'.,a= group i j L - I +sj3-t1 3 &sJl+l L I J d differences LW13l i e ; Id1L L A T - 3 1 .L.,+l L13 .ktlpl*sl .natural group d -1 LWl3 &I. + &&..,..,*&LL &@ i,& 1 ~ J L+L9-i i ) g ~L.c-1 artificial ;it;L .--dl-&klLfl ,;I: 2 . 1 ~ LL+ clhzWlo-J+ & d l.. J;Lgll 3~ bJlgi.d+ +L+I i,* *WI- +i,&dI +... ALL+o L t L l J 1-1 aL12LYl p &Lalall.. wlc-1 p.. (JFJlk;, t . 2 -: *3& ~ l 3 ~ 3* ' A 3 @L L-&4 3 .+I +dl GIyY'J.. - ~ ~ - " ~ ~ ~ k t group psycho-+-I -L'U'll .. .. .g. therapy c W I 3i.therapy- S group boundary ~3.lr3 31 LLL ~ J ~ Uljdj s3l+LbsSj ~ ~ L L L L L ~ ~ ~ - L G ; ~ ~ L L ;& z L Y 1 3 jK;;Y13 .&+La &kt 31 J+ LwIJ+J &w!&b3 FjeL k - l * ~i+Ll +3 .group i,i QJSPgroup cohesion .experimental group j-+I aLL+JI i,+L&,% Llpi .control group ;ik?lhll - L U 3 group kr! flL3.kaj]-~ ijkLk&i L,+ &.,, &.- i,i & dill & d l & rigidity- co- ;I;gLiell LC4;rll .selected group LJ>-+i,+9 d(L.b GU;.L b4 3 acting group J G Y I &IF3 -+JMI al$+ll-* c i,l .shoulder-to-shoulder group group LC-I +Lj.t-iif13
  29. 29. JAG J~+p3iL J ~ + ~4+kl91 +-? 3iL ~ ~ ~ z u ~LJl+i .* J! F+d+L4 C 4 u J+I 2 ~ I A I3iG~LGIII b3 am.w13J~+tlJ~3Ji & i l l- .p+ -&L+Yl group structure L U l GI&3sS;Ic9 + i I 1 3 L & 2 4 1 $!&I + +s &a S I y J l 0 . b +a# &dl" pL +J. j+lj @ b Y l.. edl &-I G& +A+Y.. wG!l V &I- i,~ 4 4 1 3 1 +L443 L -i J! isJk- (ji + c h ; k g l l ~ - d,L3;zFbhYl+ *Le;u+ ~-=3 Sl2-JA 3 K + A&- &J L Y l &a3 Lb* LwGI&?+J .ceL;.t.YI J h Y I v~~~3- bJlpi - 6 ' ~ i. - && A ;, ,+ ,-- -. - i,'Jl ,+L;S3 A ;JL;JI $1, JI 41&&I- - d;?sL%b I+& 31 ji3+iJ-+ G u &LIJdLF ?+I A ~ 9 1 4- +Z LL+I I i i - I stars.. .. I LL-&ISI;LQj& l * y a G b L l L L j.dXjsS;Y A3 +A kre d membership group- .++,i 3i,I;g.. GlhciJ~pt~ 9s;;6i LL L ~ +@ 1g- -LWl+ J+ J- @ & group acceptance LWl- (Y S ++ 2 9 k , . . '& +I$ LCQ?cll LkiJ3Jdyj! *93 W!p- #I3 .status &LLg,s 3t;,r djlrj 3i+A group identificationLw& LL&+23&l,.lxLJyJl& b.Mi3q+~~gble;i4 - 1 3 4 ~ group kr-I L e 3.LgjLLLj19 esprit de kr..-Jl bjJd morale- LL3G L+++iLJ.corps +L-+ +3 , Lag L*L;.t.! I &L+I tlJ+L&.j&hJl+ 3 " +3&b-.zs!- ubl3 G3&I - + J u l crlJ+dl group &I &t13 . G l & d l .L&3 '&G IgzLilpintegration p group Iocomotion LI.Lxfl - - "3 1 1 u C 9 : " - '4;L;$ldI
  30. 30. &bJ3 '&$t1'7liCj *&& j 2 3 1 14%( J ~ - ~ L + L = . ~ - !- 1 ,.J .. +(J>-L+LL~ L * ~ ~ - ,(eg;*..3 @!el.i."9 e e ; ~ bp++-- (Ji J21991 .pj++ l ~ Z U l g 8 2 W l $Iy &?+ Ig a .A; -I .; j + ~3 ;J- ab' L I ~ ~ $p~+ ~l>kJ L I &iL!-3 * b ' d - dI+l p u b+I J! +&'dl & d l+kgsocial mobility &I b&mI>;$wl- & d l3 5 9141+LiL UL+ ~ 1 ~ 9 1l&JI- + +J G Y I (JK lib b - ~ & Y l ;+dl LL & J l $lpJl Jl C L A 1- $lpJl cjAlt9;+*Ts dj3~ b * & ~ l. &L!e&$t b k w L J ! 1 I I I j-i .. ALL+A- .J&I L&!& - ‘ , ~ k ; l t Y I- d l 4 1i,+ kz+I d L w l g- (*&& ki,-. ,iH (Ji9 ++YI- 2 L Y l 3 . a L d I &i- -jJJ~.. +&Y- dl+! '2e duL ~ I J + ~.&$I 41j i Y I + ,rejected ++&I9 1 A i j L w l 3 ,isolated &9+19 aL&l ,&I2 s~b-groups& d l A- marginal groups &huI- - L b l I L9E&LaCJ-LI=c,* - ethnic groups L+khl a L w l g . ~ U I J L+ +WI &I- 941,2kiaLIJA1 rLa -9 ,LL+LI +&YI J L U I p& &- ~ n u k ; ~ iJLUI++_CZ~ JS+ A* b & W -&&dl $ ! A & G+Z A &AI (,+y~,, ++- .aJ-. J L gkk+l~ &.. kwl* J h Y l ?Uh;~ 2 5 ~ ~ +u~kiL,~.j 1 9 1d(+ p9J3 ip&! i r ! 2 m ,d9 ;*,)LL+U3 .LC- &-I +;+dI .La LI,J3 ,((&&I , l g 2 k -. &A+ 9.+JS di;&A9.b&+'dl J>9~&+ib~ L'I~LLILL~.&+h - i ~ + 41- c j ~ ~L-i i 4 L pj&ic&- *u&- d& (J& djSjb k ~ l 39 NOBlLlS ( Y ) ~ + G I U ~"3 +lg+l +- -1 - h p ~ y 4 I - -
  31. 31. '+L+YI- dl+I &-I &&I L U l lib3 .kl&13 ZjSAjL &- 2199lLU, a 2 1j U Li-i & e e ; L ~ & 13pA3LL+I +JS&p&jkijK klS3'LgrLhl5 +WI&LA)! j U3.+ Lhj 'L&I L l 4 j +G u~ ~ Y kr-1 >++I- + p d L l h i l ( g L L & yl;ug .@! 2lp;dl & J! -&I - J!b21+iJ I ~LUI +L+ b+ ji 2~'+;d~+h3-+ +ty" ~ l jU3S L W I &I- +&I 5 F &j '.&.*+I +2lpYl LkXld j ijK &i.kiUp wJ_I +L-%l2 I j &is3'+LA > L ~ l d j & L ~ ~ aLWIZ+j 'b"I..,,;tg k r W l a L U I 3.&q &QYI 4Sj'democratic gs. &.bl+d i j organized gs. L L l l ++ALI -G- pi 'LLI authoritative gs. dlalcL+ll &+isjanarchistic gs.. 2 . ~ ~ 4 1 arUL LL+ll2lJ3;d WLdjYl a w l
  32. 32. &9~u+~o ~ + h9i' e e j b ~ 3 @ k L 3 @&+ Z J L fibL'd .LL+ l*g &2+a ijskt, L& J . c p A ~ & k L + l ~ ~ d ~ J+ upi &JLLI ++jk! Ilca,&Wl ~x;;dpldl p&-J C L;; LWI 2 p $59lib 'ddl dU I i I '&d >$I IL 31+'>$I l i b 'b~ l p !~JJL, kwL & I L&LJ w l p J-'d! kwIdJ> .. kwl+ L19. . 2 4 1 F-3 .>$I CO-Z g L i d l LcQI - Z 3 L&K l j l JUy +L9 'operative g. ~&iid-'ejgjdLhijlSl j l & J I & Z J U I lj3 ' 2 9 JS alJS +1-&91al~&l( A 21951&fii ?MI e b ~J ~ W I +i,&i j ~L ; . ~ - ! ~ W U IqsJSJ;S &Lyl +yj -241c --+(y'+I p.. Lg;cL g U l &-I g 2 4 competitive g.. LA;! t U l & ? 2 U I &kcl.Sxfl&l- &WI9 & ' L 2 ~i, e4b2pi &&d+Id' + &dld3Wl-
  33. 33. bi&.a dynamic whole &&JJS K. Lewin: A Dynamic Theory of - +ej)lrb J! GLbYL JI+$I t w Personality. g i s l e +a&L;iJI 4~;iujL3 C. Homans: The Human Grours. - ill+4'-J3 . - S b 5 ' 1 & ~ $ 1 a&% White and Lippit: Autocracy and - Democracy. 3 group dynamicsL-1 A. Hase: Handbook of Small Group - ~b wk $1 Lul a k * d l- Research. 4 1 e3.+L.+YI 4 1 (%LC H. Hyman: Readings in Reference - 4'e3 EW13b & u I Group Theory and Research. - - Hare, A. P.: Handbook of Small Group - d'p J h(+3 ;r.y l d l 3 *$%A' Research. *3 .( 4Y7) Lewin Cartwright, D. and Zander, A.: Group - L-1 h _ L a k J + L
  34. 34. p ~pleader y A l 3i OJjJ &I3.Lg5+"&3$p LCI,,rl.. +J ~ iO ~ L ; . ~ .&&$)Q~I- ~bd-biJ&..lL W ~b d - J Lk?Jl JS$ b $1 *sf b 9 9 .&L.Gj Id;*&&L;;9 &I> "J hl ilhll~ej? j L 3 . d . i k g j & + ~ ~ ~ i , ~ + ~ ; ,- ;J&U &l;iell - followship -I3 followers t l j % l3 .leadership
  35. 35. surgency F9 +L+lj G9 illl~L_!b+lj ,dF+J3Lh;flj . . ; 3 s LB-!i,&2 S! : '-u A task Li jJyc9 .&xi+- Jk&dl9 dk!! d3 Jb- LL.ii!I&a>lg I i l'-L++dI- ;Irk& 'lsf blS -L&JlillLI;T;;;d- 1 1 , A , w';L;L 11 - 351 3 kJLc GJ-,Jc h i 0 Y S 21 3 N.- &jr & j ) o f j.. h i ~ + s ; , ~ i j i ~ - i u;-. I . J ~ ~.*L;GeLI%bi,&
  36. 36. +&+1 9 3 W L --ks@$I J k J l 3 i +I 1631 l;irsJl jy L B , ~A‘U+&G u 3 4 L l - j p+--&3u ""s Aj6 J+ 9i'statesman 3iinstitutional statesman aLwl +3 'system builder ?Uhillj l J I- Y ~ $ 1&ax ;++ a- 'pL-A13 &u13ijl~)U(IgL?L;s +& bj@L; J ~ I$h ' ~ W J - c l l 3~ & % * 3 i gifted leader +9+1,L;kll& &.dl3 spgrb experienced I. &-dl J;l;rfl 3 Y S Y - 4 -1 .?I" h l 'dl ' ~ I j d l ,+I f.. a%+ 14a~&ab' ~ L J Ip&$- &s ;i:8 - 4 All &~ L J 9 4 9;bLI 4iwJLM3 &JWI- +I 4.. b L +J!+MI +gid3. 4 j q , +I e3'dlAJ o&iLll ~-i-qyhe-u"p'+- L ~ I role J~3~$b?UI++ a~w 'L&Zb+fYL'dl 3 playing 31 i L L ; c ~ , t x + ~ j l - ,- ,,,iL3 91L L I I L g j U ijA9'GIA~CI &'dj+piP J ~ih3+G~~ ++JLJSZ-~&,L;WI~+ L$I ;+ 3ii L , A ~ l g ~bk +3 ' ~ $ 1 WI hlgli p fiiJ- ,&i1 4ilj &k J!$I+ '-I ... aly4~l~ .Z+L+YI ; i J ~ l3~ iJJb3 i ~ & a I& ii.nL1-;ll &&u &y3 'great-man theory p&II 1631 ++eJul3i +I+! ? p j ~ L S eU1grb ;&I d3J d I a hlj L~$$I L" s &4 w u ! &G hI3'W&JjbZp ?+ . . +LC + 1-u a L l y @ h& +a e I & j ~ 3 1 isr~!$> G h ! &Iy 9- & J U ! dil ' ~ L L + ,+ d l '((axle men h9j+l, GYP;& .&ujmI- j u ! J9-j G k W l * 3~ hF> JU+i ylill $ 4 1 &Ay 4 & 2 L J l + L&I3Lnational-herotheory &$I- ~ ~ ' d p + ? U l J+j LL,~GJ4 @$' JkJl &%3 +diijj all ; ~ j l a +3- & b e +&A- I Lggzg3 l L & & i - r 1 u
  37. 37. o h j 'Q charisma && +j& 'charismatic I. &>Jm! i~m! Lgf+pp;~.A~LLdLkfljL.;L dij btkit~J-G +Z~LLJI iW13 . ~ khi++ ; ~ ~ i t ! & ~ + u ~ + & i t ~ ~ y eb ~j;;jdij ,'i i+ LL! father +'w ijy Q &j @ [>j & & L [+ I d &Ij &image a I 2 U l bKj bdld13+ityL i W ! i .,A IL e*kil C~ di jj&5 3 44 *$1'cj.+l d A i2L;JI >k+iW I d I zY3 &dlAWIj ' 4 k @ubj3- ijss;Gj .'+it zL-Y 2- L 'Z2Lz&4+i LW'",+!~9 - &al2L+l 2 L &a W !j-4 LjAlZ ~ l + i J ! j'i~l+i!Itk3 ~ ~ w l1-j 'distributed leadership leadership as group -+&!;ik_Jb9S &-I >i+I2 7 +L'function + L A ~ ~ G ~ L - & + L + Y I .. d u l i p ,L ~ w ~ W C (jI ILUj C>-~w+4 +L~I a&&L'A.Jl3 b& ?9;;3 ;;I+$i& j3d&(.@Ij .*-el 'L+ +ISr! ((4;K))j&dlFp.. +jdidJ 2-3 &!p+L ;j'4 i ~ u Ij + ~ j Lal;Sj Z2&iJ13.ud l g A l-4+A,,&c;-.zij4 bt&itl3 d l task L+d13 the situation WpJI.. ',3 a&@! *j .WydI &s;;.- +L;fpw13dlpcllJgj.. i ~ w l --e & 4 . : l . . . . J ~ ~ + j . ~ &m!~ ! _ L P(~)4Sj dlpJl -. '&xi(4+3 '-+L * U l , Z J g s I I p13""J! cl+J13 &i$I3 b 3 2 & l l L & J ~ &dl.. y dL;Ckl+ && ij+&iijJCgl .-~i wL9 lek! d ~ & i o j " +~Gii~pd-t*3 W C W ~ f 9&c @&jbdl YI d l + ! dh;;Y+i -;jj b w x ~ ~ + i ;is ,.the problem man - W l hj1 dW13 .L&. J! 4 i C b ?Lj! lisL .- ixL+jcakJI +LA leading behavior &JWIt 1 3 L l l 3- &ku&-+!j 'j+&~d+u
  38. 38. & M I k h L SKbb d ~ l . + J lW I a ~ @ l ~.&--) 9ibJJ-d9 &9 >+I g.. L j Y L b i ;I;....~I fiLjI++i 41.. J ~ J - ~ I99.. ,+g.sr~l J L Y l , JYl L%Jw;G4+ +jag . j u Y ! ,&-j13 &k ; J U I -&=-I a L + l GWWI ;,+I &is3 .+~pgi~i t& b& kj3.&WI +Lj i,d-d' rb(wy ya &I li'a * ' d l.. p a l C L e L g o n i .&& genuine ;ic I - .A1;J@ L s 9 h4i)!L&l2+1]4 leadership 9isJ- &$I 6 9 1 ~b L j ~ + ,i ;MI J~~ A b~~k o k ~ 1 W S W Lb 91 I Yl bL:~L;;I9 U S u L & d 1 3 a ~ j Y l .jIJ+i2 W W l a L k J I ,,-b3 +g+L +lpEJ-r& i;91 +I ;,& ij;i OGL+I +i g.. 4h~J W I , & b b +l$3+-J& 9iL+A 9 J m ~ bi d! JgJ-rl &.. 3 - m l ~ l;,d L a 3 ,;+.A 41-L., .++i Y C ~ 9 JALGkJL&,J+I Isgl @9.. ,;J@ a+ 35 &kg c y ~ ~ 3-141~-c~L+I~e ~ 9 ~ 3 L ,A7:+ +919 Awl &!Gydb % 4kSjLku9 JJk&& & +91 Li LS bt&9~b9+ 1;w J*9 9.. b k r l d j h ~.IJ@ &4 @ 4 Y - tjiijr j 1 9 U I 9 rjLvl$l3.. r j 4 J M l , L A F Y d L U ; J k l e U 1 3 bP& L b i &gi3 4&>eJ h j J L 3 31 -GI-! i ~ eI+& i~L+iIl k g iLbi9.social I. &&! ,democratic I. -19%~;J& a L J 9 F l pj+&?+ Jghb aIJl+Jl i k l >+3341 dI+b- j j J & J&f13 b ~ ~ - ; d ~d+-9 (J-4 & d l J J J 9 ' $ ~ p d IW I * ' J ! J ~ ~ J F A * * @I li'apLj.&L+lJsz$,, -O J , u J l ; J & a l p ;JL+al &A authoritative or autocratic leadership C s y l g b t G Y I 'd W L 41.. 4 9 ;tJJ-J- u t 9 J F J I 4 9
  39. 39. I I *&J b&. &p' - & u l &- ' L G A l a l j & i y LC- 'oligarchic leadership &SiMjI i 2 & 2 C Jl ;?)rldl p J I ~ ~ L k l l - j lPJk i;i 2m +I+I++AI a L 2 2 i ; 3 ~ 9L6-, U I .,ad1U&!J!9~ +bl++Jl U l elite power $ 4 1 X h L j
  40. 40. &*.. LJ+ &51S - rurnour :&P.. L,+JgUL3 ',=L.;tYl LgyL Lgl - gL! Sherif, M.: Intergroup Relations and- . .- Leadership. Mills, C.: The Power Elite. - LU ji .&JL JL ,UI I14-- - Gibb, C.: The Principles and Traits of - ~ ~ l j ~ ~ lLJg&&&L+ Leadership. &uLi2.A; :;A3,&I3 Bass, 0.: Leadership, Psychology and - 6 Organizational Behavior. J3j L G U l ;, J3j & 2 p l&+ Tannenbaum and Massark: The- j# 13k& 4d Jjk Personality of the Follower. & hjk1(j& Gj L i j l ~ Borgatta, E.: Great Man Theory of- f+j-dl ;J&* L O + G + c 2 $ 1 Leadership. Browne, C.: The Study of Leadership. - WL . h 5 ? 1.. &ad +- &a1- Cattel, R.: Four Formulae for Selecting - & @ Leaders on the Basis of Personality. &lj .3~3-k-k +'w &j &wI Petrullo. L.: Leadership and- L32lp;dl alj, Jp &L~?I + Interpersonal Behavior. solidified r. 3 u U l L L Y I yi - e ~ l t . y ~C- .51tl;y1 f f g j i ;li + Y LUX biL + L ~ L L ~ I ~Uy9a,,a,k, by,.kwg
  41. 41. k k y l, + Z g damaging r e . - L l u A L-3 'Pi +$ 4 1 b W I 9 .;jLkl! b - ! & L JLI & LLLTYI 9 & 4 ~ 1 g&jlfl1 +g+b be& '&I& ;y3u .W!- L L i Y l L L l k L k . &L&i L L LLK- -LL;;Yl& -zG9 d;Qj i;ab +iA -XF + LQg 'riots L l pre- +~ - r k .~GL;;! at .+G3&kgd l 2+9 riot rs.. ;id&I LYlj a u z4 3 'planting a r. &&I ;GkP- 'LO- LILY1 3, +&A 1jK3 ;-3 .I& 2JJI9 L k y l+p 1 L b b - a f l w ~ ' &9 3 1 9 5 $413 importance & a Y 1 3 .o+ ++Y &l;Jfl &UP+! b'ambiguity L;IK Y$ ' L L Y I ,a+ L J i 9 1 9 j LL;;~I Li9. t J ~ip,UI $11, JL+ di LIJ+ AI- aJwb ',Ul i);W -L-;C ((-I,, && 't++dl l13M.+pi))jl&g &+b 4 b j - I 3 & k Y I JP LL;;~~J'I~L+ d l @YJI ( e ~ lJ ~ i Js +A ~$19;9db Jab9 '+I t*y += G W I ,adt ~ 4 Q f IlLn JP L h y A- ' + " J I I ~ ~ W ~ . ~ J ~ ~ G + &UI- SUI ;IS;W ,i a J u*- A I I ~ O ~ ~G j ~ 3 ihJjp~ U W I+JD 3b ( 1~ L V ) Postman ;il-Y9 d3 9 9 GLjLlLA9I+ ~ 9 9L k Y I &&4 &(-a)! 3 Y '+g+l +j L'IW 'L+LAal!+;A+ j J (JUUl&(j&L3'~F~+&Lc? -&by! elx3.s+, g9 + &&!I P'UIJ- -sr. germs
  42. 42. 'LLy13A+-. &i3 $ k 1 2 dL&g j++ & l U I d 3 ~ ~g news sLxfb Laig ' G 3 2 U 1 % L d J djJ-?L+ OL ~ k i k jbibi2+a A .;YI +&a + ' A k l 2 L L ' d l g . i A L d l ~ 9 L ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ j - S j i ) - g l J ~ r. immunity L L d i ~ l '&uLJI a&L& (Jjjf l 2 L L L Y I d-& unthinking I fi (jg+ s d d ! 9i;++I g L $2 acceptance- GI2 d l 3 ,,JIYI >JL;;~!.. ~+.L+b)g'Ll+I&&L&> .. @I3 '-LliY &J,a & JI;;? & uLJl y &L;,db3L& J&L .propaganda Z + L J 2- &C & r. consciousness L L ; W &i!13 -I3 ,191*'&LA*I Y C ;II +.JL+,i w 'I;;?- gi L i j I d L. L h I.. JgdI &L K p l l.. ' G k ! ! a h 3'&QI J W Y *3 L ~ ~ yb s ; ~Y u~~Li +A A ~ ~ I - , - I ILi+ LA b ~ + ~ ~L&,,.. Y S Y ' ~ 4Lb3++ 'ki b~YI &i!.. fiL*A bJ9Y ;*&.l& &LA!p;r.,WI i);wg .Lglgliij &$& &LJ by- L L Y I c;;U .bLsLu* kjPP&'.-.. A9 ; ~ s L L J I $ ~ ~ + ~ . L ~ ? ~ I s ~ , K ~ .&* u U I &Li..k ;>+I .;++I j-Li +i)5~LiLfI&'i.(;9 + J ~ ~ j ; d l & d u r k ; , & l j ~ . , - L.. G;l;;r;I &da&~L+' '.' "9 - 9ia A -,-I Jk%~LI 3i41J~I-, JH+~Li-+I ~ Y I &!I L21)1@ & j L Y I5 i,l .. b++.l L ~ I j y ~9i;++I I+&++ GUI+9 .GL~'L Tj12! $1 j +FL2.i L2lYI &ij2-tI- + .. +z,~ .+I 9iJUI j9ig.. buJ J.LL~$@I 9.. G+J+;.'dl .. 9ihJckl+ji ++ Y -!IesLu Y GUI 3~"LoF9 .+I i$j ~ 4 9' i + ~+idell +E bi A 9-I 9i'leveling L+l U JLk, LJ&cW distortion &+I.. 3i'omission - .l n . , 8 A L ~ ~ ~ p k 2 L a &- ..
  43. 43. W C 49bj+ SF 213 L+JL & ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ & ~ > 3 &+iLLI WI-I 5 - k -YV) Neron ( j 3 ~(9-YIb(-.; .A: 11 W C & L y I GLI$LS& (pj.(?TA c + ( J- b;,-7 i, .. 9% ji 5 - u ~g 3 J + JFJ+d 311lib.Qj+l GJYJ LI O- I ~ A L ~-G JLI~YI 53 l;ls.: - ..-r~ &LLI i+i U;I~++LLYI w.cJcb L & j ~ y I;i-;I-d-41SF 'anti-r. i~La.LL!JLi G b3> l & LJ ' i , * - r 4 & d l LLC(; b4 &.. ;icLLy3 .i,L3jJa &+l -41 socrates &I+ GJjji &I ' i i- Y+ 'm&Jl I (.pj' 9 9 - i v * ) C W C L +4;ru O J L ; ~ ! 4ic igcLiOclu31 .+I GAL 5 m I +LC pL 9!$$1+j~+ + Y k ~ ! $ > j.. .- V S 4ijk cm &A- 21 + 3 4 @3 .$Y1 '5 k4.b 3i g 3i.psychological warfares &Ail1 ++I ,i . & L C ~ I+- .+ +Fji 'GLI~YI +F ji : L L ~ I 3 ~ 4&+is J b j +L E Y 1 @d_;lr 2- G labeled r. Y LEIc 4;t. .41L+ >ij'L+I ~ ~ ~ 3 1.d-;y-.--jpp++i+ Y-&LLI b i ~ b + r c c ~ ~ +jbJ~YI ;1Up (pj.&Irj.. &I3$$I3 & d L bJL L Y I +L L L ~3ij-9 .b+JF ~L9LLl&W13L;llr j l S e J W I 3iLsjs-'9 . d l I~_SJAL -: dlj LB;IjLP;;I &.. kL K jU$* ,L;JI &A& L & L G L E Y l & b L 3 - b 3 j i&-+&@I Jswlirl! @ (j3&JJ ~LLbflbjj+ i)-49A! r. ahL'dl ,Ip 331& +L c%YIj.l b3& &dJ warden voyeurs hFL+1 +i pj'Lgic '++I v I y J I pic* - &dl &ti+r. reporters GGLYI+Iy3 jh91- k k l ~,,~l;,'k+& +I && 41a L k Y 1 J b b +I r. boards a L U Y l LA >i41&iJ- *j.@ - L L I C . ++I SF
  44. 44. ; r * G e ; ; , t , ; ~ k b ' & L 5 .. & u!i,& 2 p 2 3 2 3 +?I .!-LC3 -+I$ &'a + +iL i# G3 ~ J h l2 -. -*~'j+&~w ,bi 41p ~ i 3u i w --J! L L Y I :I ',Id19 & ~ l & l a d emotional&-ILtk;Y & d i l l +ib- 'd+J&;isf- b= release - ,%GLLYI +, 3i +iLh4 'projection& L Y ?>&A & L&L+y '$1 r j w l +Al & cjy- +J+ +,e 3 ' ~ ~ 2 0&'a &I &I &dl& L Y I ',ill G G L Y I- - complementary +I & L Y l d JL+ - - ; +wai htprojection MI bi esAi&+I w-b%++&+ AK;, dig'-1 JA~+4 &dldirect projection & L Y I- &$ u,' b '+> ~ ! ~ i r ~ . e " + J 2 4 1 +*% +i j b 2 4 1 *$i- &A1.. ~ L c k Y l j.++ e&~l$ ~ - ~ u _ k l k ~ ~ j ; j & ~- 3ir ; ~ ;JL CSJ-~LUA~ I&Ij ; j L Y l AJ- *;u.++.+?I ,+I ,i 'UI ',ill- ~ ~ 1 l& - k L Y I .+$I 3iSLJI ++ ?+- +',.e-rslcLq 4+4i,+psJ9 t;--Ucs-&i,WLg;Lb L i b ?cajJ.r. factory L G Y l &&Lhll & J L 2 &"LYI && -&Lu3'+%I dl;& +,' I I.. - W I Z+.JLYI~ J I ~ ~ ~ I++ bi & &I ,i13 .&&La &"Lyl&2'+Ll'+JVl'.. - X;;;LaJL;f4'Lgl;k4=Lf1.IL & fb""+I ";U (d;..s '$I$ d~ CP;? pip3. b 3 ~ 3k k y l r. - L k Y l GIJ~+C JL-GJ~+C c l r L L Y l 3-1 Id;.. 'clinics l + z - u l JL+;dl $3 'I p 1 3 2 L1,23 'G&4Jl L q ) 2 L ip i- r. mongering b-1 +hiJ (2, k k y l &i9.Jj.+,-II w31& 9 F ++Y31 &‘;I .. p131'I (P 4 3.. '*&.I LgclpLC . kJL.;;Yl aly4ifl L i & i k . ~ ~ l & ~ L d= a
  45. 45. 41lab r. -1 L L Y I i,&+dl- j G3+ Lj;~wol,2 i b A l ,j- .a 11 &I;Lwol, &Yl- &LAY d+j psychological lab.+ - abji L,L~L+ *&LC+ a L L L Y l *j .z .1 -1 , A * I & , I L a d U L b L l 'impetuous rs. 3 31pu~+>lj ~;Lwol,Ij aL~!+j4%3' a Y $ i J lg- +"I "5 +i c-9 final-peace rs. rUJ+ && d3.++I G w l +py +Lb& -&12y13 -2.IpJl ' j L U I p ~ iis- t;t;l~i j s +~ L L A ~ I ! & j @ j * l & k & + Ib 2 + . - a L L ; Y l & &.J .+.-" 'Aj @ I G d l ++I+Yl L&& 'JlY c - 3cg 'anticipatory rs. -91 a L k y I ' 4 1- &dl +jI+ dl; & - & L Y J m I J ,,, ,,ic ; ;+C C +LAYI&9QU 41.. 2$W& C pIj;~wol,dLi~'jfibl +Q+u3.C1&ll" L L n3~ LLAYI , A--,-,Y --&w laboratory r. 2 1 d l i r 2 . ; . ~ U L + + , ~ ~ I ' ~ ~ A I I.++ LjJI- &'%+I9 '&'%+I ~ i S i ~ j- .racial hatred+CL~. LA!$- p wji- b3&.I&&I 0 h h G kj3 ji G ~ ~ ~ + + j , . L + i 4 ~ L l F L & c p z -+!L('JI &I &'2 J&ll ;j &i ..attitude jokes r&I 6,)bJ&L- ~~'ji;,;d*'L&G00i+li,pi L 2 3 4;byL;11 +c 0& &I 'pa>& + j * ~ d l j Y 9 ' 4 i L Z S L & *- V.Jb.5_r hi bjJ bc -&I bj+i C & - - 9 ' +J9-'l c s 9 i - L Q j l 1 4 .+UI d -&.bl$I &j+)Ul- WLcjfl cSif*J&f3- C C ~ 9 ~ s ~ 3 1 L g ( 3 .L&Lill- - +++ LCIL)F . - -tjj 1~ 1 2 d&LAY1 -klj;~wol,j +Lj r. planting L k Y l &m9' L g f L -u*LpLSur $2 -+I clrLi@13 r J L L Y l ; 4 k r L L A Y l U9.r. agent L L Z U&S & L k + Y l & bj>
  46. 46. ',+I (y ;l9L;U crAdL1l JI&l . I d I + b ~ & L d J & & 3 5 w dl-1 2.. *dl~ 3 ~ 1&&,I$Ij -4 *%)IG u sC.iIkJI J.'I;uJ & b& &!I3- kk461J k ' d I- I i LA L(yu~9c5j~$~- 'I++.L 4.. L L ~ I Ai~ +'u&MI &;13~l- OJ- 41- L L y 1t& Q4yds-I a L I J d I d3.'& Y S ~ $ 1b-1 b ! 9 2 & 3 LP 3 S f ~ U l1 jeeL-+jz LL)U .LUI 6wi r. L E ' d lejy &IjJ e ~ ; ; j + d l conciseness j L Y &.- < spreaders 'i& [J* l ~ ~ j h E b 151 C 151 Lb*dl++!!;)9l+ A L & - +j L y Y l , .JI+$ +I+ljJ i;U & L ~ I i d ,...;I 0-1- - J1 CJL US WLii ~ l jUS3,WLii ktwj L L ~i- gi c- i;i ~ g h u iJ u $ ~ j L + ~ y ~ j + ~ w C &./.ye b~*&i-Lkk3 91 4w3d3% J a L i &WI
  47. 47. 'j12yl J ~ Y .+ closure s X i Y 1 3 j i +19g J; J+ ssl;y~? ~ j " s.qsLL, 9iOL;; L aLqe* ~ + L J L L ! I ?j+il&dl & d l ' + d l p a j - L E Y 1 La+ a k h ! d b'assimilation & b)k L 3 j h h J ~ ~ ~ ~- @ +ljJ 9i04; J; ''&+! 3 l 4 j u k & & + i )' . - 1 3!+JS 'ji -+4 ~4;;.914 ~ x ;c~..-! d9,'LL +i qjJ3~ 2.. -!9 + ~ j ~ ~ ~ ' J . + a l ; r I ; l l c , t ~ ,w9 J- ji ~gl &~11~ai)+bi ~~~ALuL., b2J LL,;,~'LW~~L;;. W3k - I i)& ~ 2 g.di LJ 0lck;Ubg @ && L a j"+L L L > U 2 ' ~- GL-! ijb, . ~ i ;IK di i...;:u+ G, L L ~ I b& LL&I3 ' & L A +2- & A i A L., a&l_l;; 3-4 &LAY- -&I b k;k3ibL. k;4k- ~ h ~ idb9 $1 -kL;Yb g &JAG - b$1 +I++~JF+=G19A1 ;,& L Y l c- LsLdS9 al,lAA!l 4-t bi.+IAYI 9+JLF;d~ ++ ~4 'mottoes- - b- ljJI-4 ~ J F&4&- .Lg) 94k- &i;Ul- jhl- C)i;&d13 ?)i;b9wC;j& L E Y 1 LL+ Y 9- dl31.. 51+.... 'sharpening jl>YI. 5 ijF & L&+ -kkcy &&I9 '& &&3 dJ&J +c+ kJ2 LJ; bb +&A3 '* &&I +9b-d' ! h e x i ) i djf4;?ljJ 3- ' b k d ! 'L& Wl+dl9 j b y l j -W 5 p ~ ~ L l & L 3 1 4 i ? l t - j p i l C h l dl&I .&+iG ~ ij+ s L u C % - I jI& jLit &c jlAaJl ijt- +j_rl p- GI~JI ;*,!I . & L ~ I ~ a s d l ,L 3,dbq3i' p w ~ ebi41p- J.....L ji .-LLL;~p- O U Y L ~ c ~ 3. U l 2 L t l '="ilJ ,i ' L ~ ~ Iji . C P ~ ~;isdCil jgnAI .&+ ji ' d l
  48. 48. L J J ~l j lC .uLaiil Z J L '% ~~l;;; p-i,9L?--=! J k A L J J ~1 jb L;!&~ "&I+ + u Y ! aU L & Y l a+lL'dl L k Y l o h &E lib ~-3 &dl .. .L -rl L+ + I ~ I LL~YI 9 ~ ~ i , ~ g ~ L y ~ ~ i j l L+d13p? 3i-I -LJ +UYI Y9Q" iY rjWl Jl J LLilyJ G3 3i,u- . 3i,-I : L ~ Y I s;--I t ~ t 1 3,+-&h~ FJ~i91,L-J .. w-~ ~Jinill~j12~ljL9"ifI+ &-,r;tl 'Pi .iuG-2Jlf+d~3p & k j 9 'J&iLT'I~+ LoLC 'UL i i Y l & L& &+L&Yl r. L L Y I JLJI+l 3i+y + aLIJ_JI G3protagonist. +'I ,JU +~i& L L ~ + ~ ; ik s ~ be4d~f++l y J4 &L2?b6 ; 1y- C 5 Y -L -i ~4JJI L.+J>
  49. 49. .K;spZj .+A&3+JL ij.ii4 impetuous U d l k L Y I d;Q3 W C 5Y inflammatory r. k L Y 1 3 fr. j~~ i~~~;iuF bi~ g j ~+, 6 L ; Jl '-hEb!@I ~ j l i l l .. i j L L Y l j !+&!I LmIqlxs3atrocity rs. hJLjbogy rs. U+I ji ;irj+l !ijL,(lj i j L w I 3&jI+ Lgl deleterious rs. %sf1 ijLhy13 a 4 1i j ~ ~ y ~ j!+jji a~~ $(i; 9 3 *I+,-. eb dividing rs. ~ r Y l ~!divide and conquer @ &dl d+diving rs. LbLill j+~3i+~Jju+di- - .a . + L a A3& 3--;W,i L L PI~-JI+,J+ ~ ~ y l3i 4ulj &a&L+&Ll j ijdlrkjYlj e ' L * I . + . , * ~ ~ i j j ~ l Js +y3 .LLy& j y Ip13+W& .- & d IcrL ,LLILi I ,%I - him J L L ~ I w ~ i j- L @ ~ I L ~ ~ @ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ & L ~ & . . I'= immunity k L ~ J JwWI +3 +A d l 3 . L L , Y JL against rs. L O ~ & (JA 'bEJMI Jl b L J JL rE+&-- djfl- 5-U k L Y 1 3 .Tj12b L L ~&A f+dl k,,di %I - k))+$I OL +, QJL &+- O l J i ji d - i L3pL(<ciL L ~ 4 + ~ ~ i ~ ; ~ -j L ' ~ n r LiU;1.j UY., 4-l d+13a.::~lllii%9SLjwL+ L L Y I . UL 4 L u ' A i LQ9 .d+l- . - - &I- S%Yl j .jl,)'I + h l J3& Y &SJj9% bi& L k y I P+I ILr_ljrJ4;!& ~ b ~ + l L+3 oJ-li?..I .,,,,,,L1i j l r ( Y l L L L & j ,i .J~IJ;I~4- ji . ~ g j ~ + ~ I .I!Je$~j j L&&- + l a pj 92,d L j .L& +id1 &;uLjYl &L;1; .creeping r. &Lc-ll L L Y l LGF 9 hjUl i$12 +j +& .Cassandra rs. IJ&K ijLLl b3 ijdij,21 f j&u&u3- d i 9 ! . b g 1 ? 4 @ + J ~ q 1 + .I++@'.-Y ~i ijj- &IS ijk=k! b ! ! j & K L L E ~
  50. 50. :F'P G. Allport and L. Postman: The- Psychology of Rurnour. Coplow, T.: Rumours in War. - Peterson and Gist: Rurnour and Public - Opinion. Prasad, Jamuna: The Psychology of - Rumour. Schachter, S. and Burdick, H.: Rumour - Transmission and Distortion L W , A& ;)9+ -kLLYl &a2&l f:+lJl&Yl Ib+A a, 3 +dl3 'LJ* Lgl LL!J59 '+T f:icjJ2 (jLjXtl dL+I 9%L a & -3 .+sUJI3 -91. &J- J W Y - l Y L Y @ * ~ ! ~ ~ & $& bK litL 91L & L Y I && suggestiblejl+YI.. G l l +pL l&.c &LAL L y l dill- type - d ~ iL+,~ '-;)g+ 1 quasi-cultured type .% +.&it ~ S - ) . j J i&L, irhl+! &&j lek;;;&GA!K k k y l j .;.s+I 2- i ~ ~ + li r b & Y l w 6 &I Jl U L Y L. '4L;tlJ&%A U I +&I+ &dl @ L A 9 1 GYP JLI ijg;am!-ag @$I J+ - p p&W i&s'(9 r-- @~.j
  51. 51. L,,,;;akLd l 3,metaneeds i j 4 ~ 1L$*.. .. L)l?g illbmldJ& 'd3 '+- ~;;b'intermediate needs cJdA&abWI (& d& .. +5 CJAI jS g3.need hierarchy - 4 b i . . r ; ~ 4 j ~ ~+I> JP]I dj& 3 '7- &IF p w c j I ',LC .2+u!!'d13 L&JI -+-I '..,., ;,J - L z 'd aLUI JAG3 'I.&& g y Jrk3.. & K ~ L & ~ + - ~ L + J & . . G need al+L i-3 31 integrate need .unit u q j J p a k ~ ~ p i e ~ 3- e2L r U J! +MU L93i+MI U C 'QIX I,-: 4~ b~4j - 9 1 2 " L I JI +11 L a &L+ '7% '&LA+ &!.. &a +i&y@ 'd+Ld>Lbls p2 &j 4'- 31 '-4% b-3 '+* u pA b 3 '+JLb3--3 ',,4 &j-LLu+J- i j L ' d I iU primary L+lJ a b L d i l - 3 3 ,basic needs -+~i4 'needs j L Y I psychological needs .. -91 '-1 ~4 J d b JW1j @c h 'd LkJ!- c -&U13L& +&j.. L j L u ' d 1 3-c dj ~..i+3 .+UI j~+ji +
  52. 52. I j + ~bi3~ z ;bi, ; .- I 'affection -I +UI pi +'++- uS-!sdkd m>i,& b3+&I - +;dl ',J! +U13.5i&95&1+3 w C C bl- i,Y ;LU9safety need - d i j k ; ; = r b & &+% -1 -. ~-L;flcfP& & sexual need --I- $&I rL&ZYli,+;LLI;-II- -1 - . PJ~_JI+Ldb3. c k Y I. C +UI ji +J! I& b++ ' + d l cfPLilI 'i+&U I- .- ~LLLYI 3~+ W I ~. i ~ ~ j41;~KU +iL LL i,L need for affiliation t-4 'd3@ ,am1; A L 2-3 451- C & '$a3 ' p l d l i d 3 &j + M I ci+))?I &Lid1klrrLYJl o h need-drive- JjUbe lslb+ U I .incentive model &+I n.-pressLLL+LLUg U j L +i,+ pLoI+l p* n fn~LJ13LWI ,+I'I++- . C I ~ + ' I ~ ~ + J I ~ ~ + ~?< - press- & L A 1 +Wl &+, j12-,, .((need-pattern bahavior &I- +I 9 ~ n .pattern d+MI 9 need cathexis i,=-Lj I cfPLJl3 i u c ~ l : 6 ! ~ , J j i + ~ +Ld i,LS klS9'&i&-if , G G p IL,~~,+L;++,AI- 9i'LA &-J &YI- t++~d ~ i3iw-)~ lh&&JLLjI L s L 9 ' L g c L & Y c t. C . +jL cxkLoY13 . t k Y l. C &&Jl i,& J&4 -+MI L L 2 b& 4ib U I- Z,UL .Z,u;Jl(JA at+ ,++I J! need for +dl3 WLfl JI +MI3
  53. 53. 313 49=? ~ ~ i y . ; b z u p + L,,-& &kL;f JL&- J! -i+LJI 3!+'ee~jL9- J! k k l u l- 5 pii d-GU18 +A J+kL&. d3-. . d l '1;$ k ; u l Jwi3'need for power L C L i)& kJ 415 .-bLLfli)1 4dl s i)& S S $ l j .- B&&,L;II..I bj1 J+ ji JulS j L u j & J l- b~3~ ;$I& - L hK J! + W l j .&$9l& ; & J I p + need for achievement J#Il b l.l-;2 '+I 9- -1 al+Wl U 9 ~ f ~-I G k i 3i'G ~ h 3 ~+L& 3i2-i J: O h JiGj.h3'* LLe jlj;clg 'LU&jIj;cYI 9- & M I &>41- J+j)_llj ' 1 4 4-LcL+I 1pJI G l d ; Y l C V j .&YI& &a a Y L I 4rbp.... 'W J9* 4j.4 .+MY1 (need f o r - ~ ( l ~ l L ~ 1 3L . L L W i)$ &vY;$6 'prestige)- 'a!> &U3' L ~ I3iir9l g o h 3+&L; L U I t J j - & yW13 i c ~ l d l O h i)s &JLkpllj '41 + u LU 3iLUI d-LJ c 9 A f laL.+-e* k L J l L+ '4&+ll+LU*ll- y&i "ILL 1 3 ~ f @ -I3 Jlkbk . l l b j .+I J& j j i j- aldl &isJ! . & ! G I ijbL&LA OL b-73 &h need for self-actualization J! 'derived ns. d- - - .UL i)i3~ ~ w ~ d ~ ~ ~ l;A i)t, ~ l d I + W l , 3 L n e e d for s u c c e s s c ~ I i . ~ g s l - i 4 444;r ; J j;-,t-l i)3 ,((need for recognition dl P & J - & + ~ + ~p-c+i)i9 ' ~ ~ j l f ~( G W I A) +CU i)l J! , P.djbI+il3 djl& 4 i)dj3L C & % c ~ b )Ll_iU 'need for loving. 4 conscious n. b~gL;ell+W13 J-=,ii)h,.and being loved ( + U l
  54. 54. + + + i L 3 k w ! ~ + wd b i J - , 3 ~ i p ~- -+ need L U I .fGKj- 5 k.LL neurotic needs & U I ijkMI3 &S JS& 6k gratification Horney sip- &iU aL)I-! + 4 3- '+I J+f13 ( ~ o Y - A A O ) .. 3+ wiri-4 LjG 'b JjJJ +4.- L ~ A- +ab - ~ i C g A a w ~ji++ i b ~ ie3' ~ 7G ,a: -,- + -4 - ,--r .f.llijL&a ijL3-+A &j3.+L-.n+lS..LI . . ;G9 Y.- +I! 41- ilkWI 32 .~pathological ns. ((-&A>abL,, a k U l '¶b+',LJ+AfiL3- &M3'+I Jl 5 .LU!:-L&!-. JL-&U13' & c L + Y IX i U I JI '&+%I J-Y + U I j ,h3Sfell&'iJij&L.. +CIL;U(21 j Ii I &I3 '&JLL!I + U k +Lp;&&I aLXJl .-',it1 - need reduction ghki3 ++;5~sL~veb,+~~.. .J.+b w !3i+WI LLL 3p $1 einternal n. -&WI +W13 41$WI &I2 +c i,:a;; - .eJmIL L L ~ ~-. +'&Z L i - 4- Jl- 4- external n. GJMlLWI3 . U I +-. @iLif * ~9~ Y $1 emanifest n. apWI &W13 G3'LI- dgWI Lgic p,aA .latent n. 2-dl 3iXiAQI &Wl 4.. narcissistic abWI3 s ; c + & i j l j c r r i ) r J ~ c ; L j I.. n. state &kYI 3L9.U ~~I+i+~'b-a;- id_*;,] uWI 4- & . ..1 gm n. tension L W I $93 .aLWl ++L;jUflJ;cL&C.&+L kc,$3 ij* -+Wl cW! + *j .*+ G y j &&i3 +MI3 t&AYlgm n. reduction L W I-
  55. 55. A‘.&&& iJw advertiser :vlY +..I.!& ar bc fi~si;!e;k;4. - ' b s k Maslow: Motivation and Personality. - (JXrarl+ L L 3 L~+L,L L 1. b& delayed response +&! -b*yl fe9-d @b &Aw-~~+cpApbby13- Lkalrfl -+IjJarl &+dl ijI&L;f &- e L ~+I d j ~ y I j1G1&L :+ (J%K] i: ;11- d I J ~ !jI$ +;,repetition law: ~ U IAei i_l~e+~ b+L p p +&i3L . ~ ~ a r 1 3 J ~ IGL 3+>A .~+JI A &u -5 .ffiy f j ~ ~G& L+LK 4 1 z J 9 1 a ~ + ~ J+.U - ar3 .&I L A ~ L &dl j1-19 J%d! u $+ 91Ls9* + J Lf*pdl (JC 0Li;arl -1 ,i ;s~;JI2ikL+y (JK b+h3 +5+ L+ +A J.531++ priority law: L..LI ~ i yJ ~ Y2 9 1 &+ i+ ,i J+JI ~ l u i ~fw~ 2 2 b recency law: Xi1d l 3-L3 Murrau: Explorations in Personality.- Hull, C. G.: Principles of Behavior. - Lewin, K.: A Dynamic Theory of- Personality. McDougall, W.: The Energies of Men. - Advertising Psychology *:* *:* $L3;,- 6 3 Advertising (~SCryl &dl &d+I &&iill
  56. 56. I - L I ~ L L I b , .bMI i~ JG!4 ++ d i l l- ((&dl)) &)Gat UG strength law: ;&I j+bj !& -1)) g b~ i ; i .+,+I hii;u ~gjpg ~id ~ + ~i;u.. ; + ) ) ~ j i l i - L ? + ~ + ( c ~ $ ~ p ~ i j ~ ( h i + 9 ~ & L p- i I I i I .. I law ~ L U I jg;bj :L~;LLI
  57. 57. rl+yi,Lfl r ~ y ~JLL~ 3iJ+I L2&I+lIJ+I 'tLi3yIj ' L + % ! A ' = ~ ~ J y J - & J I & L ~ u I ~ ! ~ w I ++ bi 31c '.A... s3'-1 5 31 ' reference frame CT-LZ'J1-4 ,LbI 5 Jl 5 .. 1, ,- & ,LU .. +3 b+.A - L f 'reference personalities -1 0-4 && GI3',+I -1 'j w l =,I;U- (jXcyI3 .Lq+J +be.-+ QJp3 p d l +ib.Jl.. &L$ldul'k~~ j&-u..... a A f l &- 4 1 '+kLr- ;2- L ~ + ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ Y L ~ ; Y I + I.. G W I ~ I A L L ~o ~ + l j j l t Q l- &L+ s3 &- - b k l 3 & q j J + L f l L ; - f I J ~ 4 L + I &+I3 3iG L + ~ ~ + $!+I '+bL+ b u L&L%Yl instincts $141irLSlrlg. ~ L A A + i advertisements.. .mind advertisements & d l &LSCc! sex ,I a>+ 4I;!+ &+i3
  58. 58. --re Lo djJi,*., i,+* +uu,i ,I+,i ?w,+pJat,i U l &I5 .&WI3 'l& uLp" +I C I 4I p& possessive need pd3 ulillJ3 '.I+ p w g 'I* b+! IEJ+ 519 L s L - J Y I J! &i GIG j!I9=. 3iJJ sLZ3YIg +l+lg 'pg;IL%L+', + ~ i Gek;i14 sir .p+J9 ,-I i-dkebi+i) k u . 4 3 L + 1 3';4GL.LJI&3J3-&~9 .('%+I Adams, H.: Advertising and its Mental - Laws. Scott, W.: Psychology of Advertising. - Koponen, A.: Personality Characteristics - of Purchasers. Twedt, D. W.: Consumer Psychology. - .:..:..:. ,?&!I gJ+l &dl +.. 'instinct @i,3- u r n ! i,i ~ 9 ~ + J 'waking dreams lcl;k,?)l ,&%I- ?!+I! JLjS m l- a+L iJF gj .+I (P c s 9 1-9 U I -3 G L ~ &i,+ Jk3'u. YW13 ,p&&'I&U U I &+ W S p+a;13*., '"UL," --3i A~.,..iujA* * I ~ .&A- pi+?U I & C - L L ~ U ] I ~ ~ I + L ~ 3!+tb9iiij'&+I p g ~- Z& i,tu;Yl & C J , L l- .. +I Ail zjyj .&I Z&j 'cJAIJ1 &+MI &L& &L*I &I- a ~ L d I g.(-JL;'dl p ;, 1 . . ~ h l- - - J-Yl $11 &dl3 ' Z g &.LJl ~ K k i - a n ~ J I & W U ' ~C . 4s- h4~i,Lyb curiosity need safety +%I JI -Ldj. .J+ - 4 - ; fl LIdk>L1i,13 'need 9%L JS c ; , ' ~ i , f i ~ i ~' z + i c i ~ 9 ' k j W l j c1313 IF^ W 'parenthood need L J l g l l 315 ;tU13. ~$eg;l&%~&;I'+~Ub
  59. 59. i,y%l-4 Z J ~((hiddenpersuaders ;SJLLQ))Kautilya +m3' L + +:+ Q +W9 '((Principles of Politics Lul The Art ~ & l>))Sun Tzu: 3~ + +kL9'-& Y e .. L((of War a )) Confucius: p&gk;g a- p&Ldl?s3'((Analects .. ' - 4 3 ' 4 4 ' - . ... It-l +i , L ? l k U 1 3 & * - r I uj+i &- J3dl*j ' ~ J ~ ~ ! 3 +&JI '&CcdJ aljlj3 ij3s& GYP $3 '-@LATI L&qJu, p. -4LdlaY&JL LJI .campaigns public di31))- 9 &LJIt+yj ?% dill- propagandist +ls1I9 WI d j ~ l- &i,+dLkl13 '((opinion? &mIA d ! ILa t+ % &LA4 I opinion manipulators
  60. 60. ((Agitation and Propaganda&Ldl3 5 i ) L I ! s s i ) ! & ! k - b b q Y q k L 4-3 - - k;l;g; Lg?&LJl- $ L A . & J 1 9 j d I i;JI- +dl3 L L 5 31 Lt++ -.. $LJ3l z92 d3Yl -2 2 9 2 &+$I -. &;JEY &L ';&A ;,dl 3~ ?@I .- ah& &- G'W bl;r,L, +LJJ~ &b !4 5 ~ jd1Ji3 J&l ?-pj . & c I L J I r + ~.. +G L ~ IJ! 3i.GIc 'LL~. +LYI-5 .--I . - DL&'!..,-sf ;++dl b& 6- +NJ :&Ldl& ?+ -s~j&fI ,i .ego oC;j GLYI 2- rfikL!bi+ b& $Lr L > ,self 4jlj rfik - -& d l $k3, U > . A ~ d 1 fl I, ; A - 4& propagandist .the idgkll @+.bljjbiL 5. 9 d l $1 ,+I ~ - 3 .4Ll$lJ1 'b. L b.-+>+I 4jLL.sr&&ii p&:r.l:i,superego&$I L$+.bk I I I - - ~ I ~ ~ ~ u I --+dliA-931 G i ~J!J+~ A+ ,i ,~E,$I++p +I 3i.$WI .. &~!;L+&~~,LB~UUIQ~L;. +Ldli)LI!diuu*I .,9l %?I + t+ B;G$I~ ,call ; ~ A I ~ &A!! i 2 L ?;Yg~ @ l ~p k d I 9 sL i- 9h1.. , 9 l 3 . ~ k g l ~ ~- ~ c r f $ d 1 ~ijkh&Y13 &.blp!l3 3 ' 1 .--I & &xi ;++ + 5 ~9GIL A Lpl1-. U l I +I$ 3U3 1 2-14 W ~ Lb s . i * e - c ... 'W J+ Li+ .QLf*lly!d r YI T iLa&.&+ &&A, c, *p , ; i 4 ~ d l- y!9 3 ,+PY' ((1-+43Al)) y! GL3-44 % >; A - ,I , , ,,'; *-c, 3 -. $ & & x i J l ~ $ k 2 I L + X l l- diuu Luis .&!2*d& -1 Congregation de S J J I- Z9dI L;la,) 9, I YY L ,Propaganda Fide 9 *L+i b ~ t1 - 4 ~ ~ Jw13J U Y ! ~L&d&- 2 9 d 1 -LA+A- di b?gL~JLILLfI I JI ((&. 'W A j .&LdI?I+P-5 d3(~;;grsfl),Q! b-)- I+bj&I iJL*dl))-L+Il- +LS ((-&LCdJ))
  61. 61. + L A 2- +dJI ++A .&&4d13 3- LI&dl motives p I 3 s l I 41- +2 L++ LJ~J&~VU' a+uial pgjl+L + L A dc+F L. ;K ,psychological needs l social @-YI + Y L um- eg;oL9i,- 1 l p 9 1 ~LL+I security FLL weL+ 9i,&JUYI- L L @LJ+ ,>$l- 4i +1-J 9i . 5 o 1 M ijLiivI&+ lib,+bJ- L J! py+6b p13JJ13 ilbL,ll ro+~dL!IL u+! ppJ-? ~ + ' 9 ;J+ 6 p%-9s--44 L &&'9 L a j u 3 LAid+ 'u-L ~ A ~ 9 i 3.... - .I-. 9 ~ A ~ L I L L . JiJL+; l u g - .4 d l y j&. S3.wL3 ,$1+13 a ~ j $ ~ sL+h~(ILLZ-I ,+i++~&pLgs - vL;II3+.., '** v e i 9 ~Wlp4J-2 G~.ei Y~I+I b~ ~4 ,$U L+l rj&L.Jl 'Jl C =LA. - sophisticated c A :4 A 11 J+LILI~ LJL!J9i+& + propagandist - -&iLa '&I9 &MI+JhjJ19 L- ~ u j l A 3 &- J L - Y l &b9 L L a m !i j h Y A f 3 *-dl a:1 - 4 dL9*(L 'L+l~p%g .tdiiz7-dl &I- ;$+dl3 l &I charismatic &>jK a : - 2. - d l- l ,LIl J&+ '&J+L + p u + +h2,+iJ9i4j+ I ~'hbi +41-I.us+ 9 Y - - .suggestion G L Y-5 di 2 CLLLJJ t U Y l9 ,suggestibility I3&Yl 9 W C W LJIYI I+l L+p,Ll13 .persuasion pJ&&I Jl Jdl- I ~ # G I A p+ 'diJL, ..L I d l g- L V A + L X ~ ,Ll,,l-+>J39u d-2 w91 i'W' &I -+4&9 biA krw13idF2 ,&WI ,unconscious bJ+4dp +~s4;3- -41 a; I$*!!))&L dj&J d U 3,((reference personalities ((reference frames &-&I A$!)) C"bI+I9 >&113 d>LTl&
  62. 62. +La;lrfl j+ d l- 1:,13-~-r~ rusj. J ~ b ~ ';t&dL L J J I 2 L S intimidation.. a-1 'JI -LC+ L&+ C I '#I PIy3'"+I + M I QLdIg- L.6 e U ) l l J+Lilk i, + ,political p. iJ+JL"LI ,aLG+; ' I - u l L c L L U L d fallacies ' & d l '$41&l&- & W l--- C &Gdl bps;;;, I+U psychological ++I yj- 'L+i dlb1,3b+f ~-j-d3.warfare- - - +j '(('LdLaJ&A)):JO +g + e----i...luLly+p'LJJ~ .k~~all,.&Gill ++I g- & L A Y a-L 3i-dl;JYLI +ii . a L d y3$h+!l &* overt p. o+L,cj& G-+Ldlj Z q L d l Lgf JLJ'+s-ifI hy9 masked & 4'white p. .-I :jlszLl JS - kCL*j 'a-j p. 'eLe;llj&+Ij -uW13&&I
  63. 63. - .; t ~ 9 s f ~ 3 + L ; y 1 3 ~ l j 4 ~ ~ ~l/rJLS .aL)CcY13 ;i@13 ~2e&l13 Z1)Lcd13&Ld13 I &b3- ' i +i L+ +, ahL?;'dl3 d#I p J - h l- & w 5 w L A I I '*L-I13 @I3 &&I ' L k i+UI A 3.T% ,A)Ccy L4& '4LW W I j '-1 ~ L + J ~JL;~)I & ~ + J J . ~ s h i & d l- information %'dlC L+- :-$ a * d l Y l k J , Z9 ,theory - 1 ~ ~ 1 9 'communications theory - L~LZLI,~L+JI h p j b ~ i +k3'selective i. & L Y I- Z 1 ~ Y I structural 491- .- Z1)CcYI- aL+l a-9 - .-i? b Y l L 4 u 3 'i. a Y k Y I &&I3 .&Ll9 aL*l rLy13 'rSLcyl 42k+ ++ + ~ l g+iL A I ~LSI ,A: :A , 6L&e&i-SI Li3.-h9 ~ J J J - ~Jk Y j Y 2 ] L t ;i>k [,mi ek,L dj,+GALS YF.2' d I J ~ y 1@p Lai56-
  64. 64. . .B. Whitton: Propaganda and the Cold - Zjb 9 3 .&Ail &hi31 6 , J - - 1% War. w+j lJlJ'n;,u4 Z++ D. Leaner: Propaganda in War and- d + ~ ~r~~ Crisis. Ellul, J.: Propaganda: The Formation of - _ Men'sAttitude. .'w+L ?&!I ( d ~ j.ZJ-!I Doop. L.: Public Opinion and- L ~ - G L ~ ~ ~ ~?%?I (rrjr) & Propaganda. - 1j! &&&I d*! Lerner, D.: Propaganda in War and- & &> ::I ;&- bj -I L -, ,J Crisis. - Whitton, J. B. and Larson, A.:- 1 14 LilLw13~1~391 Propaganda Towards Disarmament in ' ; L t J l & 31kilu!Z J 9 u f j - the War of Words. F bi +UI.' &L+I 3~
  65. 65. &id-+ pAL%Y LK 'L+i- .. J-& w 8 - & 7 ++? W l I :++p4~it;rs' - 4 4b, - w p~~&LLI. . ?UI +id ~LL+LI 3i~i +,@I ?~_k? U - ~ + p j L ; L Q G $ L a JF # 3 +L Li ,i- -+ measurement ?Lll p~&L+- i 3 ~31 +w p3,of p.0. g h~3 &iJ.. J? p ~ i j ~ .IrppA+3L&Lakn+11 ,-4. - p e i b @a Lj'pw' - .+ b ~ ~a , :, L + I ~ ~ I ~ -I ~l;j,j+ &J3 t+lJ143 3a;3 lr,,-! J L Y Jb& '91 a u ! $&4 quaJ+Yl $ &L+jdI + J ~ b ! & > ~ ; d l ~- kLJl t Y L Y ! &>- ?;I ~ 4 2 " ~ L * ~ ~ ~L! - sample survey method L- L ~ . , - ! J~~ 3i ~ + 3 L ' i c ~ 3 i ~ 3 i a ~ ~ S 4 I u i b J b L 0 b3 J . .LLY ++?L &is.. ;GI public opinion CLLII -+).rkYYl - L 4 9 4 &+Y' 4'+p& JL >k 34 41public opinion ?Lll +i3 .'icWl & J JI+~I d& 41Li 91 ?UI &id- Li &a3 L J - L X 4 + &A- 51L u9- .bC&I u . 4&J+bK "Jsi" d3+J!+A~I-LjLiul ,JUi p...U l p- &pJ dk*+kjLQxjj4hUjL+ GJ& JG 'Jacques Necker+& +cjr+iL.dl J* 3!":;#I ;..s.((?LJ"$JJ JUI s*gpeS+ 61 :++U 3 L 2.. d l JU 6 ep$Ipu?al.l-,ia!! .J'd fkt ~L+I &+3'p--i 4~ &_9~.p;g,~i+~u1- h&tii&dl- d3- L L W j !&I4L13its(;.$ILsJkLei +LIUL &lJJ z+i LKUVJI. . &+L,~ ' 7 & c ~iiry(pW1;,!i 0# &+ t&Y +& L J19611 a ~ k ~3iJ&i3i &= +% 69-LWI(o]LJ9.irlcL+ ,,,.,ti I&J U3. c J L ~ ~ A -L&
  66. 66. r"Bj Y L W I $ U I 3~ +j;i *J W pjL p u l &a IlJ-4 IlACYI $1419 J!?LJI 11. ..- &generalpublic ,UI LL& 4 1 'attentive public J#I 3 - h3informed public &JI dlJ& 3.. *YL! +iiii'J+lx&l &I i L;?J ,U ,+Y+ JS jL A Y -3 Lpollingof elites +dl +&I +lJ'dl3JAC J! ,aWl ~ L J4.. ~ ~ @ & 1 3 . L g j L l g o c k l j j c j the 0. of + ~ I I& i ~.G L LLU! .. i j l ~ u lct,tl +L L Ji+the elites &iJj- ,the thinking leadership i-I la p the o. of the cultured a ! iu ... >i4L2 .polling method C & Q C ~ ~ ~ & ~ J A I ~ ~ ~ &?MI$91,LL - . #I @LL cJ9+ p 3 & ' i l l~ J M Ip+h3 -$I+ -L &Gallupilglb WI &I A &L&J~~ 4 b . r .. +J> d u J i JRoper~ J J i j 2 ~ , lC 970 L LL3.Crossley Js9r'l&L+4]5(dWI&+JJl 5 J! ++ b l diL4gL p , , ~ - i A -14 i +J9 - ,i UWI OL g L~- d&&-ijL++aAlp~II.. + L ~ L).U data banks i j L W WI i j ~ ~ J ~ ~.LK +~i the general i , + i 2 ~ f lLw b+& i r u l + a ;irF ? W I - W C 5 the 41llgw3iLWI &iJ3&cultured Y y~~+, GI %., +lJi&L+ 9 0. of the general pl~blic a-I +'w I+* bi + b - ~ ~- &idlj.. &*JWI p ~ LLSJ)-~~- 4 m 1 3 +& J ~ L L ~ ~individual o. @ JLG 41L U l j ijL+AdJl private o. flWl &i913.. .&J +L A3&eg;illj-&I+ ?Kcafl$L3 t+pJpJ~9i+41'!--=Lp +).UI+~JstWI+i9~,&l Leks I+ I+ Y 4iYg .&ALL1 ij~jl+Jl$lii3 the majority p.0. k ~ ~ t t l- . &ia LijW13i,&dI jgrc r ~ l 1 9 ..
  67. 67. 4;i3'ULZ Y Aa ~ ~ j y l ~~ & L K J a~ Li L . , , . G ~ hi + b+, .W;.~G;li 6- --+I- . a U l o h aIr+y3 31+i?gA J+> F k y 6~ '".i'Li L J - LA3 4 ~ l ~ i ~r:r:.... ~ $ 4 d;jlFLQ;;13'4& & + , A 3';tALi2Yl - .' u u ! 9 ' 4 , jSflj t&S-tl zj_,k(l 5 1 1 A i L ? , l j '+dl3 'z& 1+Lujk4'&.U&L!~~ $a& db3.L&~0 ~ 3 -4 1 ~1 1 - - - ; t l a L . . , , ~ f l ~ + L W l & A L & 3 Y l 0l3 'f(gt;Ul '+I &is,pL%+L+Y, L i C &'+ bL+3 'Jk,Jl3- -4 1 : 1 1 . - - 7 11 aL3iA,ULl+,LJI &I3'j;Yl ;~LL+Y~ ~ A U Y I ~ -3 L U 9 ' F L u d 1 9 w c . 8 - L '4: .A- I ..I) + b..bl ki authoritative a L I fl ;i ,..-- L j b ,; Ljz-. L g i I F G l personality ~ 4 ' ~bjlJl3' - . ethnic II 7 . . -Jl3 &i3wjlal+l e L S personality +WI &13 'minority p.0. +sbt~ &iJ- e u LWI &UI g b ~*9 .. .. - .;r91& i d - &3 LLUA &- k r u i,&& d l- temporary o. '@ p L d3g+a+z,,.., - 9.. daily p.0. -41- ?w&i913- the &I - .2+&1 &L& 9slJ%l&tb total P.O. j U I +I CSi$~3- '%.+-E &+'dl ?l;? & d l- p a subdued p.0. ++&iLk,nL3qL]I&ub~L&- 5 . -I &~,JI~- Le%y~& L ~ + & d l- 94, misguided p.0. ;L?LdI sCiPWl&I9 ;Awl open c+l ?WI iSi~13- 6aGW13 ewdig- LL~ P.O. +I ++Wl latent p.0. -1 +i41;A ' ~ 4 g r l 1i ::; -+2-4e]3bfl',~@+UJ~ ,G+ b1;~4i 41.. +3 ir! i,++ Y ,WI ;ji:?WI&I ' p L + A j ee;b VP; CjJl.. &U& &9*1I$UI+(egl~&Lng- - i .+;+JI&b+&pG3
  68. 68. - . .4 4 , A - 1 - . . - 7.119 ~a n 1 r .lI aIjI+I d! suggestible personality ;d;l+Yl -4 1 , n L d 1 3 L~uL&Jlk>$j$JL 2Lextravert p. a L + d l 3.p . z j +$I &i2- jiLj LUI introvert L J I2,.A;313 GIJ$l JS &&Jl& - dlJ2Yl +A- p. ,i,- ~ U G & Y L i+j .LWI .G& p.. - y+lfllJ~i,,ulJ+.... OL- +lJi L,Y+ L ~ u ~pj 9- kr4;;tl a l g l ;r i,$j-UJ ~ J ~ i r l I+ Lis& .=-.j41- &i41- OIJ&I O+j L J ~332 dj2 kir.-&L; J! ?LJI&I- J4j@ J y 1jJkL J .+Awl 5 -&IJJ Ad&, ?Wl - ir&3 ~ l + Y l $ L A - ,Ul ab&I 9 L-&JLd3Y13 2+uL_ullj i + ~ i y ' d ~ ~ ~l - a J - . ! L - . - . . - . - .1 1 9 1 1 n - . I1j u9-f Ij ijL3&-1I j ~ iJ ~ 4 1 ~&i$id~~ LLg;l+! 4h W b + b L
  69. 69. +I $L-- ?-+ "Ljl g LJ+3 Cooley, C.: Social Organization: A) L I J J ~Study of the Larger Mind). 9kj influential personalities & a general will LL ;21J & P- + i ~fkt2- G& GI ;re j3L.;. u ; ~~h3.?LJI c s i ~ ~ 3- .-I g- $1 volonte generale -LWI 0 ~ 1 ~ ~ 19 Jean-Jacques ROUSS~~IJy 3 ~ L6., Jb *& ;J!J! d3I ( ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ L&ll 9ithe proletariat &J&3d! -AV- ) Lenin 4J% LoS L J U I 299!oJJ)! e p Gb '( '!Y wb&lj @!Jljbt++ ( ,.!-. .;iej+j ~ g l - 1 2 ;+'h Wieland + ~ e l ? lpL;JI 4 1-29 - &.+ - ( ~ 9 9 ) - .((@Adl G3J w3 ~ 3 3 9 1JS J! 'L! &i;l J!&& ! b Lp3 J;LCII)) jgk? i;u ?WI &i+- +cji cY-I p 3 ..group mind ++I.. +J&$6iJ- 21 + i ~J=+ J& us!+$ & 4i21J!
  70. 70. I lj'3 , : , > l n l 9 a l 3 d l6 ' 3 J3 i j l a L ; I & ~ L I. C di +,+& &i41- +L +- J+ & . . I JjJ 9?MI&JI,- .,?MI 4 ,#*; +*,,,d3t?k c , ~ i j ~ i +MI ,WI &I.- JC;, LC+% 5 d l 4 ,,,,,,;aL+lj Lctlatentp.o. J.= ?..;.jbi J+~&L,g +L- 'LaJ JjJ d b GK +j,z+ $7 w S b l +J3 - ;'&" IL ?J;; pr ?WI ;~+l + GI+! 91rl$l ? l ~ j i r . Y l Z F w &3 ;Js- &,,&dl d l Y! L+ +WI- d3+ll d3;"dl ;i2innn1~Ilij&WI - Bauer,) 4 1 j Y ~ jOL+& &$I W.: Die offentliche Meinung in der akm&LLj Weltgeschichte) - (.?.jTIA-ATI) Plato &+)~4i (.?.3 rYY-YAI ) ~ristot~e3 ~ A J i J + U I (J+ aLW1 JpJ j d i 'Jl.. e Y hc k 3 .aL92--113 J+ :( 0V - I74) Machiavelli -ij .,Wl - ahL;L .lPLl 3s :&J+I 4~~ousseau-3J b*; ? W I w3, + + -&I " " + L J ~ i a . - - e ; p ~ j @ PUI (sgki & J j d l- &+%.dl +t j 3 JY uyj 1aL+aQ1l ( f d l I dL L 3 & :&.dl 4iJQ - J I ~ LalJWlO h ijb%LJJj L W I &l;?J i>r &a L(Q1LjI &dl ijl$+!l>j ,group dynamics .. Li 9~,I, ?MI&i91- iussjg+ 2-l-3 JI> L,-LIJ J l o h JLLj &JW;>-!I 4 -8 . 11- ;,l+L >gjLes diyjL L l ~ d l C ;*I '+ bGL'+ijL+ J&5%y13 @I3 kid13?%dl ~ + > t e u ; L ; ~ ~ ~ l - L ; L i U l WI &id1crystallization ijfi&'(' - 5 5 J$Yl &la&4 j1 L* bj34 LGLC?;! & c ~ ,c L , i * ~- . Bernays, E.: Crystallizing) O A ~ @ + ! ! I -+&2 Public Opinion). ;z?-r;! j;L dl jil+y+Jl JWI ;$ L ~ e ~ t + ~ u&t?WI pdJ-di- t-, L L U + ~ U I JK; + la+ a ~ jpk;s -
  71. 71. Jb&4--Jl3dl -J LOg+ Y L " Y l a l A L 2 L Y l pressure groups U l aLL+ 'hidl;, .;~*~I+AIu~+;d~3 JF ~343&+I3 &I +GI+I WI 9GL+I &e - (jXc'P'I, +Gst13J-Z1L4*?P,3 .&I3 p%;d3 J ~ $ ~+ L J I ~ &JI -Y! aL3L!J j J bL kJ3 JjJ& (' w1i s i ~ l*G +A d L j .&bl>%d c j L 3 L ! l w13+UI +I- p- ALI~J GLL+II++&JI I + ~ J I- L ~ l + 3 1 d I j & ~- U J !- w3. ' L , ~ ~WLJJI @igti3 ~ & A & J& & A L I J J ~ !Dj-rb .. e-1 LL3&u-I ;i4-~i;Ll ALL^ ?++ A>*-JI- ~ L l J d l0 h +A+ -3 .+-4d J L Y I &L3&.. &I 41 c,d3& +I e 3 ,#WL? LB;.I~J + l p ~ ~&idell- A &.dl- JIG1 Ij-rb ijLLYl- C L3lJ+ +:( 9 Y 7 ) Lasswell &,.Y ~ j - r b ~ ~ iA ?+- bi &I+I .I+ G~ 3~ di3 l G h ~ ~.. L" $3' ,I+! &&LA3 LU .JI+YI tl~b+$I b U l p dlj yl bl :( A T Y - v L A ) Bentham ?l;i!J& WI bi A Y t3- +i? - hK +.c +Wlb$l $3 .+L+ &+I c~ ?WI - JkJL +6Jb3lt&Yl J& ?L d l $ ~ - 31: ( A T - A * Y ) Stahl + ;jjI+ 4;b l&$l &&I OJIJI 2- +I ?WI & i 3 ~- 3sl;- &-I C.M& >*Lhll Aj3- - - i A A A A Bluntschli- jh3.-L+I --I &iJP- A+ & ( ~ Y Y - A Y ~ )Bryce #IY- . ?WI .id- u+~ ~ $ 1- ,MI 3 +l+$l3 & 3 U l br >+Li& i l l- &iJ3- .&LL~L~~YIo+-~ -+&I & ( Ao9- A + o ) Tockueville @y- wUIG b yA$k di ?WI $ d l.. C +I al+l db3.&Id1- ;ts2 J+.J 31q3 &LlJJf13 L U I J&i- p U I &jJl- 4i.i
  72. 72. 'prestige paper *L 6- i++l 34 &I3&La3 'd* s3'd++ &dl- ++<% '419b,+3&9 ' a ! who says what, to whom, how, when and where he says it, through what @ ;,j 'channel, and with what effect? J 3 k J I dj&&Lwl- +I '.'9'(J+ & d l ,(Jpk?+) 4 J 1 9 6 ( J p ? d ) &L,JP~(JP, i.?i)h U l 3 Y&JJIL-+ j&L?g.(*dl) && '& O J g i i 3 '(Wl)~9jYJl .;a, ;,>L iu -J .?WI +id i,-I JL p ir2 , A ~ I - a @i ,propagandists LLdL
  73. 73. dj&j U I 3 l-+dl *I- Lg, ?+ $1 pXwYl G &Lclll LC;9 & L d eJdI &dl3 L ~ W IaL$d! Y C ;II,WI +l(&AiJl p+L)4;pA$L. F L ~ ~ ; p ~ j r q a k k l l .',+dud1 IIJL &.lzJ; d l a 4 Y d l 3 ALLGI >O* .. - 361,zJul ip- ?+!-"i P 3 1+3 94' ('MI C &!$I >&Zj-- aL(Yl LillLl- C & ! d l- &I3..., &AI L j .,.aWI &Ldbb 3 u d +I+ai;+ ,.am! psychological 2 : ; fl uJ-1&3 hi .Y+ J ~ L Y ~lwarfare +@&I3 1 e g I ; L i l ~ lLLhkll w3- h G i ; L j l 3 1 y - $L L & J I JjJ &&I L & U ~ a b k l .. - . C bJ9-3 L P 3 j j u g IIh 3 A d ++j 1 ".dl J L L j 2.. 2 A j l + .@ b d l ilGLi)'lj j&Ll g specialist - .. I IJ-.. Y 41II~+i-I +&I -9-19l*uLiJI$&$3 @$J ((& &), ~ L + W'LL~+LJ a~~~&3 kyrig ~ $ 1.. @I k ; U l o h 3 .&iJk ?WI & d i , & G j + L j d J _ g , J . & d J l%kill3 ldIA13l?~p$~ ALLI~J 'L+i LJL L U ~ ,i1ZJLkll 3iLLI + L ~ ~ J I L A 2 k;III*L+13 1 6 u U l ;4~il491 Y 3i,LUI J&61~ I ~ $ 1bjp ~ i . c j' ~ I A L L@ J . %Yl 3;L3;,&ji b b b&? J 3 1 j i 9 ?AJh iJ!'w3 +L &J- J6611 U C p&+ ,WI bl i x b l3 oral means ~sIIL+! JI+'~IJIIL&$+.dl 2- JJL>J G ~ I& Jj-I & ~ J ~ u ~ O ~ ~ G .WpUIp& 4 O+ ----r .c?;u +I ; c i ~ ~ 3.. ab&l &&I.. a b L ; j Y I L K i :;.lJ3+l L,.,L'L C I j ~ c j l & k d l & ; j ~, - - I - - l a ! - - I - O-C;LS ILI ?WI a ~ i - ~ - k c u ;+I& - d GaLbL=lijYl eIIUy3 1 + ~ j lJ ~ I~bg
  74. 74. Free, L. A.: The Role of Public Opinion in - International Relations. Klapper, J. T.: The Effects of Mass- Communication. Smith, Bruce, Laswell, Harold and Casey, - R.: Propaganda, Communication and Public Opinion. h9+ +;;;Idill- 'marginal man J 9 L ~ ~ + * p & 4 i Y g ~ +- ;r0-4;j~.us+i ++ bi .+ c9s-xf~j41 .; J~pi k , l G s f l S b ~ ' d l&;, .-, -- I r- . - 9 641- 6 L ; ; ' d ?%;;'dl $Lj& ,&;;'dl & 'L&jA+ 4 f+ +$I I L $Li;+J)lJLLL k L b i L t l j .+ 9 L 3 3Lfj -,@;;'dl p i l ~ q g ~ ~ + c b . + ~ i + + ~- '?L di,- J ~ I~ W IJ~-JI a& *WI '5J ilbkl i s9I -1 '&IS&i.ll o i g l *yi;p&g9'yWI 4-1 Jk+ki (P +*j .LLICI &-+ marketing $ 4 1 ++.I+I+I~kh1-i nI: L acdl :&Y wY!&&dj~ L ~ ~ - L J I ~- Lenin: Agitation and Propaganda.- Albig, W: Modern Public Opinion. - $ 4 1 cL.- ~3 'market analysis2 4 1 Childs, H.: Public Opinion: Nature,- d&-d -9 'marketing research Formation and Role.
  75. 75. I consumer research +_p-f9&u J-7 diJ3 -1 d 4 3 * Ze3-tl h s f 9 L u 9 "3 h 4 9 C L L u 9 ,341a&+ WkJY kLW &J&l &I$ & M3 & 1 3 + 4 1 ;rg;up &i diJl supply and demand law 42#I9J3 d;LA;+* 4 2 5 3 1 d + L j 2, ,,on ; !Ij ; 4 J U l 2- hi~ l j i t lj k 1 3 ,ktLuJf ~+Il&l pljdI+J-+ Fi G + J ~ ~c - l l o G j J+I -9 3 4 1 3 .@A1 +" Y k +$&.u GIP! 4'T- J L ! & 9 9 i .i 9! L&+I a & J ~ bvc' 2 4 143+i +I ;-I+ +?I J ~ t l++a IlsLi,"+k &.&- Jb~b35f &dl- &!d+d3 CtlLgi'LGtl d+u L J J ',iJI bL3'-&I rc, h3'd&L - J&?l i c e J+@ 3.Yi)i & LaJ9. &'ill L ~ L d 3.&$lJA & . G l & p 1 3 ~ ~ e * ~ 4 I
  76. 76. .U$l .&SKe;.Yl ,+I JL*I92 - b&i9bL;;b kLWl+ h%YI .abwIOLb bF3 b p 1 3 d L I J + ~b 3 4 3 motivationy13LJI(;.- A &a p13sll+eLL&.- :A 9 3 research &J~-I! 3j b Z + u d 1 3 u w I -1 p k b&J-W13 3 4 1j-3 ..I+I3 d l 3 $9&! @! ZP9!&SKe;.Yl b a ~ u 1 3 i +-. bbWI p g l & . I g G I * ~ 4 ; s + Y J L- 35 ,J!*+I &;_)dl +$j bb)lc'dL LgzJ! W l 3 .?+ h3412 : . d l J-JXLJl c L y 62193 .*u&S*YI 3 4 1+ljij J ~ L-C . b~ +i .I+I I &GI11 &3 .l+lIJl +WI +J!?MI . - bi j i C i+ -+232 market3911111 L".-,:Ab&&+dI ilrl+LL I J + research &dl3 & ullef13 L!A%J .oI*#UJI... 3.siiu
  77. 77. b3 G y J i& i)i3 ' J W J & , , & I G & J J ~ ~ I . . & -.. - c,lt,,ao L 3 . U l++ +'&dlL;13?+L;LCjS'& ~ $ 1 d u l i,'I i,&f 6! &I.. &~gllW5l +j .L J-YaLf VI c 2 4 1i &2 1 ,.<I' - 1 r --6 -t i,I +>-! I .. UJYe- L: -!' J e I J!pdj 2J+1 d l & U I - .:is' ( t U I ;i_)y,,C ' 2 . ~ a b ~ ! ~ ~ ~ i b - ~ i& ~ X + IJfiL ( ( J ~ J - ~ ~ , , &JW- y'd& &I &mI L&J% (%&J .&!J&j a ' d G ' d l J&&L ( S b I h) psychological atmosphere *& i3? -2 #...r L - ‘UI J,*LL .&LSL h~ aidi +I J!FJ.I&A!- 41+l hj- usUI J~p;d~+ i ~ e~ L 3 ' d lI d 3 .+I +l I h - 6 L Y l-5 &c u L d & d l p u l - .&&& *:* *:* .:* U I ~ $ 3'JbCbl~z& 'd1dA91 a U 1 3c w L ~ Ie + J 2 ~ ~ l +I i I; 4JI J L C L ~ I ~'-%dl 'b13'U3' U I &i,+ 41.. &L&'dlj ' % J W l &)Gg . I & . . & & 4 j d _ L 5 d i w (+hi+) +I3 &AI- uJ-bi+~+-& L ~ I&- 4i-j 'J+I cIjA & U I- JLjllj '+.LC i,& i,l jiL3 'r---"3+l,;,l LS,&J2*4+ .hJm1&%dj&JL+i)I- ?'dl3 ;ruLe]+ )-+)z = - f 1 3 . U l ;;i u $41pi ipj +&LLLA&. + ;dj,I .+jgsj i basic needs -L%I G ~ W I JY L+L;;! p- +I, Jj i,191513 J W I lsl i,& ijj3 'J+l + J ~i,& bij'+IWIe l j +cL)?13+I & i~41Jl (P +b2& v;JsLgue;$ 3 2 1 LC14 i,& & A !- JgLhf& l-&ml
  78. 78. &j b b ) l. 5 ,-+3 LJLi&b)13 ;iJL;dI & + I++.+41- +J3 Schwartz, G.: Science in Marketing. - .i+kd! ijwI Crane E.: Marketing Communications. - p13di 5 -1 - i j L I J d l +*j Katona, G.: Psychological Analysis of - J! $@Ig & H I +J 41motives .. - -141-kJ3.fr++~~ 3i&!+I ~ k L s G y + 3 ~ & - J L cg.LJ& 'Jl t ~ y 1 3&i31&L3 L U I &c U U l G b y l ssfp9 5 L c > b p . u 3 ' ~ l ijl&l;-119 i;l& L3L'jyJIijbC;J3 $L+Jl"+& &" ijlLL+l3 AL;YI Economic Behavior. .Stigler, G.: The Theory of Price - Haire, Mason: Projective Techniques in- Marketing Research.
  79. 79. 43LoI~xL,l3L;L_;rl&lj 2 I I +L3b d ~ ) r h Y ~ 1 3a l G m ++3& -9 .&59- ,plki &+I ++it+ consumer -1 ki.- :a ? +LC C market 3 4 1L.- a 31 research 'hi+A+ Jke3research(3 - , u " k i l l p W 2 1 ~ . l t ,- - . IlaarLL4fl al;)lCtu + d l &I 1)92yw;.;.J Ckl;; JF &kI+L13 1 d & d I LC lo& L(pL2d l a L U l 31 U I dj;,WJ* .+WJi+-! LtP&jI3 1-1 ;fr,fiLL4k a13~3~ C ) C ; I I O ~"-1 C I I J ~ ~ ~ 3 IGJ)-;J 'If& ckljUI OL, JLJ bi A .. a' + 4 1 ' +3 - u 3- ~ l J d l a)ccarl ( ( L z u 3 j ) ) b++ a s p 2 9 +1-91 + advertising research l9;Kj lL+iJl al&.'kJl p ;+.dl a bWI(3UD i)31LLA 5L4+~ 'TLhJI J!& U K ,&& dl AI-YI 41+MI 3i.,I 3i LUI c+ JI L -LWI 3i12rkil~3
  80. 80. i)$l J+2 6 . k ykl;&c jjj'Yl 14i)~4J J9-y19~ W C b C &~$'uI &&.!I dl k l +j + ~ l + * ; i ? + l + C &I3 '&JWI ~ i Y b d i ; g ~ ~ f ; h i - - n -,r1 31- i J f n 4 ji +$I &LLYI I aK$ i)K $ +j 'i)Xr)U + L a a t 1 2 : 131' L l && 6.31 fBJl 3 U I L K lib- a j ~I sl;i . G L ~ Io& a: i n - . gu: m))j&! i)b-31, ,i r~ A 41- I+$ .~)%YI C U I -kl i)l .&jWI- C .,-;-J1 +0 4 3 .uL&4&i& -Y C dl -&@ 6- q d.&,Jl C i)!-2 .& abLLfl d o h -1 7 w x a l i i)%W JI- ijljLLtf1hgSr; ~i i>p. ijdj ;is .+b. . .o$j;s 4;rk; &'+J4 ' L A 1 tig;r ~P~L+~))LC1 ~ ~ 4 3 :A + ;r ljls lib 6((eJi,,di -91
  81. 81. ( 7 ) -++I f 4 1 +I9 +J (QLC - -kpdI - - NOBILIS 94
  82. 82. 9~bi 4i.&.., iir~jk+L .b%Yl alJLc3Z+13 U l y! ++ 03JA3 i)%)'I J,+zz A 9 (controlled'LL 'L+G+ y-L= exposure technique) 6 j & I 'a A - 4 . - p..&UkrSLn GlhI. 5 G I 3 1 (P+ J C S I . I p&&'.u13 '* ',LC b%YI 'ZJI$~LJ ~ l j + Y l pi d@! al,Lj! & K,&- J+I G % ~ I Li+d3'UI G ~ + A .zr,I- .I+ +i,LW @ a L j A l -9 & 4 ~ ~ < l $ ? & & . & u l a L k Y l a l r Y L u L J I . . , .qL +L L1p consumer surveysc 6 - * 9 3 p 4 L L u * z + s t + 'L(j-l U I -++GIg, 'egjb&l 3iL G j ~ ~- i+.-IC J~~- 4'I++ 3gi atYfc;;udl cpt!9 .&jm1)L u ! uJ+1 aLI&! & &pi &$9 bh &-aJ19 - -a I G l F 5 - .t 9 , 1 A I 1 " 9 9 - 4 C F J+g .+'dl ?L &9- ;++I +a1 &QJ&u&A'+i,Xry C S b%yl ' ~ ~ - 2 1 ~& (j%4d! y @ g+e -?9~919~ 9 6 ~1~ 'WI &+ 4 GI+! dJi, &bb l d i +;I (j*)Il j - j ~ ; ~ !3~4d,X3.got J!&-~ Y L. . 3.g* gjJ'G S ' d ' A .+j J& u ~ ; dijy .,t,;;b, zjy d+ & d l- cjXrYl (jK-afl5 $L- k4+ bl;h?+ d b 3 ;;'J ~ Y I '6-d I '+ ~ & ~ j # GK I Y L +L-. (ji-&wl3 L b ~ ~ W +j,U I GI+& J&)'l a ~ a j ~ ~ 9 . (j&'4..!.., ';,:c lc: d l &Q *LA GLSYI +i+id3i ~ h j l g l ~ consumer jury & 9i-I ~ia.+ "12 @ & ~ ld b ;.A 3itechnique j-jMI @ &'readership survey &I &+I G ~ i+J~ 9 i u ~ g L % ! ~ i 2 & & i- bi3i'GKC~I L~. a ~
  83. 83. ALLY- . + &K .&&I 2 & d l- GLj+l $.hi-dl sL l j l &K JS + ~ it - ~ ~G~~ $jz, &.b%j*ll b-+$1 pLJ1 L Q L ~ j * j - d L ; . + &k +kyip..-c~9ij~jillyl;l~ ~9 .p'd.?' +ljT,i2>il ; + L C 'jJLd b 3 A L k N L(+ .b: 1 (+&dl ird 2 ' P p34!t . 9((i,@-+u-J - 4 -I .:,II ;~4~kol&ji AWI &+ @I+ ,&;dl +1;&b& db3 G~.-&I A +w! ,ki + p & ~ ~ A L A + % + A ) L b ~ + L + ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ i ~ + i c ; , g k t w ~ 1 j - J j L i - 1 ~ l + L k l(egld e - rjljk&I3'iu!p p lJ+Ic ' ' ~ ~ + ~ ~ ~ i ~ u UI+::I:;+U~~ , < b y .'&I -+&p + L i A l j'LB] ~ - M L ~ Lgr9- +,,;r+l*gi Lg;s .+ lpK L I T Jp ;C-U;; 'i*db3 j&! (egpll&j.u- &&- .t-W + L d l +&I L i . i .GI+ L ~ I -3 .-I y +-j ~Aj~K+lyLl&c>;3SIJlLLUILiiI 9djk;Fjlji . + d l ji .--@I && .ij1j&Yl W J ~~~41 ;+%I &-&dl o s g l (j+ dj ~ i ~ l p , l ; l l ~ 9 ~ l ~- . p j L + i j K 151t h d l b&Ly -4 1 . d lG L & ~ i,3$c& dj 'J1+ &iL*JO3 '41&!i3 * + %j .A:,+kir 3 ~ 1 2 - i 3 -9lAyI ;rG3jj-C ,WI ;, dl Y ji el;.'+?I ~ ~ $ 9 ~,LUI Jjb & A &I3 'JIJLLI .UI jjb ikji .&I o$L p4Lul +& i l lJhu3- & t-I 4- ..+I * l i i;k - jli + - +F-- zx.u9~&I5 l i lC .u L Y L. - C . S*;E&'UjH. . -. A ;j9-4 LLI i ; ~I -aF -.
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