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Unit 5 – growing nation1


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  • 1. Unit 5 – Growing Nation
    Spring 2009
  • 2. America under Andrew Jackson
  • 3. Form A
    1. Washington
    2. Oregon
    3. California
    4. Nevada
    5. Idaho
    6. Montana
    7. Wyoming
    8. Utah
    9. Colorado
    10. Arizona
    11. New mexico
    12. North Dak.
    13. South Dak.
    14. Nebraska
    15. Kansas
    16. Oklahoma
    17. Texas
    18. Hawaii
    19. Alaska
    20. Minnesota
    21. Iowa
    22. Missouri
    23. Arkansas
    24. Louisiana
    25. Wisconsin
    Form B
    1. Hawaii
    2. Alaska
    3. Washington
    4. Oregon
    6. Nevada
    7. Idaho
    9. Wyoming
    10. Utah
    11. Colorado
    12. Arizona
    13. New Mexico
    14. North Dakota
    15. South Dakota
    16. Nebraska
    17. Kansas
    18. Oklahoma
    19. Texas
    20. Minnesota
    22. Iowa
    23. Missouri
    24. Illinois
    25. Arkansas
    Form D
    1. Maryland
    2. Delaware
    3. New Jersey
    4. Connecticut
    5. Rhode Island
    7. Vermont
    8. New Hampshire
    9. Maine
    10. New York
    11. Pennsylvania
    12. West Virginia
    13. Virginia
    14. North Carol.
    15. South Carol.
    16. Georgia
    17. Florida
    18. Ohio
    19. Michigan
    20. Indiana
    21. Kentucky
    22. Tennessee
    23. Alabama
    24. Mississippi
    25. Wisconsin
    Form C
    1. Maine
    2. New Hampshire
    3. Vermont
    4. Massachusetts
    5. Rhode Island
    6. Connecticut
    7. New York
    8. Pennsylvania
    9. New Jersey
    10. Delaware
    11. Maryland
    12. West Virginia
    13. Virginia
    14. North Carol.
    15.South Carol.
    16. Georgia
    17. Florida
    18. Alabama
    19. Mississippi
    20. Tennessee
    21. Kentucky
    22. Ohio
    23. Indiana
    24. Michigan
    25. Wisconsin
    Form E
    1. L. Superior
    2. L. Michigan
    3. L. Huron
    4. L. Erie
    5. L. Ontario
    6. Mass.
    7. Rhode Island
    8. Connecticut
    9. New Jersey
    10. Delaware
    11. Maryland
    12. Maine
    13. New Hampshire
    14. Vermont
    15. New York
    16. Pennsylvania
    17. West Virginia
    18. Virginia
    19. North Carol.
    20. South Carol.
    21. Georgia
    22. Florida
    23. Ohio
    24. Kentucky
  • 4. Form A
    26. Illinois
    28. Tennessee
    29. Mississippi
    30. Alabama
    32. Florida
    33. South Carol.
    34. North Carol.
    35. Virginia
    36. West Virg.
    37. Indiana
    38. Ohio
    39. Michigan
    40. Pennsyl.
    43.New Jersey
    44. New York
    45. Vermont
    46. New Hamp.
    47. Maine
    48. Mass.
    49. Connecticut
    50.Rhode Isla.
    Form B
    26. Louisiana
    27. Michigan
    28. Indiana
    29. Ohio
    30. Kentucky
    31. Tennessee
    32. Mississippi
    33. Alabama
    34. Georgia
    35. Florida
    36. South Carol.
    37. North Carol.
    38. Virginia
    39. West Virginia
    40. Pennsylvania
    41. New York
    42. Maryland
    43. Delaware
    44. New Jersey
    45. Connecticut
    46. Rhode Island
    47. Mass.
    48. Vermont
    49. New Hampshire
    50. Maine
    Form C
    26. Illinois
    27. Minnesota
    28. Iowa
    29. Missouri
    30. Arkansas
    31. Louisiana
    32. Texas
    33. Oklahoma
    34. Kansas
    35. Nebraska
    36. South Dakota
    37. North Dakota
    38. Montana
    39. Wyoming
    40. Colorado
    41. New Mexico
    43. Nevada
    44. Idaho
    46. Oregon
    47. California
    49. Hawaii
    50. Alaska
    Form D
    26. Illinois
    27. Minnesota
    28. Iowa
    29. Missouri
    30. Arkansas
    31. Louisiana
    32. North Dakota
    33. South Dakota
    34. Nebraska
    35. Kansas
    36. Oklahoma
    37. Texas
    38. Montana
    39. Wyoming
    40. Colorado
    41. New Mexico
    42. Idaho
    43. Utah
    44. Arizona
    45. Washington
    46. Oregon
    47. Nevada
    48. California
    49. Hawaii
    50. Alaska
    Form E
    26. Alabama
    27. Mississippi
    28. Michigan
    29. Indiana
    30. Wisconsin
    31. Illinois
    32. Minnesota
    33. Iowa
    34. Missouri
    35. Arkansas
    36. Louisiana
    37. North Dakota
    38. South Dakota
    39. Nebraska
    40. Kansas
    41. Oklahoma
    42. Texas
    43. Montana
    44. Wyoming
    45. Colorado
    46. New Mexico
    47. Idaho
    48. Utah
    49. Arizona
    50. Washington
  • 5. Form C
    51. L. Superior
    52. L. Huron
    53. L. Michigan
    54. L. Erie
    55. L. Ontario
    Form D
    51. L. Ontario
    52. L. Erie
    53. L. Huron
    54. L. Michigan
    55. L. Superior
    Form E
    51. Oregon
    52. Nevada
    53. California
    54. Hawaii
    55. Alaska
    Form B
    51. L. Huron
    52. L. Erie
    53. L. Ontario
    54. L. Michigan
    55. L. Superior
    Form A
    51. L. Superior
    52.L. Huron
    53.L. Michigan
    54.L. Erie
    55.L. Ontario
  • 6. Who is Andrew Jackson?
    War of 1812 Hero
    Orphan – family “killed by British”
    Horse racer
    Indian fighter
    Land speculator
    “Old Hickory” – one tough cookie
    “self-made man”
    Not from Virginia or Adams
  • 7. Campaign of 1824 - 1828
    1824 - Major Sectionalism – people couldn’t pick a winner
    1824 – went to HR – Picked John Quincy Adams
    1828 – Ruthless campaign – Adams vs. Jackson
    Jackson Wins
  • 8.
  • 9. Spoils System
    Informal practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party
    As opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity.
    The term was derived from the phrase "'to the victor belong the spoils…”
    Westerners/Jackson supporters, came to DC expecting pres. to give them jobs
  • 10. Jacksonian Democracy
    Tried to get ‘regular people’ more involved in democracy
    Example, all white men can now vote, not just land owners
    Want for the ‘common man’ to have more of a say in his government –
    Supported Manifest Destiny
    Avoid Slavery argument
  • 11. Changes in Elections
    Does away with caucus system, creates nominating conventions
  • 12. The Tariff Debate – North vs. South
    1828 – high tariff placed on European Imported manufactured goods
    North – loved tariff, made European goods more expensive, people bought North produced products
    South – Hated the tariff, meant higher prices for them
    Group of Southern states decided to protest – they felt they should be able to nullify, or “undo,” the law
  • 13. South Protests
    Some Southerners, including the VP, wanted to secede from the union
    South’s argument: since the states decided to join the union, they should get to decide if they leave
    Two senators, Webster and Hayne, got into major debates about this in the Senate. Became known as Webster-Hayne Debate
  • 14. What did Jackson do?
    He was invited to speak at a dinner with Southerners who wanted to secede.
    Said, “Our federal union…must be preserved!”
    He did not support states leaving
    In response, his VP said, “The union—next to our liberty, most dear,” and resigned from the VP job to be elected into the Senate to debate
  • 15. Nullification Crisis
    The state of South Carolina passed a law saying they would not pay the high tariff
    In response, Jackson passed the Force Bill, saying he would use the army to make South Carolinians pay the tariff
    They compromised and created a lower tariff – no side was truly happy about this
  • 16. AIG – Bonuses
    US Government AIG Executives
  • 17. Toxic Assets
    Banks – Bad loans
    US government Private Sector
  • 18. Native American Relations
    5 Native Tribes Involved:
    Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations
    Americans were eager for land to raise cotton, Jackson agreed
    Some Peaceful negogations: 1814-24, natives traded land in east for land in the west
    The tribes agreed to the treaties for strategic reasons.
    They wanted to appease the government in the hopes of retaining some of their land, and they wanted to protect themselves from white harassment.
    US took control of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky and North Carolina.
    This was voluntary Indian migration, however, and only a small number of Creeks, Cherokee and Choctaws actually moved
  • 19. Johnson v. M'Intosh, 1823
    case in which the Supreme Court held that private citizens could not purchase lands directly from Indians
    US got land on old European colonization practices – so the only people who could buy the land from natives, was the US
    “Right of Occupancy” subordinate to the “right of Discovery”
  • 20. Indian Removal Act - 1830
    president got the power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi.
    Natives who stayed had to become citizens of the US State they lived in
    Supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, but the southeastern nations resisted, and Jackson forced them to leave.
  • 21. Trail of tears
    The Cherokee were tricked with a bad treaty.
    Cherokee given 2 yrs. to migrate voluntarily
    By 1838 only 2,000 had migrated; 16,000 remained
    U.S. sent in troops
    forced the Cherokees into stockades at bayonet point. They were not allowed time to gather their belongings, and as they left, whites looted their homes.
    Began the march known as the Trail of Tears
    4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and disease on their way to the western lands.
  • 22. Results:
    By 1837, the Jackson administration had removed 46,000 Native American people from their land east of the Mississippi,
    opening 25 million acres of land to white settlement and to slavery.
  • 23. Where would you want to go?
    What areas would you want to be close to? What would you need to survive?
  • 24.
  • 25. SECEDE
    Withdrawing from an organization, union, or political entity
    To split from or withdraw
    Join S A
    Enroll S A
    Leave S A
    Depart S A
  • 26. Jackson Leaves Presidency
    His VP, Martin Van Buren – 1 term
    Whigs, William Harrison– 1 term
  • 27.
  • 28. Stephen Austin and
    Sam Houston
  • 29. How did people get to Texas? Tension Rises
    Given major pieces of land by Mexican government
    But, you had to promise to speak Spanish, become Mexican citizen, etc.
    By 1830, most people in Texas were from the United States
    US offered to buy TX twice
  • 30. Texas Revolution Hi-lights
    1835 - Battle at San Antonio – Texans win, think the war is won
    1836 - Alamo – many TX and Mexicans killed – Mexican victory – but Santa Anna Captured
    Texas Declares Independence
    1836 - San Jacinto – TX victory
    Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – sets TX/Mexican border along the Rio Grande river
  • 31. Missouri Compromise and Texas – Texas doesn’t become a state until 1844
    Arkansas and Michigan both Came in and kept the balance
    Jackson, Van Buren ignored TX, WHY?
  • 32. BAV: annex
    to attach, append, or add, especially to something larger or more important
  • 33.
  • 34. The Mexican American War
    New Mexico was the territory between Texas and CA
    Native Americans lived there, but Mexico formally owned
    Mexico tried to keep Americans out but had a hard time enforcing that
  • 35. Santa Fe Trail
    Went from Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM
    Trade route – mostly flat, so wagons worked well
    Used until the RR came in
    Made lots of Americans come into Mexican territory
  • 36. California’s Spanish Culture
    Missions established by Spanish
    CA became a state in Mexico
    1833 Mexico abolished missions, missions bought by Mexican wealthy
    Americans visited CA for years and began settling it
    Pres. Polk offered to buy 2x, along with NM
  • 37. Conflict
    James Polk determined to get CA and NM
    Wanted to fulfill Manifest Destiny
    Polk believed these territories rightfully belonged to the US
    Mexico became even more angry when TX became part of US
    General Taylor was attacked after setting up a fort in NM
    Lincoln, senator from IL, wanted to know exactly where attack happened…if war happened on Mexican soil, we shouldn’t go to war….
    But, we did  
  • 38. James Polk’s Plan for the Mex-Am War
    Drive Mex. Forces out of Texas border area
    Seize New Mexico Region and California
    Conquer Mexico City
  • 39. 1. Drive Mex. Forces out of Texas border area
    First goal met quickly…by Zachery Taylor and troops
    At last major battle of stage 1, they lowered the Mexican flag and raised the American flag Monterrey (NM)
  • 40. 2. Seize New Mexico Region and California
    While Taylor was securing border, General Stephen Kearney leads troops from Ft. Leavenworth to Santa Fe to meet goal #2
    Mexican governor fled when he was 1,500 Calvary troops
    Santa Fe was captured without one shot fired (by Aug. 1846)
    Troops head across AZ into modern day Arizona and eventually California
    Eventually, American Navy captures San Francisco and the US flag replaces the “Bear Flag”
  • 41.
  • 42. Meanwhile: California and the Bear Flag Republic
    1846, group of Americans decided that CA would be an “independent republic”
    CA residents didn’t know US was at war with Mexico already when they began revolting against Mexico
  • 43. 3. Conquer Mexico City
    Assigned to Gen. Winfield Scott
    Land on coat of Gulf of Mexico (by Veracruz)
    300 mile march to Mexico City
    March included fighting not only army but armed citizen militias
    After 6 months, reached Mexico City
    Took Mexico city within a
  • 44. Cost of War:
    1,721 casualties
    11,000 died of disease
    Cost = $100 million
  • 45. Peace Treaty: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Mexico gave up all claims to Texas
    Agreed Rio Grande as border between TX and Mex.
    Included the “Mexican Cession:”
    Mexico ceded California and New Mexico
    In return, US paid $15 million
    After the war: Gadsden Purchase
    Bought a strip of land along southern edge of present day AZ and NM (final piece of current size besides Hawaii and Alaska)
  • 46. California Gold Rush
    Once CA was officially a member of the US, Americans moved in massive numbers
    1849 was a major year for immigration to CA
    People who moved that year became known as the 49-ers
  • 47. Religious Reform
  • 48. Education Reform
    School for some
    College – women and African Americans admitted as early as 1833
    Students with Special needs
    Students with emotional needs
  • 49. All men are children, and of one family. The same tale sends them all to bed, and wakes them in the morning.
  • 50. Transcendentalism
    Margaret Fuller – supported women’s rights
    Henry David Thoreau – Civil disobedience – went to jail instead of paying a tax to support the Mexican – American War
    Ralph Waldo Emerson – listen to your inner voice and conscience to stop prejudice
  • 51. Women’s Movement
    Seneca Falls Convention-
    Some women could now own property
    Some women were now allowed to study Math
    Potential Jobs:
    Elementary Teacher
    One woman, Elizabeth Blackwell, went to medical school
    Although some good changes, most women were still very limited in their job abilities.