Key concept representation

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Section 1B

Section 1B

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  • 1. Aims/ objectives •To reinforce basic representation theory •To have a basic understanding of how to evaluate your coursework against key representation theory
  • 2. Representation- Definition • How the media shows us things about societybut this is through careful mediation. Hence re-presentation. • For representation to be meaningful to audiences there needs to be a shared recognition of people, situations, ideas... • All representations therefore have ideologies behind them. Certain ideologies are ENCODED into the text.
  • 3. Richard Dyer (1983) posed a few questions when analysing media representations 1. What does the representation imply? Is it typical or does it challenge the dominant view? Eg...youth...women.. 2. What does it represent to us and why? How do we respond to the representation?
  • 4. What do these images represent to us? To be British..... To be attractive..... To be young.....
  • 5. For this question you need to know about... 1. Ideology (who’s point of view) KARL MARX 2. Feminism (Mulvey, Gauntlett) 3. Stereotypes- most of you can analyse AGE or Gender in your music video can you not?
  • 6. What does Ideology mean? Ideology: a set of ideas, values, tastes and/or beliefs expounded by a particular social group, organisation, religion or culture. The dominant (hegemonic) view/ social group are white middle class (mostly male) adults. The hegemonic ideology of eg youth is that they are all thugs/ vandals. (As we see represented in the media....who is giving these views? White, M/C, predominantly male)
  • 7. This idea has origins in Marxist theory Karl Marx: Believes that there is a “ top down false consciousness” which suggests that ideology is imposed “from above” by elite powers upon the unknowing masses. The ruling capitalist class are able to Protect their economic interests.
  • 8. In summary REPRESENTATIONS are encoded into mass media texts in order to reinforce dominant ideologies. Eg about women, Muslims, youth...etc In Marxist terms, the media’s role may be seen as circulating and reinforcing dominant ideologies and (less frequently) undermining and challenging such ideologies.
  • 9. Gender and ideology (feminism) • Masculinity and femininity are socially constructed • Judith Butler argues that we all put on a gender performance whether traditional (heterosexual) or not. • There are many artists who seek to construct particular gender identities in order to present particular ideologies to the audience
  • 10. Laura Mulvey The male gaze • She argues that audiences look at a text in two ways: voyeuristically and fetishistically • To be a voyeur means to look at something/ somebody without them knowing. • If we look at something we are objectifying them (as if they are an object/ fetish) • This creates a narcissistic identification with an ideal image seen on the screen • This voyeurism involves turning the represented figure into a fetish (object) so that it becomes increasingly beautiful but more objectified. • Female stars are glamorous and attractive but considered as objects and subservient (natasha bedingfield)
  • 11. David Gauntlett David Gauntlett argues that in contemporary society, gender roles are more complex and that the media reflects this. Female role models are often glamorous and successful. This is due to the rise of ‘girl power’ in the media (eg Destiny’s Child (bills bills bills) Our expectations of gender are flexible and culturally dependent and therefore will continue to change
  • 12. Stereotypes • A way of labelling/ categorising people • For stereotypes to work they need audience recognition. • Which stereotypes have you used in your video?
  • 13. Representation and identity Gauntlett (2002)‘Identities are not ‘given’ but are constructed and negotiated’ How have you constructed identities in your music video? Do they conform to or challenge the dominant ideology?
  • 14. A possible question representation “Representations in media texts are often simplistic and reinforce dominant ideologies so that audiences can make sense of them.” Evaluate the ways that you have used/ challenged simplistic representations in one of your media products.
  • 15. A suggested plan 1. Which coursework are you going to evaluate and for what purpose? 2. What is representation? What does it mean? Brief outline of theories you will apply. 3. Analysis of gender/ age/ ethnicity in your music vide/ digipak/ advert. How have you conformed to dominant ideologies and how have you challenged dominant ideologies. 4. Conclusion