America under Andrew Jackson http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/videos/images/playernew/36fde945-1bfa-4b27-b055-fef50c9a415f.jpg
Who is Andrew Jackson? War of 1812 Hero Orphan – family “killed by British” Frontiersman Horse racer Indian fighter Land speculator “Old Hickory” – one tough cookie “self-made man” Not from Virginia or Adams
Campaign of 1824 - 1828 1824 - Major Sectionalism – people couldn’t pick a winner 1824 – went to HR – Picked John Quincy Adams 1828 – Ruthless campaign – Adams vs. Jackson Jackson Wins
Spoils System Informal practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party As opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity. The term was derived from the phrase "'to the victor belong the spoils…” Westerners/Jackson supporters, came to DC expecting pres. to give them jobs
Jacksonian Democracy Tried to get ‘regular people’ more involved in democracy Example, all white men can now vote, not just land owners Want for the ‘common man’ to have more of a say in his government – Supported Manifest Destiny Avoid Slavery argument
Changes in Elections Does away with caucus system, creates nominating conventions
The Tariff Debate – North vs. South 1828 – high tariff placed on European Imported manufactured goods North – loved tariff, made European goods more expensive, people bought North produced products South – Hated the tariff, meant higher prices for them Group of Southern states decided to protest – they felt they should be able to nullify, or “undo,” the law
South Protests Some Southerners, including the VP, wanted to secede from the union South’s argument: since the states decided to join the union, they should get to decide if they leave Two senators, Webster and Hayne, got into major debates about this in the Senate. Became known as Webster-Hayne Debate
What did Jackson do? He was invited to speak at a dinner with Southerners who wanted to secede. Said, “Our federal union…must be preserved!” He did not support states leaving In response, his VP said, “The union—next to our liberty, most dear,” and resigned from the VP job to be elected into the Senate to debate
Nullification Crisis The state of South Carolina passed a law saying they would not pay the high tariff In response, Jackson passed the Force Bill, saying he would use the army to make South Carolinians pay the tariff They compromised and created a lower tariff – no side was truly happy about this
Native American Relations 5 Native Tribes Involved: Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations Americans were eager for land to raise cotton, Jackson agreed Some Peaceful negogations: 1814-24, natives traded land in east for land in the west The tribes agreed to the treaties for strategic reasons. They wanted to appease the government in the hopes of retaining some of their land, and they wanted to protect themselves from white harassment. US took control of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky and North Carolina. This was voluntary Indian migration, however, and only a small number of Creeks, Cherokee and Choctaws actually moved
Indian Removal Act - 1830 president got the power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. Natives who stayed had to become citizens of the US State they lived in Supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, but the southeastern nations resisted, and Jackson forced them to leave.
Trail of tears The Cherokee were tricked with a bad treaty. Cherokee given 2 yrs. to migrate voluntarily By 1838 only 2,000 had migrated; 16,000 remained U.S. sent in troops forced the Cherokees into stockades at bayonet point. They were not allowed time to gather their belongings, and as they left, whites looted their homes. Began the march known as the Trail of Tears 4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and disease on their way to the western lands.
Results: By 1837, the Jackson administration had removed 46,000 Native American people from their land east of the Mississippi, opening 25 million acres of land to white settlement and to slavery.
How did people get to Texas? Tension Rises Given major pieces of land by Mexican government But, you had to promise to speak Spanish, become Mexican citizen, etc. By 1830, most people in Texas were from the United States US offered to buy TX twice
Texas Revolution Hi-lights 1835 - Battle at San Antonio – Texans win, think the war is won 1836 - Alamo – many TX and Mexicans killed – Mexican victory – but Santa Anna Captured Texas Declares Independence 1836 - San Jacinto – TX victory Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – sets TX/Mexican border along the Rio Grande river
Missouri Compromise and Texas – Texas doesn’t become a state until 1844 Free/Slave Arkansas and Michigan both Came in and kept the balance Jackson, Van Buren ignored TX, WHY?
BAV: annex to attach, append, or add, especially to something larger or more important
The Mexican American War New Mexico was the territory between Texas and CA Native Americans lived there, but Mexico formally owned Mexico tried to keep Americans out but had a hard time enforcing that
Santa Fe Trail Went from Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM Trade route – mostly flat, so wagons worked well Used until the RR came in Made lots of Americans come into Mexican territory
California’s Spanish Culture Missions established by Spanish CA became a state in Mexico 1833 Mexico abolished missions, missions bought by Mexican wealthy Americans visited CA for years and began settling it Pres. Polk offered to buy 2x, along with NM
Conflict James Polk determined to get CA and NM Wanted to fulfill Manifest Destiny Polk believed these territories rightfully belonged to the US Mexico became even more angry when TX became part of US General Taylor was attacked after setting up a fort in NM Lincoln, senator from IL, wanted to know exactly where attack happened…if war happened on Mexican soil, we shouldn’t go to war…. But, we did
James Polk’s Plan for the Mex-Am War Drive Mex. Forces out of Texas border area Seize New Mexico Region and California Conquer Mexico City
1. Drive Mex. Forces out of Texas border area First goal met quickly…by Zachery Taylor and troops At last major battle of stage 1, they lowered the Mexican flag and raised the American flag Monterrey (NM)
2. Seize New Mexico Region and California While Taylor was securing border, General Stephen Kearney leads troops from Ft. Leavenworth to Santa Fe to meet goal #2 Mexican governor fled when he was 1,500 Calvary troops Santa Fe was captured without one shot fired (by Aug. 1846) Troops head across AZ into modern day Arizona and eventually California Eventually, American Navy captures San Francisco and the US flag replaces the “Bear Flag”
Meanwhile: California and the Bear Flag Republic 1846, group of Americans decided that CA would be an “independent republic” CA residents didn’t know US was at war with Mexico already when they began revolting against Mexico
3. Conquer Mexico City Assigned to Gen. Winfield Scott Land on coat of Gulf of Mexico (by Veracruz) 300 mile march to Mexico City March included fighting not only army but armed citizen militias After 6 months, reached Mexico City Took Mexico city within a month
Cost of War: 1,721 casualties 11,000 died of disease Cost = $100 million
Peace Treaty: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico gave up all claims to Texas Agreed Rio Grande as border between TX and Mex. Included the “Mexican Cession:” Mexico ceded California and New Mexico In return, US paid $15 million After the war: Gadsden Purchase Bought a strip of land along southern edge of present day AZ and NM (final piece of current size besides Hawaii and Alaska)
California Gold Rush Once CA was officially a member of the US, Americans moved in massive numbers 1849 was a major year for immigration to CA People who moved that year became known as the 49-ers