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Cell Structure And Function

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A sample Biology presentation to demonstrate Slide Share.

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  • 1. Cell Structure and Function Chapter Seven www.nerdscience.com
  • 2. The Discovery of the Cell
    • Robert Hooke – first to see and identify cork “cells.”
    7-1 www.nerdscience.com
  • 3. The Cell Theory
    • Cell Theory:
    • All living things are composed of cells.
    • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
    • New cells are produced from existing cells.
    Schleiden Schwann Virchow 7-1 www.nerdscience.com
  • 4. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    • Nucleus – large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell’s genetic information.
    • Prokaryotes – cells that do not contain nuclei. (Bacteria)
    • Eukaryotes – cells that contain nuclei. (All other organisms)
    7-1 www.nerdscience.com
  • 5. Eukaryotic Cell Structure
    • Organelles – structures in a cell that act like “little organs.”
    • Cytoplasm – the jelly-like fluid where the organelles “float.”
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 6. Inside the Nucleus
    • Nuclear Envelope – membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
    • Chromatin – consists of DNA wrapped around proteins. “Ball of string”
    • Chromosomes – condensed string-like structure that forms from DNA just before the cell divides.
    • Nucleolus – structure within the nucleus that makes ribosomes.
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 7. Inside the Nucleus Nuclear Envelope Chromatin Nucleolus 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 8. Ribosomes
    • Ribosomes – made of RNA and protein. Make Proteins!
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 9. Ribosomes Ribosome 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 10. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • Endoplasmic reticulum – internal membrane system of the cell.
      • Lipids, proteins, and other products are made here.
      • Rough ER – has ribosomes
      • Smooth ER – no ribosomes
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 11. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough ER Smooth ER 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 12. Golgi Apparatus
    • Golgi Apparatus – modifies, sorts, and packages proteins.
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 13. Golgi Apparatus Golgi Apparatus 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 14. Lysosomes
    • Lysosomes – small organelles filled with enzymes.
      • Digest molecules to be used by the cell.
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 15. Vacuoles
    • Vacuoles – store materials.
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 16. Vacuoles Vacuoles 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 17. Mitochondria
    • Mitochondria – organelle that converts chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
      • “ Powerhouse of the Cell!”
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 18. Mitochondria Mitochondria 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 19. Chloroplasts
    • Chloroplasts – organelles that capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy. ( Photosynthesis )
      • Found only in plants.
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 20. Chloroplasts Chloroplast 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 21. Cytoskeleton
    • Cytoskeleton – helps cell to maintain shape, move, and move organelles.
    • Centrioles – help organize cell division. Not found in plants.
    7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 22. Cytoskeleton 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  • 23. Cell Boundaries
    • Cell membrane – thin, flexible membrane that surrounds the cell.
    • Cell walls – rigid layer around the membrane found only in bacteria, fungi and plants.
    7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  • 24. Cell Membrane
    • Controls what enters/leaves cell, provides support/protection.
    • Lipid Bilayer – double-layered sheet of phospholipids.
    Two layers! 7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  • 25. Diffusion and Osmosis
    • Diffusion – movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration.
    • Osmosis – the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
      • Water will move into/out of a cell to equalize concentrations.
    7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  • 26. Osmosis Practice Cell 90% H2O 10% NaCl 90% H2O 10% NaCl 7-3 www.nerdscience.com Concentrations are equal, so no net movement of water!
  • 27. Osmosis Practice Cell 90% H2O 10% NaCl 80% H2O 20% NaCl 7-3 www.nerdscience.com www.nerdscience.com Concentration of water is greater in the cell than out, so water will move out!
  • 28. Osmosis Practice Cell 80% H2O 20% NaCl 90% H2O 10% NaCl 7-3 www.nerdscience.com Concentration of water is greater outside the cell than in, so water will move In!
  • 29. Facilitated Diffusion and Active Transport
    • Facilitated diffusion – when the plasma membrane “helps” particles pass through protein channels.
      • No energy used.
    • Active transport – when the plasma membrane uses energy to move particles against a concentration gradient.
      • Uses Transport Proteins
    7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  • 30. Facilitated Diffusion and Active Transport 7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  • 31. Organization in Multicellular Organisms Tissues Organs Organ System Organism Cells 7-4 www.nerdscience.com