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Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
Jackson for slideshare
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  • 1.
  • 2. Unit 5 – Growing Nation
    Spring 2009
  • 3. America under Andrew Jackson
  • 4. Who is Andrew Jackson?
    War of 1812 Hero
    Orphan – family “killed by British”
    Horse racer
    Indian fighter
    Land speculator
    “Old Hickory” – one tough cookie
    “self-made man”
    Not from Virginia or Adams
  • 5. Campaign of 1824 - 1828
    1824 - Major Sectionalism – people couldn’t pick a winner
    1824 – went to HR – Picked John Quincy Adams
    1828 – Ruthless campaign – Adams vs. Jackson
    Jackson Wins
  • 6.
  • 7. Spoils System
    Informal practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party
    As opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity.
    The term was derived from the phrase "'to the victor belong the spoils…”
    Westerners/Jackson supporters, came to DC expecting pres. to give them jobs
  • 8. Jacksonian Democracy
    Tried to get ‘regular people’ more involved in democracy
    Example, all white men can now vote, not just land owners
    Want for the ‘common man’ to have more of a say in his government –
    Supported Manifest Destiny
    Avoid Slavery argument
  • 9. Changes in Elections
    Does away with caucus system, creates nominating conventions
  • 10. The Tariff Debate – North vs. South
    1828 – high tariff placed on European Imported manufactured goods
    North – loved tariff, made European goods more expensive, people bought North produced products
    South – Hated the tariff, meant higher prices for them
    Group of Southern states decided to protest – they felt they should be able to nullify, or “undo,” the law
  • 11. South Protests
    Some Southerners, including the VP, wanted to secede from the union
    South’s argument: since the states decided to join the union, they should get to decide if they leave
    Two senators, Webster and Hayne, got into major debates about this in the Senate. Became known as Webster-Hayne Debate
  • 12. What did Jackson do?
    He was invited to speak at a dinner with Southerners who wanted to secede.
    Said, “Our federal union…must be preserved!”
    He did not support states leaving
    In response, his VP said, “The union—next to our liberty, most dear,” and resigned from the VP job to be elected into the Senate to debate
  • 13. Nullification Crisis
    The state of South Carolina passed a law saying they would not pay the high tariff
    In response, Jackson passed the Force Bill, saying he would use the army to make South Carolinians pay the tariff
    They compromised and created a lower tariff – no side was truly happy about this
  • 14. Native American Relations
    5 Native Tribes Involved:
    Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations
    Americans were eager for land to raise cotton, Jackson agreed
    Some Peaceful negogations: 1814-24, natives traded land in east for land in the west
    The tribes agreed to the treaties for strategic reasons.
    They wanted to appease the government in the hopes of retaining some of their land, and they wanted to protect themselves from white harassment.
    US took control of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky and North Carolina.
    This was voluntary Indian migration, however, and only a small number of Creeks, Cherokee and Choctaws actually moved
  • 15. Indian Removal Act - 1830
    president got the power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi.
    Natives who stayed had to become citizens of the US State they lived in
    Supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, but the southeastern nations resisted, and Jackson forced them to leave.
  • 16. Trail of tears
    The Cherokee were tricked with a bad treaty.
    Cherokee given 2 yrs. to migrate voluntarily
    By 1838 only 2,000 had migrated; 16,000 remained
    U.S. sent in troops
    forced the Cherokees into stockades at bayonet point. They were not allowed time to gather their belongings, and as they left, whites looted their homes.
    Began the march known as the Trail of Tears
    4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and disease on their way to the western lands.
  • 17. Results:
    By 1837, the Jackson administration had removed 46,000 Native American people from their land east of the Mississippi,
    opening 25 million acres of land to white settlement and to slavery.
  • 18.
  • 19. Jackson Leaves Presidency
    His VP, Martin Van Buren – 1 term
    Whigs, William Harrison– 1 term
  • 20.
  • 21. Stephen Austin and
    Sam Houston
  • 22. How did people get to Texas? Tension Rises
    Given major pieces of land by Mexican government
    But, you had to promise to speak Spanish, become Mexican citizen, etc.
    By 1830, most people in Texas were from the United States
    US offered to buy TX twice
  • 23. Texas Revolution Hi-lights
    1835 - Battle at San Antonio – Texans win, think the war is won
    1836 - Alamo – many TX and Mexicans killed – Mexican victory – but Santa Anna Captured
    Texas Declares Independence
    1836 - San Jacinto – TX victory
    Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – sets TX/Mexican border along the Rio Grande river
  • 24. Missouri Compromise and Texas – Texas doesn’t become a state until 1844
    Arkansas and Michigan both Came in and kept the balance
    Jackson, Van Buren ignored TX, WHY?
  • 25. BAV: annex
    to attach, append, or add, especially to something larger or more important
  • 26. The Mexican American War
    New Mexico was the territory between Texas and CA
    Native Americans lived there, but Mexico formally owned
    Mexico tried to keep Americans out but had a hard time enforcing that
  • 27. Santa Fe Trail
    Went from Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM
    Trade route – mostly flat, so wagons worked well
    Used until the RR came in
    Made lots of Americans come into Mexican territory
  • 28. California’s Spanish Culture
    Missions established by Spanish
    CA became a state in Mexico
    1833 Mexico abolished missions, missions bought by Mexican wealthy
    Americans visited CA for years and began settling it
    Pres. Polk offered to buy 2x, along with NM
  • 29. Conflict
    James Polk determined to get CA and NM
    Wanted to fulfill Manifest Destiny
    Polk believed these territories rightfully belonged to the US
    Mexico became even more angry when TX became part of US
    General Taylor was attacked after setting up a fort in NM
    Lincoln, senator from IL, wanted to know exactly where attack happened…if war happened on Mexican soil, we shouldn’t go to war….
    But, we did  
  • 30. James Polk’s Plan for the Mex-Am War
    Drive Mex. Forces out of Texas border area
    Seize New Mexico Region and California
    Conquer Mexico City
  • 31. 1. Drive Mex. Forces out of Texas border area
    First goal met quickly…by Zachery Taylor and troops
    At last major battle of stage 1, they lowered the Mexican flag and raised the American flag Monterrey (NM)
  • 32. 2. Seize New Mexico Region and California
    While Taylor was securing border, General Stephen Kearney leads troops from Ft. Leavenworth to Santa Fe to meet goal #2
    Mexican governor fled when he was 1,500 Calvary troops
    Santa Fe was captured without one shot fired (by Aug. 1846)
    Troops head across AZ into modern day Arizona and eventually California
    Eventually, American Navy captures San Francisco and the US flag replaces the “Bear Flag”
  • 33.
  • 34. Meanwhile: California and the Bear Flag Republic
    1846, group of Americans decided that CA would be an “independent republic”
    CA residents didn’t know US was at war with Mexico already when they began revolting against Mexico
  • 35. 3. Conquer Mexico City
    Assigned to Gen. Winfield Scott
    Land on coat of Gulf of Mexico (by Veracruz)
    300 mile march to Mexico City
    March included fighting not only army but armed citizen militias
    After 6 months, reached Mexico City
    Took Mexico city within a
  • 36. Cost of War:
    1,721 casualties
    11,000 died of disease
    Cost = $100 million
  • 37. Peace Treaty: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Mexico gave up all claims to Texas
    Agreed Rio Grande as border between TX and Mex.
    Included the “Mexican Cession:”
    Mexico ceded California and New Mexico
    In return, US paid $15 million
    After the war: Gadsden Purchase
    Bought a strip of land along southern edge of present day AZ and NM (final piece of current size besides Hawaii and Alaska)
  • 38. California Gold Rush
    Once CA was officially a member of the US, Americans moved in massive numbers
    1849 was a major year for immigration to CA
    People who moved that year became known as the 49-ers