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    Ict provincial-and-local-government Ict provincial-and-local-government Document Transcript

    • Private and Confidential ICT IN PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT NATIONAL OVERVIEW 2008COPYRIGHT: 2008/9 ICT in Government - ForgeAhead
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 5 1.1. BACKGROUND ...........................................................................................5 1.2. STAKEHOLDERS .........................................................................................6 1.2.1. Department of Provincial & Local Government .......................................6 1.2.2. South African Local Government Association .........................................7 1.2.3. Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) .......................................7 1.2.4. State Information Technology Agency (SITA) ........................................7 1.2.5. GITOC (PGITO) ................................................................................8 1.2.6. Private Sector ..................................................................................8 1.3. RESEARCH APPROACH ..................................................................................9 1.4. RESPONSE LEVEL ..................................................................................... 10 1.4.1. Provincial Government..................................................................... 10 1.4.2. Local Government ........................................................................... 102. PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT OVERVIEW............................................................................. 11 2.1. POLICY AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT .......................................................... 11 2.2. ICT INFRASTRUCTURE ............................................................................... 13 2.2.1. Forms of Connectivity ...................................................................... 13 2.2.2. INTERNET AND E-MAIL CONNECTIVITY ............................................................. 15 2.2.3. Software in the Departments ............................................................ 16 2.1.3a. Financial System .......................................................................... 16 2.1.3b. Server Operating System .............................................................. 17 2.1.3c. Server Operating System .............................................................. 17 2.1.3d. e-Mail Client ................................................................................ 17 2.1.4. Mobile Technology .......................................................................... 18 2.1.4a. Cell Phone ................................................................................... 18 2.1.4b. Case Studies ............................................................................... 20 2.1.5. Skills and Services .......................................................................... 22 2.1.6. Outsourcing in the Provincial Government .......................................... 24 2.1.7. Information and e-Security .............................................................. 25 2.1.7a. Security Technologies/Methods ...................................................... 25 2.1.7b. Common Security Policies used by the department ........................... 26 2.1.8. Future ICT Investments ................................................................... 27 2.1.8a. Acquisition of New Hardware ......................................................... 27 2.1.8b. Bandwidth Extension .................................................................... 28 2.1.8c. Voice over Internet Protocol .......................................................... 28 2.1.8d. Data Warehousing ........................................................................ 28 2.1.8e. System Integration ...................................................................... 28 2.1.9. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 29 2.1.9a. Current ICT Projects in the departments .......................................... 29 2.1.9b. Completed ICT projects................................................................. 32 2.1.9c. Delayed and Failed ICT Projects ..................................................... 323. PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OVERVIEW ........................................................................... 33 3.1. HEALTH ................................................................................................ 33 3.1.1. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 33 3.1.1a. Completed ICT projects................................................................. 33 3.1.1b. Current ICT Projects ..................................................................... 34 3.1.2. ICT Budget in Health Cluster ............................................................ 34 3.1.3. Future ICT Investment .................................................................... 34 3.1.4. General ICT Trends in Health ............................................................ 35 3.1.5. Plans/Policies/Other Technologies...................................................... 35 1-119
    • 3.2. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................... 363.3. ICT PROJECTS ........................................................................................ 37 3.3.1. Completed ICT Projects ................................................................... 37 3.3.1b. Current ICT Projects ..................................................................... 37 3.3.2. ICT Budget .................................................................................... 37 3.3.3. ICT Future Investment .................................................................... 38 3.3.4. Policies/Plans/Other Technologies...................................................... 383.4. EDUCATION............................................................................................ 39 3.4.1. ICT Projects........................................................................................ 39 3.4.1a. Completed ICT Projects ................................................................. 39 3.4.1b. Current Projects ........................................................................... 40 3.4.1c Delayed ICT Project ...................................................................... 40 3.4.2. ICT Budget .................................................................................... 40 3.4.3. ICT Future Investment .................................................................... 403.5. TREASURY ............................................................................................. 41 3.5.1. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 41 3.5.1a. Completed ICT Projects ................................................................. 41 3.5.1b. Current Projects ........................................................................... 41 3.5.2. ICT Budget .................................................................................... 41 3.5.3. ICT Future Investment .................................................................... 423.6. OFFICE OF THE PREMIER ............................................................................. 43 3.6.1. ICT Project in the Premiers’ Office ..................................................... 43 3.6.1a. Current ICT projects include: ......................................................... 43 3.6.2. ICT Budget .................................................................................... 44 3.6.3. ICT Future Investment .................................................................... 443.7. PUBLIC WORKS, ROADS & TRANSPORT ............................................................ 45 3.7.1. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 45 3.7.2. ICT Budget .................................................................................... 45 3.7.3. ICT Future Investment .................................................................... 453.8. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND HOUSING ............................................................... 46 3.8.1. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 46 3.8.2. ICT Budget .................................................................................... 47 3.8.3. ICT Future Investment .................................................................... 47 3.9.1. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 47 3.9.2. ICT Future Investment .................................................................... 483.10. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS .................................................................................. 48 3.10.1. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 483.11. SPORT, RECREATION, ART, CULTURE & TOURISM ................................................ 49 3.11.1. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 493.12. SHARED SERVICES CENTRES ........................................................................ 49 3.12.1. Some of the Checklist for Shared Service Centre ................................. 50 3.12.2. Research Findings ........................................................................... 50 3.12.3. Gauteng Shared Services (GSSC) ...................................................... 51 3.12.4. ICT Budget .................................................................................... 51 3.12.5. Infrastructure ................................................................................. 51 3.12.6. Future Investment .......................................................................... 51 3.12.7. ICT Skills ....................................................................................... 52 3.12.8. Centre for e-Innovation ................................................................... 52 3.12.8a. CEI - Economic/Governance and Administration ............................... 52 3.1.8b. CEI - Education/Culture and Sport: Overview ................................... 53 3.12.8c. CEI - Health/Social Services and Housing: Overview ......................... 53 3.12.8d. CEI - Planning and Development: Overview ..................................... 54 3.12.8e. CEI - Policy and Strategy: Overview ............................................... 54 3.12.8f. CEI - Transversal GITO: Overview .................................................. 55 3.12.9. ICT Budget .................................................................................... 55 3.12.10. Infrastructure .............................................................................. 56 3.12.12. Future Investment ....................................................................... 56 2-119
    • 3.12.13. ICT Skills .................................................................................... 56 3.13. PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS’ ICT BUDGETS ....................................................... 57 3.13.1. ICT Provincial Budget Projections ...................................................... 574. MUNICIPALITIES - BACKGROUND ......................................................................................... 60 4.1. UNDERSTANDING THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONTEXT ........................................... 60 4.2. LOCAL GOVERNMENT SCALE, STRUCTURE & SEGMENTATION ................................... 63 4.2.1. Metropolitan Municipalities .............................................................. 63 4.2.2. Local Municipalities ......................................................................... 64 4.2.3. District Municipalities....................................................................... 645. LOCAL GOVERNMENT OVERVIEW ........................................................... 66 5.1. POLICY AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT .......................................................... 66 5.2. ICT INFRASTRUCTURE................................................................................ 68 5.2.1. Forms of Connectivity ...................................................................... 68 5.2.1a. LGNET ........................................................................................ 69 5.2.2. Software Infrastructure ................................................................... 71 5.2.2a. Financial System .......................................................................... 71 5.2.2b. Risk Management......................................................................... 71 5.2.2c. Anti-virus .................................................................................... 72 5.2.2d. Firewalls ..................................................................................... 72 5.2.2e. Geographic Information System (GIS)............................................. 72 5.2.3. Skills Demand, Retention & Outsourcing............................................. 73 5.2.3a. Outsourcing in the Provincial Government........................................ 73 5.2.3b. Skills Retention in the Municipalities................................................ 74 5.2.3c. Outsourcing in the Local Government .............................................. 75 5.2.4. Information security ........................................................................ 76 5.3. FUTURE ICT INVESTMENTS .......................................................................... 78 5.3.1. Reviewing the Top 8 Future Investment List ....................................... 79 5.3.1a. Financial System and Database System ........................................... 79 5.3.1b. Integration Software .................................................................... 79 5.3.1c. Acquisition of New Hardware ......................................................... 79 5.3.1d. Call Centre .................................................................................. 80 5.3.1e. Data Warehousing ........................................................................ 80 5.3.4. ICT Projects ................................................................................... 81 5.3.5. ICT BUDGET .................................................................................. 82 5.3.5a. Budget Caution ............................................................................ 82 5.3.5b. Municipal ICT budgets................................................................... 82 5.3.5c. ICT Local Government Budget Projections........................................ 846. SUMMARY OF THE TRENDS ..................................................................... 85 6.1. PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT .......................................................................... 85 6.2. LOCAL GOVERNMENT ................................................................................. 877. KEY TRENDS ......................................................................................................................................... 898. CHALLENGES FACING THE GOVERNMENT ......................................................................... 909. RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 91 9.1. Budgetary and Resources Constraints ............................................. 91 9.2. Facing Insufficient Levers for Scale ................................................. 91 9.3. Failure to Attract and Retain Skills .................................................. 92 9.4. Putting ICTs on the Local Government Agenda ................................. 92 9.5. Establishment of a National Local Government ICT Forum .................. 93 9.6. Other Recommendations ............................................................... 9310. MUNICIPALITIES INDEX (TSM) ............................................................................................... 94 3-119
    • 10.1. TSM TECHNICALITIES ............................................................................. 10711. THE WAY FORWARD ...................................................................................................................... 10812. COMPARATIVE INDEX .................................................................................................................. 109 12.1. GOVERNANCE RATING.............................................................................. 109 12.2. INFORMATION SECURITY PROVINCIAL INDEX .................................................... 110 12.2.1. Security Technologies/Methods ....................................................... 110 12.2.2. Common Security Policies Used by Departments ............................... 111 12.3. SKILLS RETENTION RATINGS ...................................................................... 113 12.4. ACCESS TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON (DEPARTMENTS) ......................................... 115 12.5. ACCESS TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON (MUNICIPALITIES) ....................................... 116 12.6. FUTURE INVESTMENT COMPARISON (DEPARTMENTS) .......................................... 117 12.6.1. Acquisition of New Hardware .......................................................... 118 12.6.2. System Integration ....................................................................... 118 12.6.3. Bandwidth Extension ..................................................................... 118 12.6.4. Voice Over Internet Protocol ........................................................... 118 12.6.5. Data Warehousing ........................................................................ 118 12.7. Future Investment Comparison (Municipalities) .................................... 119 4-119
    • 1. Introduction1.1. BackgroundForgeAhead’s ongoing Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) inGovernment research programme is the product of an increasingly strongercollaboration and interaction between ForgeAhead and the three South Africanspheres of government, namely National Government, Provincial Governmentand Local Government (Municipalities).The last decade has placed growing emphasis on the demand for service deliveryand all government spheres are striving for service delivery excellence. Thevalue of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) as a keycontributor to meeting these demands has been realised and its potential forenhancing and fast tracking service delivery is unquestionable.This ICT report concentrates only on two spheres - Provincial Government andLocal Government. ForgeAhead’s ICT in Provincial Government research wasconceptualised in 2001, while the ICT research into local government wasintroduced in 2004. This study has grown extensively in credibility and contentvalue year on year, and the ICT in Government research as whole is todayconsidered to be a reliable source of information on ICT trends and it providesICT information to both the public and private sectors.The aim of ForgeAhead’s ICTs in Provincial and Local Government Research is toprovide a succinct understanding of the status and use of ICTs in provincialdepartments, metropolitan, district and local municipalities. It also highlights therole of ICTs in enhancing service delivery.2008 ICT in Government Report 5-119
    • This is achieved through exploring: • ICT Strategies and Policies • Current and future ICT budgets • Current Infrastructure • ICT Projects • Future Investment • Outsourcing models • Skills required in the public sector • Vendor Usage/Competitor analysis1A further aim of the ICTs in Provincial & Local Government Research is toprovide cutting edge information that is intended to facilitate better coordinationbetween Provincial and Local Government structures as well as other relevantstakeholders.1.2. Stakeholders1.2.1. Department of Provincial & Local GovernmentAs a national department, the function of the DPLG is to develop national policiesand legislation pertaining to Provincial and Local Government. The DPLG alsomonitors the implementation of the following: • Intergovernmental Relation Framework (IGR) • Municipal Property Rates • Municipal Finance Management Act • Traditional Leadership and Governance Framework • Disaster Management Act • Municipal Structure Act • Municipal System Act • Municipal Demarcation ActAnother function of the DPLG is to support provinces and local government infulfilling their constitutional and legal obligations.1 For Separate Report on Competitor analyses contact ForgeAhead2008 ICT in Government Report 6-119
    • 1.2.2. South African Local Government AssociationThis Association focuses on developing proper strategies that Local Governmentsto address their challenges. Its ICT mandate is to assess the current strategiesfor the use of ICTs and to promote their use in Local Governments.1.2.3. Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA)The DBSA provides funding for infrastructure and human resources developmentas well as capacity building for municipalities. Through the DBSA DevelopmentFund, grants and loans are allocated to Local Government for infrastructuredevelopment depending on certain qualifying criteria.A major current initiative is the LGNet project that aims to connect LocalGovernments to a central Resource Centre (LGRC) that will provide municipalstaff with access to information and promote an environment of knowledgesharing.1.2.4. State Information Technology Agency (SITA)SITA is mandated to provide support services on ICTs, and procure ICTapplications, systems, products and services for all levels of Government.Currently, this agency is undergoing various structural changes and is looking toextend its services from National and Provincial Government to include LocalGovernment. Within the Local Government sphere, SITA currently providesnetworks and support. In their presentation in 2006, SITA pledged to becomemore interactive and work more closely with Local Governments.2008 ICT in Government Report 7-119
    • 1.2.5. GITOC (PGITO)The Government Information Technology Officers Council (GITOC) is involvedwith the investigation, formulation and development of IT security policyframework, e-government policy and strategy as well as IT procurementguidelines. GITOC is also involved in the effort to monitor IT projects ingovernment to eliminate duplication. For example, the Inventory ofGovernment-wide Information Systems (IGIS) report was completed in 2001and regulations like MIOS seek to enforce inter-operability across architectures,software solutions and security issues. The provincial GITOs (PGITO) arerepresented at GITOC.1.2.6. Private SectorPrivate Sector’s expertise is critical in complex IT Public Private Partnerships(PPPs) in South Africa, particularly in both Provincial and Local Governmentspheres. PPPs enable the use of more extensive emerging technology to providebetter ICT services, which in turn improves government’s service delivery.2008 ICT in Government Report 8-119
    • 1.3. Research ApproachThe information was gathered using structured ForgeAhead questionnaires thatwere sent via e-mail and fax. Some questionnaires were sent back electronicallywhile other questionnaires were collected through both face-to-face andtelephonic methods. All data was then edited, coded, captured and analysed atForgeAhead.Collectively, the sample/respondents consisted of CIOs, IT Managers,Deputy/Assistant/Acting Managers, Knowledge/Project Managers, DeputyDirectors, Chief Education Specialists, Network Engineers, Assistant Directors, ITDirectors, System Analysts, Principal Data Technologists, Senior AdministrationOfficers and a Senior Corporate Services Manager.The fieldwork was conducted between February and September 2008.2008 ICT in Government Report 9-119
    • 1.4. Response Level1.4.1. Provincial Government Province Universe Frequency % Eastern Cape 12 11 92% Free State 10 10 100% Gauteng 12 10 83% KwaZulu-Natal 14 12 86% Limpopo 10 10 100% Mpumalanga 10 10 100% North West 11 11 100% Northern Cape 11 7 64% Western Cape 12 12 100% Total 102 97 91%Table 1: Sample for Provincial GovernmentsThe data gathered in this report was collected from 102 departments across 9provincial government departments. The response rate for ProvincialGovernment was 91% with a notable increase of 19% compared to the previousyear’s response rate (2005/6 study).1.4.2. Local Government PROVINCE UNIVERSE 2006/7 % PROVINCE EASTERN CAPE 46 36 78% FREE STATE 25 21 84% GAUTENG 14 14 100% KwaZulu-Natal 60 48 80% LIMPOPO 30 28 93% MPUMALANGA 21 17 81% NORTHERN CAPE 32 23 72% NORTH WEST 25 21 84% WESTERN CAPE 30 27 90% TOTAL 283 235 83%Table 2: Sample for Local GovernmentsThe survey covered the local governments in the 9 provinces of South Africa and235 municipalities were covered, resulting in a response rate of 83%, which isan increase of 12% from the 2005/6 rate.2008 ICT in Government Report 10-119
    • 2. Provincial Government Overview2.1. Policy and Regulatory EnvironmentGovernance is the process of decision-making and implementation, ensuringtransparency, responsibility, accountability and fiduciary compliance. It shouldbe actively pursued at all government levels to minimise mismanagement andcorruption and thereby enhance effective service delivery. To enable goodgovernance in government, there should be appropriate policies in place that areaimed at creating a legislative framework for effective use of provincialresources. For the purposes of this section, e-governance is interpreted as theapplication of governance within the context of ICTs and ICT usage bygovernment.In carrying out the ICT usage survey in provincial government, ForgeAheadseeks to establish whether the departments have put in place various policies,strategies and plans that are part of the governance model. Specifically, theseindicators are: • Procurement/Tender Policy • ICT Strategy • ICT Steering Committee • Master Systems Plan • BEE Policy • Open Source Software Policy • Skills Development Plan • Disaster Recovery Plan • Security Policy • e-Government Policy/Strategy2008 ICT in Government Report 11-119
    • 94 75 76 69 69 64 60 58 43 19 Government DRP ICT Strategy Development Open Source Security ICT Steering Procurement Systems Plan BEE Policy Committee Policy ICT Skills Software Policy Master Policy Policy Plan Plan e- +5% +6% +8% +8% +33 +30 Figure 1: Positive Responses to Existence of Relevant Plans and PoliciesThe above graph shows the positive responses to the existence of the relevantplans and policies from the respondents in various provincial governmentdepartments, as a percentage of the total respondents.In the previous ForgeAhead report we pointed out a very low score, whichincluded the Security area, which would indicate an unacceptable risk ofprovincial departments’ systems, creating an opportunity for the departments tofall victim to viruses or other forms of electronic attack. However, according tothe 2008 survey, Security Policy is among significant areas of improvement thatalso include ICT Skills Development plan, Disaster Recovery Plan and ICTStrategy.Open Source Software (OSS) and e-Government are at the bottom of the list interms of ICT policies and strategies. Although these are becoming increasinglyrecognised in e-Governance, OSS and e-Government are on the radar of only 43percent and 19 percent of departments respectively.2008 ICT in Government Report 12-119
    • 2.2. ICT InfrastructureThis section reflects the ICT infrastructure utilised by the various provincialgovernment departments. Access to infrastructure and services is a critical factorin delivering services relevant to combating poverty, raising standards of livingand creating the conditions for economic activity. The ICT infrastructure that isused by the provincial government includes hardware; software; Internet and e-mail access; and network infrastructure.2.2.1. Forms of ConnectivityAccess to Internet and e-Mail is aimed at making employees work moreefficiently. Despite the recognised potential benefits to the departments, accessto these technologies is still restricted to certain individuals. % SITA Netw ork/GCCN 87 1 88 Wireless Broadband 30 29 59 VPN (Virtual Private Netw ork) 12 47 59 Cellular netw orks 53 2 55 Lease Line (Diginet) 47 1 48 Dial-up 39 39 ISDN 34 1 35 ADSL 33 1 34 Satellite communications 15 17 32 Access currently To be aquired Figure 2: Responses on access technologiesIn response to various Provincial Departments’ requirements, the GovernmentCommon Co-Network (GCCN) was established to connect the departments’ sites.These connections enable officials to access financial and non-financial systemssuch as Basic Accounting System (BAS), Logistic Information System (LOGIS),Personnel and Salary system (PERSAL), the Internet and email.2008 ICT in Government Report 13-119
    • In spite of the fact that 87% of the provincial departments are using theGovernment Common Core Network (GCCN), SITA is working towardsimplementing a Next Generation Network (NGN) that will replace the currentGCCN. The reason to change GCCS is motivated by the ‘ever increasing users’ 2demands for more advance services.In close cooperation with SITA, Eastern Cape Provincial staff undertook a studytour to the USA to look for the most suitable solution for the provincial ICTInfrastructure called Provincial Common Core Network (PCCN) to address theinstability of the Government Common Core Network that has been plaguing thesystem3. Next Generation Network is expected to improve citizens experiencethrough initiatives such as: • e-Education through the Further Education Training (FET) colleges Virtual Private Network Project • Telemedicine through the e-Health projects with access to clinics, etc • Connectivity to Multi-Purpose Community centres (Thusong Centres) • Creating a stable communications platform for all departments to utilise in the execution of their citizen-centric operations, strengthening collaboration between various tiers of government.The need for information kiosks aimed at giving local residents information ongovernment services and economic empowerment options is driving theprovincial government department to invest in wireless broadband. 37% ofprovincial departments have reported accessing technology via wirelessbroadband and a further 29% will acquire this form of access technology.The trend of Wireless Broadband technology is expected to increase as (DOC)and National Treasury (NT) have finalised outstanding matters concerning therole of Sentech in wireless broadband for government services, prioritisinghealth, education, and the provision of connectivity for the Post Office. Accordingto the Governments Programme of Action 2008 the government will increaseaccess to ICT infrastructure by rolling out Sentech Wireless Broadband and2 23 May 2007 Keynote address by MDPSA3 Policy Speech of vote 1; Office of the Premier of the Eastern Cape; 14 March 20072008 ICT in Government Report 14-119
    • Infraco as well as implementing Digital Migration Strategy by 07 December 2007. About a half of provincial departments are gearing for Virtual Private Network (VPN) as this form of connectivity is perceived to be offering data communications efficiency and cost-effectiveness. 2.2.2. Internet and e-Mail Connectivity Internal access of Internet and e-mail is aimed at making employees work much easier, faster and more efficient. For instance, with e-mail one can get in touch with any employee in the department – at any time. In addition to this, one can view all the employees’ diaries on the system. This is saving employees the effort of sending physical printouts every day or week. Despite the above- mentioned benefit to the departments, access to these technologies is still restricted to certain individuals. The following graphs illustrate the PCs/Laptops users supported by the departments and the access to Internet and e-Mails within the departments: Number of PC/Laptops Percentage connected to internet & Email Less than 50 33 Betw een 10 - 20% 7 3 4 Betw een 51 - 100 14 Betw een 21 - 30% 9 1 10 Betw een 101 - 200 23 9 Betw een 31 - 40% 20 Betw een 201 - 300 8 9 Betw een 41 - 50% 3 5 15 Betw een 301 - 400 4 Betw een 51 - 70% 11 4 12 Betw een 401 - 500 6 Betw een 71 - 80% 13 14 17Betw een 501 - 1000 Betw een 81 - 99% 24 3 43 100% 24 More than 1000 8 46 PC Laptop Intenert Emails Figure 3: PC/Laptops supported by departments and Internet & e-Mail connectivity rate The majority (43%) of the provincial departments support more than 1 000 PC users and 24% of the departments’ PC users have 100% access to the Internet. E-mail access rate to PC is much higher compared to Internet as 46% of the departments reported 100% access to e-mails. 2008 ICT in Government Report 15-119
    • 2.2.3. Software in the DepartmentsThe 2006/7 ForgeAhead study focused on the usage of Open Source Software– as the South African Government has approved a free and open sourcestrategy (FOSS) and the government is expected to migrate its currentsoftware to free and open source software. The cabinet approved the FOSSstrategy as it is expected, among other things, that it will lower administrationcosts and enhance local IT skills. In future, government departments are toincorporate FOSS in their planning.The results reveal that as many as 51% of the provincial departments arelargely using Linux open source software), while a further 20% will acquireOSS.2.1.3a. Financial SystemThe table below shows the software that the departments are using for FinancialSystem: Financial ACCPAC PERSAL PASTEL System FINEST Walker LOGIS MATE TEAM BAS FMS SAP Eastern Cape 9 5 6 Free State 8 6 1 2 Gauteng 7 2 6 KZN 11 4 1 1 Limpopo 8 3 7 Mpumalanga 10 1 1 North West 2 2 10 3 Northern Cape 7 2 1 1 Western Cape 12 Total 72 19 7 17 7 1 2 1 10 3 Total Percentage 77% 20% 8% 18% 8% 1% 2% 1% 11% 3%Table 3: Represents financial software in the departmentsAs expected, the majority of the provincial departments are using BAS, Pearsaland Logis, which are GCCN financial components. The Gauteng departmentlargely uses SAP financial system as they have a bigger ICT budget, which canafford such technology. North West province is still discussing with SITA onpossible migration to GCCN. Currently the departments are using the WalkerFinancial System.2008 ICT in Government Report 16-119
    • 2.1.3b. Server Operating SystemThe majority of the provincial departments (71% of respondents) are usingWindows 2003. Novell/Netware is used by 31% of the departments and a further20% of the departments have reported using the Linux Operating System.2.1.3c. Server Operating SystemThe provincial departments are using Access for database (reported by 71% ofrespondents). A further 36% of the departments have indicated that they useSQL in querying and retrieving information from databases.2.1.3d. e-Mail ClientThe E-mail client applications used to send, receive and view e-mail by thedepartments include: • Outlook (reported by 49% of respondents) • Groupwise (45%) • Exchange (11%)2008 ICT in Government Report 17-119
    • 2.1.4. Mobile TechnologyThere is strong evidence that mobile technologies could be instrumental inaddressing government’s slow response rates to citizens’ requests, poor accessto services, particularly in under-serviced rural areas and limited ability ofcitizens to provide feedback on services, as well as raising other issues ofconcern. The survey therefore investigated the services/application usedinternally within the provincial government departments. 3G Wireless 84 Technology Cell Phones 78 Intranet 73 SMS Technologies 42 PDA 37 VoIP 26 Figure 4: Other technologies utilised by the departments2.1.4a. Cell PhoneThe research suggests that departments have in the past used an SP for thesupply of mobile telephones on a contract basis to officials only. The trend nowis expanding to incorporate larger part of government staffs. The super-fast nextgeneration of cellular networks, known as 3G (third generation), make itpossible to get full Internet access via mobile devices such as cell phones, PDAsand Notebook Computers.The continued growth of cell phones and SMS usage by members of the publicprovides an opportunity for government to use SMS technology as a medium tointeract with the public. Currently, the findings reveal a high number ofprovincial departments using mobile technology.However, one is compelled to ask whether these technologies are being utilisedby the departments to serve the citizens. Estimates indicate that the number of2008 ICT in Government Report 18-119
    • cell phone users is approximately 20 million, which is about 45% of thepopulation. In order to send and receive information in a fast and cost effectiveway SMS is far ahead of e-mail in terms of usage by the public. South Africaexperiences high levels of inequalities, owing to its historical background. Thesocio–economic fabric is such that most previously disadvantaged people areunable to access government services. Government relies mostly on itsdepartments and offices to render services to the public, which is a barrier inthat interaction with government can only be physical.Citizens generally initiate interaction with government, and are only able toreceive what is available through pre-determined processes. For citizens in areasthat are remote and lack basic infrastructure, access to government services isseverely limited. Citizens have to incur the costs of travelling long distances toreach service points in local towns.The uptake of the mobile phone SMS facility will not only provide easy access togovernment services but will also reduce fraud as a result of criminal activitiesand corruption, improve citizens’ interaction with government and thusimproving customer relations.Citizens will not have to queue to enquire about their applications. For example,after applying for an ID, an applicant will not have to physically come to therelevant government department to enquire until they receive an SMS notifyingthem that their application has been processed and their ID book is ready forcollection. If the applicant needs to know at any point in time the status of theirapplication, they can just query via the cell phone and receive an instant SMSwith the status response.44 E-Mzanzi Information Society ; 2nd Issue June 20072008 ICT in Government Report 19-119
    • 2.1.4b. Case StudiesThere are case studies of success locally, on the use of Mobile SMS.2.1.4b (i) GPGMotorists were receiving short cell phone and multimedia messages with mapsfrom the call centre on temporary closure of roads due to Gautrain construction.5For the City of Johannesburg traffic fine system, motorists around Johannesburgare now be able to find out if they have outstanding traffic fines, summonses orwarrants of arrest through an SMS. All they need to do is send their ID numbersvia an SMS to 36997 from any network. Motorists will then receive a notificationwith their contact details recorded on a data system.2.1.4b (ii) Municipality Structures ActThe key elements of the PMS model are: • Customer: Evaluation of performance • Corporate: Performance management • Staff: Individual performance managementA “dashboard” monitoring tool is used on an ongoing basis. ICT technology, e.g.SMS is used to communicate with the responsible officials and councillors.6 TheProvincial M&E Electronic System/Stratmaster that was developed internallyusing Open Source Software (OSS) will be rolled out across ProvincialDepartments as well as extending to Local Government and Municipalities, usinge-mail and SMS notifications.2.1.4b (iii) e-ImbizoSITA has finalised a customer-relations portal for government, which will beknown as the e-Imbizo. This portal will also allow people to send an SMS to theDepartment of Public Service and Administration (DPSA) about challenges ofservice delivery in all government departments or spheres.The Department of Education (DOE) Matric results delivery via SMS system givesMatric students the option of accessing their results using a cell phone ratherthan the traditional newspapers method. Students could query their results via5 Gauteng Online; published date 12/12/20066 IMFO Conference 20062008 ICT in Government Report 20-119
    • SMS by sending their student numbers and ID numbers to the advertisednumbers.The use of cell phone technologies by government departments through SMS,3G, VoIP is expected to rise. Twenty-six percent of the departments arecurrently using VoIP, while a further 56% is gearing to invest on VoIPtechnology.2008 ICT in Government Report 21-119
    • 2.1.5. Skills and ServicesBoth the government and the private sector have recognised the invaluable rolethat information and communication technology (ICT) plays in responding tonational socio-economic imperatives. The importance of ICT skills to theeconomic, social and political trajectory in a globalised context cannot thereforebe over-emphasised. The potential of, and limitations to, intermediate-level ICTskills in so far as they contribute to South Africa’s human resource capacity isconsidered essential to the current form and future trajectory of the country’sdevelopment.The research findings indicate that the majority of the provincial government’sICT practitioners have ICT-related qualifications, as only 40% of staff in the ITdepartments was reported to be IT non-qualified. 51 51 49 47 47 31 22 Internet Applications Technical analysis Infrastructure management System Business Usage analysis Skills Project Figure 5: Provincial Government Skills AuditThe above skills graph indicates that the government is in the process ofimproving how it conducts its functions and activities in order to reduce overallcosts, provide more efficient use of resources, and better support citizens. Thisis indicated by the fact that Project Management, Business Analysis and SystemAnalysis head the most required skills list.2008 ICT in Government Report 22-119
    • Many organisations have a Business Analyst, whose role is sometimes referredto as, or combined with that of a System Analyst. Whatever their title, theseprofessionals serve as bridges between the development staff and projectstakeholders. Business analysts work with project stakeholders to identify,document and validate requirements.The need for system and business analysis is also motivated by the fact thatanalysts help to scope the system, identify potential areas of automation andimprove the underlying business process. Business analysts work withdevelopers to translate those requirements into something that they understand,and then translate developers subsequent questions into something thestakeholders can understand ensuring that the cycle continues.Other skills required within the provincial departments are: • Technical skills that include networking, security and web development • Infrastructure • Internet usageThe research findings however, indicate that the majority of the departments(87%) allocate less than 10% of their budget to Skills Development.2008 ICT in Government Report 23-119
    • 2.1.6. Outsourcing in the Provincial GovernmentFor a department to function efficiently and to offer quality service to the publica number of processes and systems should be in place. Some of these processesand systems are beyond the capabilities of the respective departments, hencethe high incidence of the outsource model the provincial government. 51 51 44 43 40 32 26 Development Development Applications System Integration intranet hosting Hardware/software Network admin Website and Software Skills support Figure 6: Provincial Government Outsourced ServicesThe most outsourced areas within the Provincial Departments are SoftwareDevelopment and Skills Development. These two components are outsourceddue to lack of relevant ICT skills internally, desire for quality and at the need tocut costs by outsourcing non-core areas. Lack of skills 51 Lack of resources 48 Quality purpose 42 Financial more 37 feasible Figure 7: Reasons for outsourcing in the provincial government2008 ICT in Government Report 24-119
    • 2.1.7. Information and e-Security2.1.7a. Security Technologies/MethodsInformation security is a significant concern for any organisation dependent oncomputer systems for effective operation, be it public or private. The networkboundaries have become difficult to pin point, let alone to defend. Authorisedusers have become even more dangerous than those that need to breach thesecurity systems to get inside the network. Controlling access 86 Keep systems patched 65 User aw areness 63 Monitoring 55 Layered security 51 Role specific security (deciding upon 43 access and privilege) Response team 40 Figure 8: e-Security TechnologiesThe research indicates that the majority of the provincial departmentscountrywide have invested on controlling access (86%), by determining what isallowed into the department’s network. However, the research reveals that thedepartments still saw all the security measures as discrete elements. Forprovincial departments to be fully protected they should adopt a ‘holisticapproach’ to e-security.It is arguable that the provincial departments will continue to use controllingaccess security technology, as it is the departments’ responsibility to determinewhat is allowed into the department’s network. One of the highly recommendedpractices is to make access decisions on the premise of blocking everything, andonly allowing what is needed to conduct business.User awareness technology is also expected to continue getting stronger asusers are the champions of ensuring systems safety and/or high risk resourcesto minimise possible attacks to the department systems.2008 ICT in Government Report 25-119
    • 2.1.7b. Common Security Policies used by the department Anti-virus 92 Pass w ord 75 Router and sw itch security 69 Remote access 58 Wireless communication 57 Acceptable use 53 Risk assessment 42 Audit 39 VPN 37 Acceptable Encryption 33 Dial in access 29 Information sensitivity 27 Automatically Forw arded e-mail 24 ASP 19 Extranet 14 Analog line 13 Internal lab security 12 ASP standards 9 Figure 9: e-Security PoliciesPolicies governing the e-security systems put in place are just as important asthe security methods themselves. The research reflects that the most commonlyused policy in the departments is Anti-virus policy, which has been reported by92% of the respondents. The Anti-virus policy establishes requirements thatmust be met by all computers connected to the department’s network to ensureeffective detection and prevention. There is less commonality in other respects.Security Software used by the departments includes: • Antivirus – Norton, Trend, Macafee, Nod32 • Firewalls – SITA, Norton, Linux operating system (Open Source) • Antispam – Symantec Norton, Trend, Guava2008 ICT in Government Report 26-119
    • 2.1.8. Future ICT InvestmentsAccording to ForgeAhead’s 2008 ICTs in Government Research, a large part ofthe R3 billions ICT budget will be spent on acquiring new personal computers,laptops, printers, bandwidth extension, VoIP and website development within thenext 24 months. Personal Computers 72 Printers 62 Internet /Bandwidth extension 59 Voice over IP (VoIP) 52 Website 49 Portal Technology 44 Total Departmental Upgrade 43 Data Warehousing 42 System Integration 42 Call Centre 35 Database system 31 Integration software 27 Satellite Technology 20 Radio/Microwave link 20 Leased lines 20 Financial systems 19 ERP systems 15 eCommerce portal 15 CRM 11 Figure 10: Departments’ Future Investment Index2.1.8a. Acquisition of New HardwareHardware acquisition is expected to be an ongoing investment in the publicsector because of expected obsolescence. Some of the provincial departmentsare considering ‘leasing’ as compared to purchasing hardware and they arebasing their thoughts on calculations that include reduced ownership risk,payment predictability and flexibility.2008 ICT in Government Report 27-119
    • 2.1.8b. Bandwidth ExtensionThe future Investment graph also indicates that departments are facing an ever-increasing number of users demanding more and more information, which needsgreater bandwidth. Hence, three in five departments are considering extendingtheir bandwidth.2.1.8c. Voice over Internet ProtocolMore than half of the provincial departments are expected to take advantage ofthe proposed upgrade to the GCCN (to NGN status) to enable voice calls to bemade over the Internet. This trend is attributed to the expected reduction highcost of telephone services available through the voice networks.2.1.8d. Data WarehousingData is becoming critical to government departments as it is gathered into acentral repository from which it is analysed to produce reports that are used bymanagement to support the decision-making processes. Warehousing makessense when management wants to restructure data or do periodic reviews oranalyse the data in a particular way.2.1.8e. System IntegrationMore functions and processes in government departments are outsourced andinteroperability is encouraged. Legacy IT systems are fragmented but systemsintegration extends their usable life. Furthermore, the need for data integrationhas expanded far beyond data warehousing to encompass all types of analyticaland operational initiatives. Hence, provincial government is beginning to ride thewave of data integration solutions.2008 ICT in Government Report 28-119
    • 2.1.9. ICT ProjectsIn the 2008 ForgeAhead ICT in Government Research, the provincialdepartments have reported the existence of over 265 ICT projects. 43 35 12 4 3 3 Delayed Aborted/Failed Not yet started Completed Postponed In Progress Successful Figure 11: Status of ICT Projects in Provincial GovernmentThe findings clearly indicate that most of the 265 ICT projects reported forFinancial Year 2006 to 2008 are a clear indication that strides are being taken toimplement ICTs to enhance service delivery. However, the research reveals thatthe majority of these ICT projects are being undertaken in isolation, within theprovinces where the concept of shared services is not being fully explored.2.1.9a. Current ICT Projects in the departments2.1.9a (i) Network Connectivity, Upgrade and RenewalThe departments are increasing their investment in ICT infrastructure by meansof providing and improving ICT connectivity and this is largely seen in theschools, health institutions, libraries and agriculture districts.A number of provincial departments have confirmed that they are upgradingtheir infrastructure network to address the instability of the current network thathas been plaguing the system. Investing in providing and improving connectivity2008 ICT in Government Report 29-119
    • is motivated by the need to address the instabilities of the current network andproductive assets that can be used for other economic endeavours.2.1.9a (ii) DRP/Disaster Centre (Business Continuity)The risk of unforeseen events causing financial/service delivery failure hasdriven both public and private organisations to develop both disaster recoveryand business continuity plans. The findings reveal that most of the provincialdepartments are implementing Disaster Centres.2.1.9a (iii) Enterprise Content ManagementThird on the list of current ICT projects is Enterprise Content Management(ECM), reported by a number of departments. The departments are driven todeploy ECM solution by the following needs: • To ensure compliance with industry standards and regulations • To manage the secure creation, archival and deletion of records (including e-mail) • To maximise the value of integrated enterprise content • Increased operating efficiency • Optimal customer experience2.1.9a (iv) Master System PlanThe Master System Plan (MSP) essentially defines the road map to be followedby a department in ensuring effective usage of ICT technologies to improveservice delivery and achieve other governmental objectives. The number ofprovincial departments developing MSPs has increased. The MSPs advocate theconsolidation of systems to ensure seamless operation between systems,ensuring easy storage and retrieval of information.In addition, MSPs are aimed at facilitating a government-wide standardised andintegrated IT architecture framework, as well upgrading and replicating solutionsacross different departments.The MSP covers the following areas:2008 ICT in Government Report 30-119
    • • Business processes analysis • Production of an inventory of government information systems • Analysis of skills gaps • Reverse engineering or application metadata extraction2.1.9a (v) Website developmentThe departments are developing their website as this is a critical componentwhere contact is made with stakeholders. This activity is largely outsourced dueto quality (professionalism) requirements in order not only to maximise thedepartment’s presence, but also to comply with set website informationprovision best practice.2.1.9 (vi) GISGeographical Information Systems (GIS) has become an important tool fordecision-making in government departments in order to improve servicedelivery. The large numbers of Local Government and Housing departments thatare investing in GIS confirms this trend.2.1.9a (vii) Other common provincial government ICT projects • Intranet development • PBS (Public Broadcast Services) • BCP • Data warehousing • Portal • VPN2008 ICT in Government Report 31-119
    • 2.1.9b. Completed ICT projectsThe 35% completed ICT projects that the departments have reported includesthe following: • MSP implementation • Network upgrade • Server upgrade • Website development • Call Centre • Mail Servers.2.1.9c. Delayed and Failed ICT ProjectsAccording to the findings, about 3% of the ICT projects in provincial governmentfail due to: • Budget constraints • Initiator of the project leaving the department • User requirements not being met2008 ICT in Government Report 32-119
    • 3. Provincial Departments Overview3.1. HealthThere is an obvious need to bring ICT connectivity to the South African healthsector. This task needs to occur alongside the provision of basic healthinformation infrastructure, which is the responsibility of the government.However, extensive provision of ICT is beyond the financial resources of thegovernment alone. Partnership with donors and the private sector will thereforebe a critical success factor.3.1.1. ICT Projects3.1.1a. Completed ICT projectsOverall 24 ICT projects were successfully implemented in the last two yearswithin the various Health departments in the country’s nine provinces. Theseprojects include: • Net Wizard Roll-Out • MEMIS Call Centre • Kiosks • VPN • ARV/ART Clinics Networking • Remedy Action Request System • Upgrading of Data Lines • Pharmaceutical Management Information System • MSP • DRP • URS (PHIS) • Server Consolidation • Telemedicine • ART (PAAB) Rollout • Upgrade to XP and PC Upgrade • AV Upgrade2008 ICT in Government Report 33-119
    • • System Upgrade (HIS) • DB (Oracle) Upgrade • LAN Upgrade (GITOC) • DR George Makhuri (LAN) • Natal Spruit LAN • PTA Academic Hospital Re-location • System Upgrade (clinic system) • Folateng Implementation at Pretoria West, and Helen Joseph3.1.1b. Current ICT ProjectsThe health departments reported nine current ICT projects and these are: • Hardware replacement • ARV Rollout system (4 years project) • EMS • Infrastructure installation - Telecommunication • Patient and Billing System installation • Website development • EPR • Infrastructure upgrade • Hospital Information System3.1.2. ICT Budget in Health ClusterThe research findings show that more than R427 million ICT budget will be spenton provincial departments’ e-Health to ensure that it improves the people’shealth status through optimal use of ICT.3.1.3. Future ICT InvestmentTo ensure e-Health in the provincial government, the departments will use theirICT budgets to acquire: • New PC/Laptops and Printers (reported by 5 departments) • Data Warehousing (4 departments) • Call Centre (4 departments) • System Integration (3 departments)2008 ICT in Government Report 34-119
    • 3.1.4. General ICT Trends in HealthAll of the Provincial Health Departments that responded to the study aresupporting more than 1 000 PC users and the technology is generally accessedvia GCCN (7), Cellular Network (6), and ISDN (5).Four departments reported using Dial-up, Leased Lines, Wireless Broadband andVPN. Four of the seven Health Departments have reviewed their IT systems andsoftware in 2006, while three departments have been reviewing their systems inthe current financial year. Most of the reviews are done internally.3.1.5. Plans/Policies/Other Technologies Procurem ent 7 Skills developm ent plan 7 DRP 7 ICT Strategy 7 3G 6 SMS Technologies 6 Cell Phones 5 eGov Plan 4 MSP 4 Intranet 4 PDA 3 VoIP 2 Figure 12: Policies in the Health sector departmentsThe above graph indicates that the majority of the departments in the Healthcluster have the following policies, strategies and/or plans: • Procurement & Human Resource • Disaster Recovery Plan • ICT strategy • Usage of 3G, SMS and cell phone technologies2008 ICT in Government Report 35-119
    • 3.2. Social DevelopmentA common challenge facing Social Development departments is accessibility bypeople for assistance. This is made more difficult by the current filing systemwhere files are easily duplicated, lost and misplaced. Meanwhile, the sameapplicant has to be humiliated by starting the application process all over again.This clearly shows that there is need for an integrated case management and asingle point of access to all files.ICTs in Social Development need to ensure: • Effective accountability and monitoring of service delivery within the departments • Increased productivity and improved turnaround time • Single point of entry for all services provided by the departments • Paper reduction, which is in line with the e-government policy • Easy access and availability of management information • Single version of the truth • Quality of information • Improved planning cooperation and informed business decisions2008 ICT in Government Report 36-119
    • 3.3. ICT Projects3.3.1. Completed ICT ProjectsThe Social departments have reported the following 13 successful ICT projectswithin the past 34 months. • Infrastructure Connectivity • Implementing IT Plan • Implementing Backup System • Implementing Disaster Recovery Plan • Complete Inventory • Implementing Web-enabled Systems • BCP • Intranet • Digital Access Points • CPR • MIS • GIS • Enterprise Content Management3.3.1b. Current ICT ProjectsThe current ICT projects within the Social Development cluster include: • Rural Connectivity • MSP • Change to Active Directory • Website and Intranet Development • Banapele3.3.2. ICT BudgetThe Social Development cluster has 4% of the ICT budget allocation, totallingR87 million as reported by five provincial departments.2008 ICT in Government Report 37-119
    • 3.3.3. ICT Future InvestmentThe Social Development cluster is gearing to make major investments in thefollowing areas: • VoIP (6 departments) • Acquisition of new PC/Laptops and Printers (5 departments) • Data Warehousing (5 departments) • Database System (4 departments) • System Integration (3 departments) • Call Centre (3 departments)3.3.4. Policies/Plans/Other Technologies Procurement 6 Skills development plan 5 DRP 5 ICT Strategy 6 3G 6 SMS Technologies 2 Cell Phones 5 eGov Plan 3 MSP 3 Intranet 4 PDA VoIP 2 Figure 13: Policies in the Social Development sectorThe above graph indicates that the majority of the departments in the SocialDevelopment cluster have the following policies, strategies and/or plans: • Procurement, Human Resource and ICT related policies are in place in this cluster • Disaster Recovery Plan is in place • Usage of PDA, SMS and cell phone technologies within the departments is minimal2008 ICT in Government Report 38-119
    • 3.4. EducationAdvances in ICTs globally are rapidly expanding learning opportunities andaccess to educational resources beyond those immediately or traditionallyavailable. It is therefore critical that the South African education and trainingsystem takes advantage of these technological changes. The question regardingthe programme for improving the quality of education is not whether ICTs shouldbe introduced in teaching and learning but how successfully ICT is to beintroduced in education.The e-Education Policy goal states that “every South African learner in thegeneral and further education and training bands will be ICT capable (that is, beable to use ICTs confidently and creatively to help develop the skills andknowledge they need to achieve personal goals and to be full participants in theglobal community) by 2013”. It is therefore obvious that South African educationdare not fail the nation.Some of the challenges in South African education are: • Lack of Basic Physical Resources • Curriculum Transformation • Poor Education Management Information Systems • Language of Teaching and Learning • Poorly-trained Educators3.4.1. ICT Projects3.4.1a. Completed ICT Projects • Cyberlabs for poor communities • e-School demo project • Open Source ICT LAB • ICT roll-out school • Set up district office • Resource Centre • Server Upgrade • Hardware in schools • School Computerisation - Phase 1 • School Computerisation - Phase 22008 ICT in Government Report 39-119
    • 3.4.1b. Current Projects • ICASA connecting 540 schools • CSIR 25 Digital Doorway Systems • Upgrade Network Infrastructure • ECM Project • GIS3.4.1c Delayed ICT Project • Development of SISP • GIS • e-Learning project • Hardware to schools • ICT training to officials & educators • School Computerisation - Phase 3ICT projects reported by the provincial Education departments indicate that e-Education is being implemented across the country’s provincial departments, butthe rate is minimal when compared to the challenges facing the sector.3.4.2. ICT BudgetAccording to ForgeAhead’s findings, provincial Education departments’ ICTbudgets amount to 8% of the total budget (R148, 250, 000), placing theEducation departments in fifth position. Given the mentioned challenges it isclear that extensive provision of ICT is beyond the financial resources of thegovernment alone. Partnerships with donors and the private sector will thereforebe a critical success factor.3.4.3. ICT Future InvestmentIn the next 12 to 24 months, a major chunk of ICT investment in the Educationsector in will go to: • Acquisition of new PC/Laptops and Printers (6 departments) • Website Development (5 departments) • Data Warehousing (4 departments) • Database System (4 departments) • Call Centre (3 departments) • Bandwidth Extension (3 departments)2008 ICT in Government Report 40-119
    • 3.5. TreasuryAbout five treasury departments across the country have reported approximately25 ICT Projects that include both completed and incomplete projects.3.5.1. ICT Projects3.5.1a. Completed ICT Projects • BAS Implementation • Electronic Registry • Hardcat Register • MSP • Network and Server Upgrade • Novel Network Upgrade • Server Consolidation • Training Centres Upgrade • Zenwork Implementation3.5.1b. Current Projects • EDSM • Intenda Implementation • Inventory System • MSP • Network Infrastructure Installation • PBS implementation • Radio Link • Website3.5.2. ICT BudgetTreasury’s ICT budget amounts R247 million as reported by seven departments,which gives this cluster of departments 14% of the total budget.2008 ICT in Government Report 41-119
    • 3.5.3. ICT Future InvestmentMajor investment areas for provincial Treasury departments are: • VoIP (4 departments) • Acquisition of New PC/Laptops and Printers (4 departments) • Website Development (3 departments) • Data Warehousing (3 departments) • Bandwidth Extension (3 departments)2008 ICT in Government Report 42-119
    • 3.6. Office of the Premier3.6.1. ICT Project in the Premiers’ OfficeOf the 19 ICT projects reported by seven Offices of the Premier, 32% weresuccessfully implemented and they include: • Storage Area Network (SAN) • Campus Network • Server Room Upgrade • Backup Solution • Procured PC • CATS Installation3.6.1a. Current ICT projects include: • Provincial VPN • ICT Hub (Supplying farmers with information) • ICT Audit • MSP development • BCP/DRP • Network upgrade • SISP • Provincial WAN • ECM2008 ICT in Government Report 43-119
    • 3.6.2. ICT BudgetThe provincial OTPs ICT budget is R127 million, which is 7% of the total ICTbudget in the provincial government.3.6.3. ICT Future InvestmentMajor investment areas for provincial OTP departments are: • Bandwidth Extension (6 departments) • Portal Technology (6 department) • VoIP (5 departments) • Acquisition of New PC/Laptops and Printers (5 departments) • System Integration (5 departments) • Call Centre (3 departments) • Website Development (4 departments)2008 ICT in Government Report 44-119
    • 3.7. Public Works, Roads & Transport3.7.1. ICT ProjectsOut of 21 ICT projects reported by the Public Works, Roads and Transportcluster in the previous two years, only four were identified as successful. Projects Status Rental Admin Solution Completed Asset Register Completed Server Consolidation Completed MSP Completed Up-grade of Wan Delayed Portal In Progress Data Warehousing In Progress GIS In Progress Novell Project In Progress Reviewing the Master Systems Plan In Progress Rollout of Knowledge Management Framework In Progress Disaster Recovery Cold Site (with GSSC) In Progress Rollout of Information Management System (Warehousing) In Progress Rollout of Information Technology International Library In Progress Roll-out of Right Fax In Progress Roll-out of Computer Kiosk In Progress LAN Upgrade In Progress ECM Not Yet Started Fleet Management Not Yet Started Master Systems Plan Not Yet Started WAN Upgrade Not Yet StartedTable 4: Status of ICT projects in the Public Works, Roads and Transport sector3.7.2. ICT BudgetThe Public Works, Roads and Transport ICT budget is R120 million3.7.3. ICT Future InvestmentProvincial Public Works, Roads and Transport departments will invest in: • Acquisition of New PC/Laptops and Printers (8 departments) • Website Development (7 departments) • Bandwidth Extension (4 departments) • Software Integration (4 departments) • VoIP (4 departments) • Database System (4 departments) • Call Centre (3 departments) • System Integration (3 departments)2008 ICT in Government Report 45-119
    • 3.8. Local Government and Housing3.8.1. ICT ProjectsTwenty-nine percent of the reported ICT projects within the Local Governmentand Housing departments are completed. Projects Status Enhance Housing Demand Database Completed Active Director Completed Mails Servers Completed EDSM Completed Exchange Completed ERMS (Enterprise Risk Management System) Completed Database Management System Completed Infrastructure Completed GIS Project Completed Master System Plan Completed Website Development Completed Strategic Alignment Management Completed Survey System Delayed Exis In Progress eKaya In Progress Occupancy Database In Progress Torps In Progress Retro In Progress Debit In Progress HR Management System In Progress Rental Tribunal In Progress GIS In Progress Office Automation In Progress Disaster Centres In Progress Maintaining and Up-grading of GIS/MIS for the Department In Progress Introducing ICT in Local Government In Progress Active Directory In Progress Enterprise Content Management In Progress HER In Progress Municipal Information System In Progress Township Housing Purchase System In Progress Performance Management System Not Yet Started Recruiting System Not Yet Started Reporting System Not Yet Started Training Management Database Not Yet Started Contracts Management Database Not Yet Started Customer Support Centre (Call centre) Postponed Housing Claims Tracking System Postponed Procurement System Postponed Assets and Helpdesk System Postponed Library System (PALS) PostponedTable 4: Status of ICT projects in the Local Government and Housing sector2008 ICT in Government Report 46-119
    • 3.8.2. ICT BudgetThe combined/reported ICT budget for Local Government and Housingdepartments across the provinces is R75 million.3.8.3. ICT Future InvestmentMajor investment areas for provincial Local Government and Housingdepartments are: • Acquisition of New PC/Laptops and Printers (6 departments) • Website Development (4 departments) • Bandwidth Extension (6 departments) • Software Integration (5 departments) • Portal Technology (8 departments • VoIP (7 departments) • Financial System (4 departments) • Database System (4 departments) • System Integration (6 departments)3.9. Agriculture3.9.1. ICT ProjectsThe Agriculture departments reported an ICT budget of R56 million and areexpected to complete eight current ICT projects. Projects Status IP Network Completed LAN installation at Satellite Offices Completed MSP Project Completed Security System Completed Wireless Application Completed Connectivity to All Sites In Progress Data Warehousing In Progress Disaster Recovery Plan and Backup Plan In Progress Infrastructure Upgrade In Progress Portal and Intranet implementation In Progress Radio Networks In Progress Soil Conservation Software In Progress Website Development In Progress Hardware and Software Installation Not Yet Started Infrastructure and Servers Upgrade Not Yet Started MSP Not Yet Started Network Upgrade Not Yet StartedTable 5: Status of ICT projects in the Agriculture sector2008 ICT in Government Report 47-119
    • 3.9.2. ICT Future InvestmentMajor investment areas for provincial Agriculture departments are: • Acquisition of New PC/Laptops and Printers (6 departments) • System Integration (6 departments) • Website Development (4 departments) • Bandwidth Extension (4 departments) • Database System (3 departments)3.10. Economic Affairs3.10.1. ICT ProjectsWith an ICT budget of R48 million, the departments of Economic Affairs areaiming to complete five current ICT projects. They have reported ninesuccessfully completed ICT projects. Project Status BPR (Business Process Re-engineering Completed MSP Completed Video Conferencing Completed Server Roll-out Completed Assert Register Completed Consumer System Completed Liquor System Completed Business Funding System Completed Network Infrastructure Development Completed LAN Upgrade In progress Bandwidth Upgrade In progress VoIP In progress PBS In progress Website Development In progressTable 5: Status of ICT projects in the Economic Affairs department2008 ICT in Government Report 48-119
    • 3.11. Sport, Recreation, Art, Culture & Tourism3.11.1. ICT ProjectsThe combined ICT budget for Sport, Recreation, Arts, Culture and Tourismamounts to R41.3 million and 19 ICT projects across the provinces have beenreported in the 2008 survey. Projects Status MSP Completed Networking of Libraries Completed Website Development Completed Email Server Completed Website Development Completed MIS Delayed Networking of Offices (5 Districts) In Progress Infrastructure Cabling In Progress Intranet In Progress WAN Connection In Progress Infrastructure In Progress MSP In Progress Infrastructure Upgrade In Progress Records Management Not Yet Started Web Portal Development Not Yet Started Database Design Not Yet Started Voice Over IP Not Yet Started MSP Redesigning Postponed EDMS AbortedTable 6: Status of ICT projects in the Sport, Recreation, Art, Culture and Tourism sector3.12. Shared Services CentresA shared service is often defined as the consolidation of administrative supportfunctions, like Human Resources (HR), Finance, IT and Procurement fromseveral agencies into a single, stand-alone entity as efficiently and effectively aspossible. "This definition is becoming the reality, since most of the sharedservices solutions implemented locally (e.g. GSSC and C-eInnovation) focus oncommon areas such as financials, IT and HR".2008 ICT in Government Report 49-119
    • 3.12.1. Some of the Checklist for Shared Service Centre • Do departments/municipalities face budget constraints and need to divert funds from back-office to citizen-focused activities? • Does the sector face critical staffing shortages? • Scarcity of specialised skills? • Are skills duplicated unnecessarily in multiple departments or geographies? • Do departments have above-average processing costs for transaction- processing capabilities? • Are the departments facing increasing demands for services? • Does the organisation suffer from inconsistent delivery of satisfactory service levels?3.12.2. Research FindingsForgeAhead’s ICT research into the status of provincial departments reveals thefollowing trends: • The mechanism to solve budgetary issues remains critical in the majority of provincial departments • Attracting and retaining staff with scarce skills remains critical for sustainable business competitiveness for provincial departments • Provincial Government departments have recorded more than 60% of IT qualified practitioners. However, those skills are duplicated, hence skills such as Project Management, Business Analysis, System Analysis and Technical skills that include Networking, security and Web Development remain critical • ICT projects reported by the departments indicated duplications of implementation • There is minimal inclination towards significant investment to make necessary enhancements to the system and processes associated with support services2008 ICT in Government Report 50-119
    • 3.12.3. Gauteng Shared Services (GSSC)GSSC was established because the Gauteng Provincial Government wasstruggling with service delivery. One of main reasons for the GSSC introductionwas the fact that provincial administration was experiencing soaring costs, and adisproportionate expenditure ratio of line versus support functions.Business processes and technologies have historically been dispersed across theprovince with complex and disparate IT systems that were outdated andfunctionally inadequate due to limited integration. Other reasons for theintroduction of shared services include skills shortage and duplication of effort asa result of too many people involved in similar activities.3.12.4. ICT BudgetGSSC comprises of 20% of the total ICT budget of the provincial government atan estimated figure of R425,000,000.00 for the 2008 financial year.3.12.5. InfrastructureGSSC supports more than 1 000 PC users and laptops are in the range of 500 to700. All are connected to Internet and email. GSSC accesses technologiesthrough multi-channels that include Dial-up, Leased Lines, Wireless Broadband,VPN, Cellular Networks and GCCN.3.12.6. Future InvestmentGSSC’s major ICT investment for FY2008/9 includes: • Satellite Technology • Radio Link • Bandwidth Extension • Website • Integration Software • Portal Technology • VoIP • Leased Lines • ERP Systems • Financial System2008 ICT in Government Report 51-119
    • • Data Warehouse • Call Centre • e-Commerce • CRM • Database System • System Integration • PC, Laptops and Printers acquisition3.12.7. ICT SkillsOne of the motivations for the Shared Service concept is the need to reduceskills shortage within the government. However, GSSC is still faced with skillsshortages that include: • Technical skills across the board • Infrastructure • Application • Project management • Business analysis • System analysis3.12.8. Centre for e-InnovationThe centre has six functional clusters, namely: Economic, Governance andAdministration; Education, Culture and Sport; Health/Social Services andHousing; Planning and Development; Policy and Strategy; Transversal.3.12.8a. CEI - Economic/Governance and AdministrationThis component renders information technology management services to thedepartments in the Economic, Governance and Administration cluster. Thisincludes: • contributing to the development of provincial e-Government and ICT policy and strategy • promoting effective management of information and technology as a strategic resource. • managing the DGITO council(s)2008 ICT in Government Report 52-119
    • • managing relevant enterprise information and architectures for each department in alignment with provincial strategies and architectures • developing and maintaining departmental Mail Service Providers • implementing e-Government and ICT strategies • planning and managing the implementation of solutions, systems and infrastructure in the department(s) • ensuring proper certification of planned ICT solutions • managing departmental contracts and service level agreements3.1.8b. CEI - Education/Culture and Sport: OverviewThis component provides information technology management services to thedepartments in the Education, Sports and Culture cluster. This includes: • contributing to the development of provincial e-Government and ICT policy and strategy • promoting effective management of information and technology as a strategic resource. • managing the DGITO council(s) • managing relevant enterprise information and architectures for each department in alignment with provincial strategies and architectures • developing and maintaining departmental Mail Service Providers • implementing e-Government and ICT strategies • planning and managing the implementation of solutions, systems and infrastructure in the department(s) • ensuring proper certification of planned ICT solutions • managing departmental contracts and service level agreements.3.12.8c. CEI - Health/Social Services and Housing: OverviewThis component renders information technology management services to thedepartments in the Health and Social Services cluster. This includes: • providing inputs to the development of provincial e-Government and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy and strategy • promoting effective management of information and technology as a strategic resource. • managing the DGITO council(s)2008 ICT in Government Report 53-119
    • • managing relevant enterprise information and architectures for each department in alignment with provincial strategies and architectures • developing and maintaining departmental Mail Service Providers • implementing e-Government and ICT strategies • planning and managing the implementation of solutions, systems and infrastructure in the department(s) • ensuring proper certification of planned ICT solutions • managing departmental contracts and service level agreements.3.12.8d. CEI - Planning and Development: OverviewThis Chief Directorate promotes the optimal development of human resources inthe Department of the Premier. It does this by: • integrating and promoting human resource development activities at a strategic level • promoting the development and presentation of management training programmes • promoting the development and presentation of capacity building programmes • promoting the development and presentation of technology training programmes • Rendering support services.3.12.8e. CEI - Policy and Strategy: OverviewThis directorate provides strategic direction to the Provincial Top Managementand Cabinet with regard to e-Government and ICT. Its functions are to: • develop appropriate e-Government policy, strategy and frameworks • develop appropriate ICT policy, strategy and frameworks (including architecture) • develop norms and standards for systems and data • develop policy guidelines with regard to the selection of vendors • Carry out research and development for e-Government to make the best use of advanced technologies • Govern provincial ICT macro-processes. • Monitor compliance to certification requirements.2008 ICT in Government Report 54-119
    • 3.12.8f. CEI - Transversal GITO: OverviewThe Transversal Government Information Technology Officer (GITO) Directoratemanages infrastructure and application operations across departments. Itsfunctions are to: • provide inputs to the development of provincial e-Government and ICT policy and strategy • promote effective management of information and technology as a strategic resource. • manage the implementation of solutions, systems and infrastructure that are shared or used across departments • manage infrastructure, hardware, software and services that are shared or used across departments • implement e-Government and ICT strategies that are shared or applied across departments • manage ICT security across departments • manage contracts, business agreements and service level agreements that are shared or used across departments. • ensure proper certification of planned ICT solutions3.12.9. ICT BudgetThe e-Innovation ICT budget is R178 million (which is 10% of the total budget).According to the e-Innovation Business Plan, the breakdown for FY2008 was asfollows: • Employee Compensation R50 643 000 • Goods and Services R98 320 000 • Capital Equipment R2 240 0002008 ICT in Government Report 55-119
    • 3.12.10. InfrastructureSimilar to GSSC, e-Innovation supports more than 1 000 PC users, while laptopsusers are estimated to be 90. The Internet access rate is 80% and there is an e-mail access rate of 100%. Technology is accessed via: • ADSL • Leased Line • Satellite Communication • Cellular Networks • GCCN3.12.12. Future InvestmentThe centre’s major ICT investment for FY2008/9 includes: • Bandwidth Extension • Portal Technology • VoIP • Leased Lines • Call Centre • e-Commerce Portal • System Integration • PC and Laptops Acquisition3.12.13. ICT SkillsRequired skills in the e-Innovation are: • Project management • Business analysis2008 ICT in Government Report 56-119
    • 3.13. Provincial Departments’ ICT BudgetsThe Budget Graph below provides for expenditure totalling R1.9 billion in2008/9, representing a nominal increase of 15.3% from 2006/07. The availableICT budget is one of the important factors determining how the provincialgovernment prioritises ICT as an enabler of service delivery to the public. PROVINCE FY2006/7 (Rand) FY2008/9 (Rand) FY2008/9 (Rand) Eastern Cape 252,840,071.00 263,764,072.00 279,308,138.00 Free State 118,946,889.00 120,464,187.00 133,979,541.00 Gauteng 522,910,000.00 624,532,000.00 669,180,000.00 KwaZulu-Natal 254,286,846.00 301,210,400.00 334,485,977.00 Limpopo 220,219,302.00 218,670,019.00 236,985,206.00 Mpumalanga 59,200,000.00 67,900,000.00 71,288,000.00 North West 128,179,030.00 144,821,000.00 160,547,359.00 Northern Cape 43,886,000.00 51,348,000.00 56,074,111.00 Western Cape 151,000,000.00 178,000,000.00 197,000,000.00 Total R 1,751,468,138.00 R 1,970,709,678.00 R 2,138,848,332.00Table 4: Provincial ICT budget3.13.1. ICT Provincial Budget Projections R 8.00 Billions R 7 Billions R 7.00 R 6.00 R 5.00 R 4.00 R 3.00 R 2.00 R 1.00 R 0.00 FY2006/7 FY2007/8 FY2008/9 FY 20010/11Exponential Budget growth for the provincial government2008 ICT in Government Report 57-119
    • The government has the big challenge of improving both ICT infrastructure andrelated skills within the country, in preparation for the 2010 World Cup soccertournament. With the days getting closer, the enthusiasm of the government toinvest huge sums of money towards improving the ICT infrastructure will alsoget stronger and stronger.The above chart reflects, in monetary terms, government’s eagerness to investin ICT. The government, through its provincial departments, is expected torapidly increase its expenditure by R5.1 billion in improving ICT infrastructure inthe next three fiscal years.ForegAhead predicts that by 2010 provincial government will be spendingaround R7 billion, in implementing and upgrading the existing ICT infrastructure. Gauteng 32 % KwaZulu-Natal 15 Eastern Cape 13 Limpopo 11 Western Cape 9 North West 7 Free State 6 Mpumalanga 4 Northern Cape 3Figure 12: Budget split by provincesThe lion’s share (nearly a third) of the provincial government ICT budget isallocated to Gauteng province. KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Eastern Cape andWestern Cape provinces are all in the top five bracket of the ICT budget.2008 ICT in Government Report 58-119
    • 2% 1% 0.3% 0.20% 3% GSSC 3% 20% Health 4% Finance 4% e-Inno vatio n Educatio n 7% OTP P ublic Wo rks, Ro ads, Transpo rt Ho using/Lo cal Go vernment So cial Develo pment 7% 17% A griculture Eco no mic A ffairs Spo rt, A rts & Culture 8% Legislature To urism, Enviro nment Co mmunity & Safety 10% 14%Figure 13: Budget split by departments’ clustersAmong the provincial departments, Gauteng Shared Services Centre (GSSC) hasthe lion’s share of the ICT budget (20%), followed by the Health cluster with17% of the budget allocation. It is also not surprising that Finance/Treasury,Centre for e-Innovation and Education also spend a lot of money on ICTS asshown by the budget allocation.2008 ICT in Government Report 59-119
    • 4. Municipalities - Background4.1. Understanding the Local Government ContextThe Local Government sector forms part of the Governance and Administrationcluster at national government level. Its primary actions are for the improvementof the following: • Good Governance • Capacity of the State • Macro-organisation of the State • Transversal Systems.7The cluster involves several government departments, however DPLG, DPSA orSAMDI lead most deliverables.The South African State President reported the following when reflecting on LocalGovernment in his State of the Nation Address in February 2007: • The organisation and capacity of the state remain high on the agenda • The content of training of public servants and the role of the SA Management Development Institute (SAMDI) have emerged as critical areas of intervention • There have been mixed levels of compliance of public service and finance management legislation which cannot be allowed to continue • Programmes to improve the capacity of local government systems continue apace, however in many of these municipalities, many vacancies remain or have emerged in senior management and the professions. • Implementation of the Five Year Local Government Strategic Agenda continues, which includes hands-on assistance to municipalities by national and provincial structures, the deployment of skilled personnel including professional volunteers from the public, and strengthening Ward Committees7 South African government Plan of Action 2007; http://www.info.gov.za/aboutgovt/poa/report/govadmin.htm2008 ICT in Government Report 60-119
    • • The programme to align planning instruments across the spheres of government (that is, the National Spatial Development Perspective, Provincial Growth and Development Strategies and Integrated Development Plans) is continuingThe president committed this cluster to the attainment of the following objectivesin 2008: • Strengthen monitoring and evaluation capacity across all the spheres, including training of managers responsible for the implementation of this system • Complete, within the next 18 months, legislation on a single public service and relevant norms and standards, remuneration policy and matters pertaining to medical aid and pensions • Intensify outreach and awareness on issues of national spatial development, while increasing the number of municipalities involved in the harmonisation of planning instruments across the three spheres • Conduct capacity assessments and implement interventions in provincial departments responsible for local government, as well as the offices of the premiers, while continuing to improve the capacity of national departments • While intensifying the public sector and national anti-corruption campaign, complete by the end of the year the process further to improve the effectiveness of our anti-corruption strategies for all spheres of government • Roll out the Batho Pele campaign at local government level, intensify outreach activities including izimbizo and set up more multi-purpose community centres beyond the 90 currently operational • Further capacitate and provide more support to the institution of traditional leadership8The President noted that ‘improving governance also means having a soundstatistical database about social dynamics’ and he announced that two majorsurveys would be undertaken in this regard.92008 ICT in Government Report 61-119
    • Several actions in the Governance and Administration cluster are of particularrelevance to Digital Inclusion programmes. For example, as part of macro-organisation of the state, the e-Government service delivery projects are led byDPLG with involvement from DPSA and provincial departments of localgovernment. In this cluster, local government is identified as a key potentialtarget audience. In relation to the capacity of the state, there is a strongemphasis on local government. The DPLG spearheads most of the actions listedbelow: • Implementation of the National Local Government Skills Audit (DPLG) • Implementation of Local Government Performance Management Framework (DPLG leads with involvement from Provinces and Municipalities) • Development of a structured programme for capacity building and training in the Local Government sphere (DPLG leads with SALGA involvement) • Ongoing deployment of technical capacity to Local Government (all departments lead with involvement from, DPLG, DPSA) • Report on Implementation of IGR Framework Act submitted to Parliament (DPLG leads involving all three spheres of government)SAMDI is responsible for the capacity building programmes which target middlemanagers, supply chain capacity for the public service, and governance capacity.Another possible target audience which received specific mention in theProgramme of Action for this cluster is Community Development Workers. Undermacro organisation of the state the action to ‘deepen and broaden theconceptualisation and implementation of the Community Development WorkersProgramme’ is the joint lead responsibility for the DPSA, DPLG, Presidency andProvinces.Local government is a key pillar in government service delivery that has beentargeted as a weak link in the government framework that requires additionalcapacity building. The local government sphere has been identified as being in 5.1. Mbeki, T. 9 February 2007, State of the Nation Address of the President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki: 8 Joint Sitting of Parliament, http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/2007/07020911001001.htm 5.2. 9 Mbeki, T. 9 February 2007, State of the Nation Address of the President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki: Joint Sitting of Parliament, http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/2007/07020911001001.htm2008 ICT in Government Report 62-119
    • need of additional capacity to accelerate service delivery at local communitylevel. This target is a substantial, well defined and well organised sector ofsociety.4.2. Local Government Scale, Structure & SegmentationWith a mandate to operate under clear government policies to be sensitive tocommunity views and be able to respond to local problems, local government isthe arm of government closest to the people. Local government is responsible forbasic service delivery to the community. Service delivery is implemented throughward councillors for the various municipalities.Municipalities govern on a four-year term basis and run local affairs subject tonational and provincial legislation. The Local Government: Municipal StructuresAct, 1998 (Act 117 of 1998) provides criteria for determining when an area musthave a Category A municipality status (metropolitan municipalities) and whenmunicipalities fall into category B (local municipalities) or C (district areas ormunicipalities). The Act also determines that Category A municipalities can onlybe established in metropolitan areas.South Africa has 283 municipalities, divided into the three categories -Metropolitan Municipalities or Unicities; Local Municipalities; and DistrictMunicipalities.4.2.1. Metropolitan MunicipalitiesAlso called Unicities, Metropolitan Municipalities have exclusive municipalexecutive and legislative authority in their areas. There are six metropolitanmunicipalities as declared by the Municipal Demarcation Board. These are: • Cape Town • Durban • East Rand (Erkurhuleni) • Johannesburg • Pretoria • Port Elizabeth2008 ICT in Government Report 63-119
    • Metropolitan municipalities have two types of executive systems: • mayoral executive system • collective executive committeeMetropolitan councils also have a single budget, common property rating andservice-tariff systems.104.2.2. Local MunicipalitiesThese fall out of the six metropolitan municipal areas. There are 231 localmunicipalities and each municipality is divided into wards. A ward councillorrepresents each ward. Half the councillors in local municipalities are electedthrough a proportional representation ballot, where voters choose a party andthe other half are elected as ward councillors by the residents in each ward.114.2.3. District MunicipalitiesDistrict Municipalities are made up of a number of local municipalities that fallinto one district. Some district councils include nature reserves and very sparselypopulated areas, in addition to the four to six local municipalities that fall underthem. These District Municipalities are called District Management Areas. DistrictMunicipalities coordinate development and service delivery in the whole district.The District Municipality is made up of 40% elected party councillors and 60%elected local municipal councillors.12The categorisation of municipalities has far reaching consequences in theallocation of resources, as will be illustrated in the discussion on ICT context inlocal government.The key stakeholders for the Local Government sector are: • Department of Provincial and Local Government (DPLG) • Local Government Seta (LGSeta) • Provincial departments of Housing, Local Government and Traditional Healers10 http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/government/govlocal.htm11 ETU. Understanding local government, http://www.etu.otg.za/toolbox/docs/localgov/webundrstdlocgov.html2008 ICT in Government Report 64-119
    • • South African Local Government Association (SALGA); • South African Municipal Workers’ Union (SAMWU) • Independent Municipal Allied Trade Union (IMATU).12 ibid2008 ICT in Government Report 65-119
    • 5. Local Government Overview5.1. Policy and Regulatory Environment 89 66 41 37 36 28 29 29 19 20 20 22 22 18 15 9 5 3 5 ICT Strategy BEE Policy Security Government Development DRP ICT Steering Open Source Procurement Systems Plan Policy Committee ICT Skills Software Policy Policy Master Policy Plan Plan e- 2006 2007Figure 14: Policies in placeThe graph above shows the percentage of municipalities that respondedpositively when asked whether they had in place all relevant plans or policies(Please note that the question regarding usage of the Disaster Recovery Plan wasnot posed to municipal respondents in the 2006 survey). In general, the researchindicates a positive shift even though in some respect the shift is not significant.Notwithstanding the slight increase in policy and strategy usage, the researchshows that most of the municipalities are still lagging behind in terms ofdeveloping and implementing ICT policies. From the municipalities who indicatedthat policies were in place, Procurement policy topped the list as the mostcommonly used. It was reported by 89% of municipalities, giving a notableincrease of 23%. BEE policy is the second most common policy in localgovernment, recording 19% increase from the previous study.2008 ICT in Government Report 66-119
    • Other significant increases reflecting progress made by local government withregard to policy and strategy implementation are; ICT skills development planand Security policy with 22% and 14% increase respectively. These shifts givepositive conclusions with regard to skills shortage in local government and alsoconcerning the attempt to put in place policies aimed at preventing any possibleelectronic attacks on municipal networksNearly a third of the municipalities reported having the Disaster Recovery Plan(DRP). Even though the response rate can be perceived as low, the strides madeare encouraging since any organisation needs DRP service to aid users in theevent of downtime due to disaster.The response towards policies is surprisingly low considering that they areintended to address service delivery needs and to form the basis for informationsystem and technology development, and implementation. 36% of themunicipalities have reported Security policy, which indicates that only a fewmunicipalities have taken the responsibility to protect their data from maliciousor accidental disaster. The low usage of MSP (reported by 28% of themunicipalities) shows that most of the current or planned ICT projects are non-aligned MSP projects.Similarly, 29% of the municipalities make use of an ICT Strategy. This is a lowresponse rate as the strategy provides essential vision for the successfulimplementation of ICT. 20% of the municipalities have indicated that they havean ICT Steering Committee in place, confirming ForgeAhed’s 2006 findings. Giventhe transversal application of technology in enabling service delivery, these lowpercentages are not encouraging.There is a clear need for education by central and provincial government toimprove the understanding within municipalities of the potential benefits thatICTs have to offer.2008 ICT in Government Report 67-119
    • 5.2. ICT infrastructureThe current ICT infrastructure used by local government includes Hardware,Software, Internet and Email access, and Network Infrastructure (please refer toTSM for internet and e-mail access rate per municipality from page 94). Lgnet 61 Leased Line (Diginet) 47 Dial-up 43 Wireless Broadband 34 ISDN 34 ADSL 33 Cellular networks 32 VPN (Virtual Private Network) 28 SITA Network/GCCN 14 Satellite communications 13Figure 15: Budget split by provinces5.2.1. Forms of ConnectivityTo realise the vision of electronic government, municipalities need a class-leadingnetwork, access to national infrastructure, global business alliances and world-class solutions to meet all their e-government requirements. It is thereforeimperative that local government must increase its investment in ICTinfrastructure. This means providing and improving ICT connectivity to allimportant points of access to the communities. No infrastructure simply meansinaccessibility. The above graph illustrates the trends for 2008 on common formsof connection to Internet and e-Mail used by the officials.2008 ICT in Government Report 68-119
    • The municipalities are using a combination of wired and wireless technologies toget reasonable connectivity to the Internet and e-mail. However, the use ofwireless broadband is set to be more dominant in the municipalities.Provincial governments have started to recognise the municipalities’ uptake ofbroadband. As a result provinces as such Western Cape and GSSC have came outto support municipal initiatives to roll-out their own broadband.The research indicates that two-thirds of the municipalities are currentlydependent on ADSL and/or ISDN for their connectivity. 43% of municipalities areusing dial-up, recording a decrease of 7% of usage when compared to the 2006survey. Despite this shift, the research reveals that dial-up technology today hasa place at the outer edge of the network, providing access to those who need itfrom unfamiliar locations or from locations where better technologies are simplynot available.5.2.1a. LGNETThe Local government Network (LGNet) is an initiative of the Development Bankof Southern Africa (DBSA) and its partners, the Department of Provincial andLocal Government (DPLG) and the South African Local Government Association(SALGA).LGNET aims to interconnect all local government stakeholders into an e-community, thus enabling the sharing of knowledge and information. It alsoseeks to provide vertical connectivity between the local and the other twospheres of government.5.2.1a (i) Current Facilities Provided on the LGNetThe LGNet’s virtual private network infrastructure currently offers localgovernment stakeholders the following services and facilities: • Access to the LGRC portal, which is being positioned as a “one-stop shop” for sharing local government knowledge and information. In the past year, significant effort was made to add content to the LGRC, ranging from socio-economic information to GIS data sets2008 ICT in Government Report 69-119
    • • Access to provincial monitoring systems and other stakeholder information systems • Website hosting of local governments within the new domain - local.gov.za • Website hosting of other stakeholders, such as Project Consolidate • Internet connectivity to allow local authorities to access public information and other services, such as online banking • Email and webmail to support out-of-office situations • Instant messaging technologies to enable online collaborationThe research reveals that about 61% of South African municipalities areconnected to LGnet. However, the research findings clearly demonstrate a highlevel of dissatisfaction among LGNET users.A number of municipalities have indicated that they are not using LGnet becauseof the following reasons: • The lack of training on how to use LGNet. • Some municipalities’ IT services are outsourced or managed externally. • Problems with LGNet usage, e.g. ‘e-mails being barren and not reaching people in time’ and being ‘always down’. Trying to fix such challenges is expensive for the municipality because they have to employ technical consultants. • Unreliability of LGNet. • Limpopo provincial local government instructed the municipalities to use standard data line, which is GCCN. • Limpopo government felt that GCCN and LGNET are two parallel things, meaning they are more or less the same thing, so there is no need to use both of them.2008 ICT in Government Report 70-119
    • 5.2.2. Software InfrastructureThe 2008 ForgeAhead study also focused on the usage of software withinSouth African municipalities.5.2.2a. Financial System CUSTOMISED SUSE/LINUX PROVINCE MUN SOFT PROMUN SAMRAS ABAKUS SEBATA PROMIS PASTEL VENUS SAP Eastern Cape 5 4 2 4 1 5 3 Free State 5 1 1 4 1 Gauteng 6 1 1 1 3 KZN 4 1 13 5 2 1 1 Limpopo 4 5 5 1 Mpumalanga 3 6 1 4 North West 7 3 3 1 4 Northern Cape 6 8 1 2 7 Western Cape 2 5 12 3 1 1 Total 42 29 25 24 15 8 8 6 5 5 3 % 18% 12% 11% 10% 6% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1%Table 5: Financial System used by the municipalitiesIn tandem with last year’s findings, the survey shows that VENUS (18%)remains the most commonly used financial system within the municipalities,followed by Sebata, Abakus and SAMARAS reporting 12%, 11% and 10%respectively. There is less commonality in other financial systems in term ofusage.The survey shows that municipalities are set to continue investing in financialsystems either through acquiring new systems or upgrading current systems.This is because the local authorities are not only benefiting from improvedfinancial controls and easier access to information, but also improved efficiency,enabling them to address citizens’ needs better.5.2.2b. Risk ManagementThe incidence of risk management software usage in the municipalities isminimal. This indicates an unacceptable level of exposure of municipalities’systems, creating a high probability for the municipalities to fall victim toattacks.2008 ICT in Government Report 71-119
    • 5.2.2c. Anti-virusThe most commonly used anti-virus software in the municipalities includes: • Norton Symantec (29%) • Trend (12%) • Nod32 (10%) • E-Trust (5%)The 2008 research results confirm the previous’ year study, suggesting thatSymantec Norton is the most widely used ant-virus software in the localgovernment sphere.5.2.2d. FirewallsThe research shows that a majority of the municipalities are using firewallssoftware to block suspicious incoming and out-going Internet traffic and toprotect the municipals’ privacy while at the same time guarding against identitytheft.The most commonly used firewalls software includes: • DansGaurdian (14%) • Linux – Open Source (10%) • ISA (3%) • Bitdefender (3%) • Symantec (3%) • Trend (2%)5.2.2e. Geographic Information System (GIS)As municipalities constitute the sphere of government closest to the people, theyhave the task of determining the needs of their citizens for municipal servicesand to decide how best to provide those services. Therefore, local governmenthas to implement a Geographic Information Systems (GIS).According to the 2006 ForgeAhead survey, 55% of the municipalities did nothave GIS software. However, the trend as per 2008 study is changing and themajority of the municipalities are using the following GIS software: • GIMS (21%) • Achview (12%) • ArcGIS (8%)2008 ICT in Government Report 72-119
    • 5.2.3. Skills Demand, Retention & Outsourcing5.2.3a. Outsourcing in the Provincial Government 55 40 36 31 29 26 21 Internet Applications Technical analysis Infrastructure management System Business Usage analysis Skills ProjectFigure 16: Local Government Skills demandContrary to the provincial government’s trend, the research indicates that localgovernment is seeking technical and infrastructure skills. However, the resultsmay not be suggesting that Project Management and Business Analysis are ofless importance to this sphere. Local government is the main arm of servicedelivery and it is required to improve the manner it conducts its functions andactivities in order to reduce overall costs, provide more efficient use of resourcesso as to better support citizens.2008 ICT in Government Report 73-119
    • 5.2.3b. Skills Retention in the MunicipalitiesAttracting and retaining staff with scarce skills remains a critical challenge forsustainable service delivery for the local government sphere. The following graphindicates the level of retention of staff with core competencies who areresponsible for ICTs in the municipalities over the past three years. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Overall 30% Eastern Cape 53% Free State 50% Western Cape 38% Northern Cape 27% North West 25% Gauteng 25% KZN 24% Mpumalanga 19% Limpopo 7%Figure 17: Local Government Skills Retention IndexThe municipalities are not only competing with the private sector that offerslucrative salaries compared to the public sector, but also intergovernmentally.The Skills Retention Index indicates that the Local Government sphere hasretained an average of 30% of its key ICT personnel who are decision makers.This trend suggests that the local governments in the province must work ontheir skills retention policy and strategy, which will provide a framework forretaining employees.2008 ICT in Government Report 74-119
    • 5.2.3c. Outsourcing in the Local GovernmentFor a municipal to function efficiently and offer quality service to the public, anumber of processes and systems should be in place. Some of these processesand systems are beyond the capabilities of the respective municipalities, hencethe high incidence of the outsource model -in government. Website and intranet 54 hosting Software 48 development Network 42 administration System integration 38 Hardware/software 28 support Outsourced 25 application Skills development 14 Dont outsource 5Figure 18: Local Government Outsourced ServicesOutsourcing business models vary depending on -the objective -of outsourcingfor any local government. One of the models includes outsourcing just thetechnical operations, and systems support and networks. This trend is true formunicipalities that outsource hosting and development services of websites andnetworks.In line with last year’s trend, the most commonly outsourced areas in the localgovernments are Website Hosting (54%), Software Development (48%) andNetwork Administration (42%). System Integration is outsourced by 38% oflocal governments.2008 ICT in Government Report 75-119
    • 5.2.4. Information securityNearly two-thirds of the municipalities are controlling the access to theirnetwork, using access-controlling technologies. The research, however, indicatesa low incidence of commonality regarding other security methodologies,prompting fears of an unacceptable risk level for some municipals’ systems. Thiscan be interpreted as very risky exposure to electronic attacks for themunicipalities. Controlling access 63 User awareness 45 Keep systems patched 43 Monitoring 43 Role specific security (deciding upon 27 access and privilege) Layered security 25 Response team 13Figure 19: Security Technologies used by the municipalitiesA majority of the municipalities are managing the network security aspect ofpolicies, reported by nearly half of the respondents. A further 41% of therespondents have reported managing application system security policy, whileinfluencing the behaviour of municipalities’ users through policies has beenreported by 38% of the municipalities.2008 ICT in Government Report 76-119
    • The graph below shows common security policies used by the local government. Anti-Virus 84 Password 81 ASP standards 54 Remote access 47 Extranet 43 Wireless communication 42 Router and switch security 37 Acceptable use 34 Audit 34 Dial in Access 29 Virtual Private Network 29 Acceptable Encryption 27 Automatically forwarded e-mail 21 Risk assessment 16 Information sensitivity 15 DB credentials (database credentials) 14 Analog line 12 Application service providers (ASP) 9 Internal lab securityFigure 20: Local Government Common Security Technologies PoliciesThe majority of the municipalities are using the Anti-virus policy (reported by84% of the municipalities). This policy establishes requirements that must bemet by all computers connected to the municipals’ network to ensure effectivedetection and prevention of suspicious cases. The research further indicates that8 in 10 municipalities are using the Password policy to set standards for thecreation of strong passwords, the protection of those passwords, and thefrequency of change. However, there is less commonality in other respects.This very high score in the Security area indicates that serious measures arebeing taken by some of the local governments to protect the municipal systemsagainst falling victim to viruses or other forms of electronic attacks.2008 ICT in Government Report 77-119
    • 5.3. Future ICT InvestmentsThe planned future investments relate closely to ICT projects and are also tosome extent guided by local governments’ governance. The trend remainsunchanged from that revealed in the 2006 survey. Financial Systems still top thelist of major investment in local government. This is ample proof thatmunicipalities are continuously gearing to be more sustainable and they realisethat this can only be achieved through implementing effective Billing andFinancial systems. Financial systems 40 Personal Computers (including Laptops) 34 Database system 34 Integration software 32 Radio/Microwave link 32 Printers 30 Call Centre 28 Database system 27 Website 23 Radio/Microwave link 23 Internet /Bandwidth extension 19 Data Warehousing 19 Voice over IP (VoIP) 14 Leased lines 14 ERP systems 13 Satellite Technology 11 eCommerce portal 10 System Integration 7 Portal Technology 4 CRM 3Figure 21: Local Government Major ICT Investment2008 ICT in Government Report 78-119
    • 5.3.1. Reviewing the Top 8 Future Investment List5.3.1a. Financial System and Database SystemAs indicated earlier, the need to invest in the municipal financial system remainsa key focus for local government. The 2006 research indicated that a muchhigher number of municipalities intended to invest in financial systems. The factthat the 2008 research reveals a 9% decrease shows that the municipalities havebeen making some progress in upgrading and implementing financial systems.5.3.1b. Integration SoftwareSince many functions and processes in government are outsourced, inter-operability is encouraged so that the associated IT systems are not fragmentedfurther. Also, the need for data integration has expanded far beyond datawarehousing to encompass all types of analytic and operational initiatives.Hence, local government is experiencing a wave of data integration solutionacquisition. In line with the trend noted in the previous study, 37% of the localauthorities will enhance communication within municipalities through integratingthe software. The level of software upgrades expected in local government alsoexplains this.5.3.1c. Acquisition of New HardwareHardware acquisition is expected to be an ongoing investment in the publicsector because of expected obsolesce, equipment value and disposability. Someof the local government municipalities are considering ‘leasing’ as compared topurchasing hardware and this is based on calculated risk factors that includereduced ownership, payment predictability and flexibility.2008 ICT in Government Report 79-119
    • 5.3.1d. Call CentreThe majority of the municipalities are set to go the Call Centre route and thereasons for such a move include: • Housing a Call Centre as a Disaster Management Centre, which is aimed at mitigating and responding to disaster • Call Centres are also aimed at dealing with all revenue related enquiries, which is in line with some municipals’ policy to offer improved all around service delivery • Call Centres are also used to fight fraud and corruption.5.3.1e. Data WarehousingData is becoming increasingly critical to local government as it is gathered into acentral repository from which it is analysed to produce reports that are used bymanagement to support the decision-making processes. Warehousing makessense when management wants to restructure data or do period reviews oranalyse it in a particular way.2008 ICT in Government Report 80-119
    • 5.3.4. ICT ProjectsThe 2008 ForgeAhead ICT Research in Local Government report showed thatthere were 792 approved and/or current ICT projects. A review of these projectsshowed that about a half of them are actually completed projects that wereimplemented between 2006 and the current financial year (2008/9). Completed 48 In Progress 27 Not yet started 18 On going 4 Delayed/Postponed/Failed 3Figure 22: Local Government ICT projects IndexNotwithstanding the suggestion that local government is making great strides inthe implementation of ICTs to accelerate growth, the research reveals that themajority of these ICT projects are undertaken in isolation.This trend clearly indicates the following: • Insufficient levers for economies of scale need to be used effectively • Shared services philosophy not utilised • Strategic Private Partnership are not being utilisedEarlier on, the research has revealed that only 28% of municipalities have aMaster System Plan (MSP) in place. This indicates that there is a high level ofnon-aligned MSP projects. According to the findings, 3% of the postponed,delayed and failed ICT projects in the local government sphere is largely due tobudget constraints and a high turn over of ICT personnel.2008 ICT in Government Report 81-119
    • 5.3.5. ICT BUDGETThe ICT budgets of the municipalities are only listed in instances where therespondents supplied them. The nature of ICT budgets in local government isdifficult to calculate because it is fragmented over different areas. Technology,communications infrastructure and applications are not always budgeted for bythe ICT division, but rather within individual budgets for approved projects thatmay include ICT. The ICT budget supplied by the ICT departments, on manyoccasions, does not include these projects and is based only on operating andcapital expenditure of ICT within a given municipality that is directly under thecontrol of the ICT division.5.3.5a. Budget CautionThe following ICT Budget data must be applied with caution. Evaluation of thebudget should consider the fact that there is a general lack of understandingaround reporting an ICT budget because of the fragmentation of ICT budgetswithin the units of the municipalities. The different bases of accounting for ICTexpenditure make it difficult to compare like with like. PROVINCE FY 2006/7 (Rand) FY2008/9 (Rand) FY2008/9 (Rand) Eastern Cape 165,030,470.00 201,264,072.00 206,893,314.00 Free State 22,932,990.00 30,726,433.00 34,669,480.00 Gauteng 560,241,061.00 715,376,994.00 757,593,883.00 KwaZulu-Natal 280,649,790.00 257,362,600.00 322,681,390.00 Limpopo 67,944,659.00 74,564,422.00 80,698,238.00 Mpumalanga 20,845,507.00 33,105,568.00 40,741,325.00 North West 33,764,275.00 37,094,107.00 39,094,674.00 Northern Cape 15,126,510.00 19,567,888.00 18,718,673.00 Western Cape 200,006,605.00 214,235,285.00 227,194,283.00 Total R1,366,541,867.00 R1,583,297,369.00 R1,728,285,260.00Table 6: Local Government ICT Budget5.3.5b. Municipal ICT budgetsMunicipal ICT capital and operating budgets are estimated to total more thanR1,6 billion in 2007-08, compared to R1,4 in 2006-07. This reflects an increaseof more than R217 million (budget-to-budget growth). The research indicates aserious limitation of financial resources, not only for Northern Cape, Free Stateand Mpumalanga, but also for more than 80% of the municipalities.2008 ICT in Government Report 82-119
    • City of Tshwane 23 eThekwini 19.9 M unicipalities 30% City of Joburg 19.5 Ekurhuleni 19.3 City of Cape Town 15.4 M etros 70% Nelson Mandela 3Figure 23: ICT Budget splits according to metrosThe above graph and pie chart provide information on the largest municipalbudgets, which are the top five metropolitan municipalities. The five largestmunicipal budgets for 2007-08 are around an average of R200 million. The sixmetropolitan budgets total of R1.1 billion comprises 70% of the total localgovernment ICT budgets (R1, 583,297,369.00) for financial year 2007-08.2008 ICT in Government Report 83-119
    • 5.3.5c. ICT Local Government Budget Projections Billions R 3.50 R 3 Billions R 3.00 R 2.50 R 2.00 R 1.50 R 1.00 R 0.50 R 0.00 FY 2006/7 FY 2007/8 FY 2008/9 FY 2010/11Exponential Budget growth for the local governmentForgeAhead predicts that by 2010 Local Government will be spending around R3billion, in implementing and upgrading the existing ICT infrastructure.2008 ICT in Government Report 84-119
    • 6. Summary of the Trends6.1. Provincial GovernmentAccording to ForgeAhead’s 2008/9 ICTs in Provincial Government Research, thefollowing conclusions are made: • It is clear that the uptake of ICT policies and strategies in the provincial departments is getting stronger. However, the level of their use varies from province to province (see the comparative matrix on page 94). • It emerged from the research that developing FOSS policy and strategy for implementation of open source software in the provincial government is not only crucial, but needs to be in place so that all new software developed for or by the government will be based on open source standards. • The research also looked into the state of Technology Connectivity, which clearly showed that the majority of provincial departments reliant on the Government Common Co Network (GCCN) need to address the instability of their network, which has been plaguing the system. This instability is caused by the ever-increasing demands for more advanced services by an ever-increasing number of users. • According to the research, provincial government is beginning to realise that there are many advantages in the use SMS or mobile technology as a medium to interact with the public. These technologies are, however, not being fully utilised. • Government is the biggest investor in ICTs as it acknowledges their importance in eradicating poverty and unemployment, improving service delivery, investment and economic growth as well as ICTs’ impact on sustainable development. Therefore, provincial government is not only faced with the big task of improving the ICT infrastructure, but also acquiring and retaining ICT skills so as to maximise opportunities created by the 2010 Soccer World Cup. The research indicates that the provincial ICT budget is expected to increase by 56% by 2010.2008 ICT in Government Report 85-119
    • • In the research, 256 ICT projects have been reported by the departments across the provinces. However, when these projects were reviewed province by province, it emerged that some of them are encumbered with duplication of efforts, highlighting the need for coordination. • A close analysis of these ICT projects also reveals that government departments are upgrading or renewing the network, confirming earlier reports of dissatisfaction with the current network. The research also indicates that a number of departments are putting in place Disaster Recovery sites and Business Continuity plans. . • The further review of the current ICT projects in the departments reveals that the desire of provincial government to ensure compliance with industry standards and regulations on increased operating efficiency and optimal customer experience led to the implementation of Enterprise Content Management (EMC). • The key challenge is not only to provide the necessary training and support for ICT in provincial government, but also to attract and retain staff with scarce skills. The research suggests that provincial government has only retained 30% of its skilled ICT personnel as the mechanism to solve budgetary issues remains critical for the government. • From the research it can be concluded that outsourcing key ICT services is set to continue in the provincial government because ICT services are regarded as non-core. • As efforts to support inter-operability between different solutions within the provincial government intensify, research indicates that uniform Information Risk Management and Security approaches for governmental electronic services start to appear.2008 ICT in Government Report 86-119
    • 6.2. Local GovernmentThe research indicates that overall policy penetration in local government isabout 35%. This means that local government is lagging behind when comparedto the progress made in the provincial government. 67% of these policies areprocurement, while ICT strategy and MSP in the municipalities are sitting at 22%each.The low response rate in ICT strategy by the municipalities is a point of concernin view of the fact that the strategy provides essential vision for the successfulimplementation of ICT. The same is also true regarding the low response rate forboth MSP and Security policy, which indicates that a few municipalities haveaddressed the need to protect their data from malicious or accidental disaster.The research also confirms the existence of non-aligned MSP projects.There is a clear need for an education campaign by central and provincialgovernment to enhance understanding within municipalities of the potentialbenefits that ICTs have to offer.The research has shown that municipalities are making good progress withregard to information, communication and technology projects. However, theseprojects are often undertaken in isolation and this confirms that localgovernment is not making use of the advantages of a combined buying power.The philosophy of levering the economies of scales in local government couldtake the form of the shared services concept, which has not been fully exploitedeven though great potential exists at district level.According to the study, the local government ICT budget is expected to swell toabout R2.8 billion by 2010. However, it is expected that municipalities willcontinue to face limited financial resources to enable them to put new ICTsystems in place. Research also revealed that a number of municipalities wouldrequire donor funding for ICT projects.2008 ICT in Government Report 87-119
    • The municipalities are using a combination of wired and wireless technologies toget reasonable Internet and e-mail connectivity. However, wireless broadband isset to continue to dominate in the municipalities. Currently, research indicatesthat 32% of local government is in the process of migrating to wirelesstechnologies, while 34% are already using wireless technology.The research indicates that 67% of the municipalities are currently dependent onADSL and/or ISDN for their connectivity. 43% of municipalities are still usingdial-up, as it has a place at the outer edge of the network, providing access tothose who need it from unfamiliar locations or from locations where bettertechnologies are simply not available.Research has also revealed that there is under utilisation of the Localgovernment Network (LGNet) among the municipalities and this is due to anumber of reasons that include lack of training, unreliability, costs involved tomaintain the Lgnet, and decisions made by IT personnel.South African municipalities have plans to implement their own wirelessbroadband network following the initiative of, among others, Knysna Municipalitythat is already offering free Internet access at two clinics. However, mostmunicipalities do not have resources to implement their own broadbandnetworks thereby delaying the movement towards local government-owned andoperated broadband networks. The metropolitan authorities on the other handdo have resources and as a result five of the metros own or are moving towardsowning their own telecom network.Attracting and retaining staff with scarce skills remains critical for sustainableservice delivery for both provincial and local government spheres. Researchindicates that the respective municipalities have retained only 30% of localgovernment skilled ICT personnel in the last three years. It is obvious that thepublic sector cannot compete directly with the private sector in terms of salaries.Major ICT investment in local government is expected to be made on projectsthat will ensure effective billing solutions, generating revenue streams andimproved service delivery.2008 ICT in Government Report 88-119
    • 7. Key TrendsBased on the survey conducted within the Local Government sphere, thefollowing conclusions are drawn: • The mechanism to solve budgetary issues remains critical for both provincial and local government – but there will be a steady growth in funding as the value of ICTs appreciated • Attracting and retaining staff with scarce skills remains critical for sustainable service delivery for both provincial and local government spheres • Some of the reported ICT projects indicate duplication of efforts, both at provincial and district level – highlighting the need for coordination • Usage of m-Government is minimal, but the ubiquitous use of hand-held devices creates opportunities to derive greater benefits • As efforts to support inter-operability between different solutions within the government intensify, uniform Information Risk Management and Security approaches for government start to appear • More acquisition of PCs & Printers and major investment in bandwidth extension, financial systems and integration of software are expected • The Open Source/Open Standards debate continues • Budget constraints, staff shortages, scarcity of specialised skills and increasing demands for services suggest that the Shared Services Concept will grow both in Provincial and Local government.2008 ICT in Government Report 89-119
    • 8. Challenges Facing the Government• Local government continues to hold insufficient levers for economies of scale to be used effectively• Non-scalability of engagements for services as contracts are drawn in isolation• Irregular back-office systems• Non-existence of self-service channels• Disparate and outdated computing infrastructure• Non-aligned MSP projects• Shared Services philosophy is not fully explored• Strategic Private Partnerships not utilised• Lack of skills• Lack of financial resource options2008 ICT in Government Report 90-119
    • 9. RecommendationsThe research has assessed the status and role of ICTs in enhancing servicedelivery amongst the two spheres of government. The recommendations beloware in line with the main findings that form part of the conclusion.Based on the research findings, the following recommendations are made:9.1. Budgetary and Resources ConstraintsThe research has revealed that the government, particularly most of themunicipalities are facing budgetary constraints. Budget constraints in localgovernment is caused by limited funding from the DBSA, fragmentation in ICTbudgets amongst various lines of business within municipalities, the lack ofrecognition of the ICT functions at municipal level and the resultant lack of adedicated budget, and the lack of coherent ICT strategies at municipal level.It is therefore recommend that the DPLG must include the funding of localgovernment ICT projects under the Municipal Systems Infrastructure Grant(MSIG). Secondly, donor funding for ICTs must be mobilised and coordinatednationally to ensure equitable distribution of investment in ICTs across allprovinces. Also budgeting for ICT projects at municipal level must be centralisedto eradicate duplication and ensure maximum return on the ICT investment.9.2. Facing Insufficient Levers for ScaleThe research indicates that municipalities in the province are making significantimprovement, as shown by ICT projects reported in the survey. However, thestudy shows that the majority of the projects are undertaken in isolation, notmaking use of the combined buying power in local government.A consideration of cost-saving practices such as coordinated procurement;development of policies to support the standardisation of systems; and theutilisation of SITA contracts by municipalities to facilitate faster procurement andto build on exiting knowledge is recommended.2008 ICT in Government Report 91-119
    • While provincial government is facing the challenge of not only using economiesof scale, but also duplication of efforts it needs to turn to the shared servicesconcept, which has provided enormous benefits to Gauteng and Western Capeprovinces through the use of GSSC and Centre for e-Innovation respectively.9.3. Failure to Attract and Retain SkillsEven though in the last three years the Eastern Cape local government has beenrated first in terms of retaining ICT personnel, attracting and retaining scarceskills remains critical for sustainable service delivery for both provincial and localgovernment spheres. Government needs to attract and retain ICT skills in thepublic sector. Recruiting directly from the universities among other initiativescould do this. However, it is common knowledge that the public sector cannotcompete for IT skills with the private sector. Municipalities should think of re-hiring retirees in special fields where recruitment is difficult, to either mentoremployees or be employed on a contract basis. A special budget must be createdfor the projects.It is also recommend that a proper HRD strategy, in line with JIPSA imperatives,be developed for the local government domain. There is need to lobby theassistance of DPLG, SITA and the LGSETA. An ICT skills audit also needs to beconducted for local government to assess the extent of ICT skills shortages.9.4. Putting ICTs on the Local Government AgendaThe research has noted that a large number of municipalities do not have aproperly constituted ICT function on their organisational structure. In manymunicipalities the ICT role falls under the CFO or Corporate Services orEngineering section resulting in poor planning and execution of ICT projects. Alsothe absence of a dedicated ICT function in many municipalities is indicative of adisregard of the value and importance of ICTs in the delivery of effective andefficient services to communities.Recommendations include exploring a structured regulatory regime for themanagement of ICTs in local government under the Local Government Municipal2008 ICT in Government Report 92-119
    • Systems Act (Act 32 of 2000); and the regulatory regime that enables theappointment of Chief Information Officers (CIOs) in all municipalities to ensureproper ICT governance practices and to promote accountability and performancemanagement.9.5. Establishment of a National Local Government ICT ForumOther ICT provincial reports reveal that ICT forums have been established (inEastern Cape, Limpopo and Western Cape) and others are in the process of beingestablished in provinces and districts throughout the country.However, these ICT forums are currently operating in isolation of each other,creating a need for them to coordinate their activities and programmes to ensuremaximum impact and support for municipalities. Therefore, a creation of aNational Local Government ICT Forum, constituted of the chairpersons of theprovincial local government ICT forums, is proposed.9.6. Other Recommendations • Establish ICT management structure in all municipalities • Develop policies that will advocate for national and provincial standards • Increase investment in skills • Develop policies and standards to manage networks and security risks; • Develop a strategy towards interconnecting networks to reduce duplication and effective networks2008 ICT in Government Report 93-119
    • 10. MUNICIPALITIES INDEX (TSM) Review System Intranet Usage ICT Policies in Budget 2008/9 Total Points Department Connection Connection Have ICT Annually Internet (Rand) e-Mail Place TSM Municipalities City of Joburg 7 225,455,000.00 100% 100% 40 10 City of Cape Town Metro 7 232,200,000.00 100% 100% 39 9 Amatole District 8 18,900,000.00 100% 100% 37 8 City of Tshwane 8 250,000,000.00 80% 80% 37 8 Ekurhuleni 9 214,857,000.00 90% 90% 37 8 Nelson Mandela Metro 7 29,040,140.00 90% 90% 35 7 Buffalo City Local 5 16,097,821.00 30% 100% 34 7 Nkangala District 7 2,500,000.00 100% 100% 34 7 Eden District 7 3,964,008.00 100% 100% 34 7 Madibeng 5 7,999,122.00 100% 100% 33 7 Merafong 5 5,000,000.00 100% 100% 33 7 Cape Winelands (District) 8 2,600,000.00 90% 90% 33 7 Mnquma Local 7 880,606.00 90% 100% 32 7 Fezile Dabi District 5 7,000,000.00 100% 100% 32 7 Mangaung 4 14,000,000.00 90% 100% 32 7 eThekwinin Metro 7 230 900 000 60% 60% 32 7 Capricorn Districts 6 8,034,205.00 100% 90% 32 7 Mbombela 4 9,550,000.00 100% 100% 32 7 OR Tambo District 5 2,756,250.00 100% 100% 31 6 West Rand 6 3,272,270.00 90% 90% 31 6 Mogale City 4 5,400,000.00 100% 100% 31 6 uMlalazi 9 100 000 100% 100% 31 6 uMjindi 6 236,000.00 100% 100% 31 6 Govan Mbeki Local 7 1,860,000.00 70% 100% 31 6 Steve Tshwete 7 9,405,762.00 80% 80% 31 6 Motheo District 4 1,813,710.00 100% 100% 30 6 Ntambanana 8 100 000 100% 100% 30 6 uGu District 4 2 400 000 100% 100% 30 6 Msunduzi 3 19 679 000 100% 100% - 30 6 Polokwane 4 30,112,235.00 80% 80% 30 6 Waterberg District 5 600,000.00 100% 100% 30 6 Saldanha 5 1,455,300.00 100% 90% 30 6 Chris Hani District 4 6,300,000.00 80% 100% 29 6 Ukhahlamba District 3 750,000.00 100% 100% 29 6 Westonaria 7 200,000.00 80% 100% 29 6 Okhahlamba 8 - 100% 100% 29 6 KwaDukuza 3 1 600 000 100% 100% 29 62008 ICT in Government Report 94-119
    • e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage ICT Policies in Budget 2008/9 Total Points Department Connection Have ICT Annually Internet (Rand) Place TSM Municipalities Lepelle-nkumpi 3 3,500,000.00 100% 100% 29 6 Bojanala 3 2,625,000.00 100% 100% 29 6 Potchefstroom 3 4,601,553.00 90% 100% 29 6 Moshaweng 3 2,500,000.00 100% 100% 29 6 Frances Baard 2 1,005,321.00 100% 100% 29 6 Witzenberg 6 1,500,000.00 80% 90% 29 6 Mbizana Local 2 1,030,400.00 100% 100% 28 6 Nyandeni 4 2,000,000.00 90% 100% 28 6 Sedibeng 2 11,498,993.00 70% 100% 28 6 Mthonjaneni 6 142 000 100% 100% 28 6 Makhuduthamaga 3 684,444.44 100% 100% 28 6 Intsika Yethu Local 4 550,000.00 80% 100% 27 6 Alfred Nzo District 2 1,260,000.00 100% 100% 27 6 Tswelopele 5 - 100% 100% 27 6 Metsweding 5 - 100% 100% 27 6 Ulundi 4 771 750 80% 100% 27 6 Utrecht 2 3 909 465 100% 100% 27 6 Greater Sekhukhune District 3 5,000,000.00 90% 90% 27 6 Greater Tzaneen 4 6,057,657.00 90% 90% 27 6 Mogalakwena 4 1,243,953.00 90% 90% 27 6 Kagisano 3 272,190.00 100% 100% 27 6 Mafikeng 3 3,770,893.00 90% 90% 27 6 Rustenburg 2 3,316,000.00 90% 100% 27 6 Hasseque 3 550,000.00 100% 80% 27 6 Knysna 4 5,083,070.00 80% 80% 27 6 Midvaal 3 1,575,000.00 60% 100% 26 6 uMkhanyakude 5 - 100% 100% 26 6 Vulamehlo 3 125 800 100% 100% 26 6 Greater Groblersdal 1 826,875.00 100% 100% 26 6 Musina 2 1,592,067.00 90% 100% 26 6 Vhembe District 2 4,000,000.00 80% 90% 26 6 Aganang 2 747,333.33 90% 100% 26 6 Modimolle 1 800,000.00 100% 100% 26 6 Moses Kotane 1 565,000.00 100% 100% 26 6 Siyancuma Local 4 100,000.00 100% 100% 26 6 Bitou 5 - 100% 100% 26 6 Laingsburg 3 372,722.00 100% 100% 26 62008 ICT in Government Report 95-119
    • Review System Annually Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Intranet Usage Total Points TSM Municipalities Ikwanca Local 5 - 100% 100% 25 5 Emalahleni Local 3 - 100% 100% 25 5 Matatiele Local 1 262,000.00 90% 100% 25 5 Matjhabeng 3 - 90% 100% 25 5 Lejweleputswa 2 - 100% 100% 25 5 Masilonyana 0 1,500,000.00 90% 90% 25 5 Nkandla 6 170 000 80% 80% 25 5 Zululand District 5 - 100% 80% 25 5 Imbabazane 3 - 100% 100% 25 5 Maphumolo 3 198 000 100% 100% - 25 5 Greater Letaba 3 - 100% 100% 25 5 Dr JS Moroka 4 200,000.00 80% 80% 25 5 Gamaraga 4 - 100% 100% 25 5 Engcobo Local 1 275,625.00 100% 100% 24 5 Dihlabeng 2 4,000,000.00 90% 90% 24 5 Randfontein 5 4,200,000.00 30% 100% 24 5 Jozini 4 - 100% 100% - 24 5 Amajuba 1 262 000 100% 100% 24 5 Greater Giyane 2 400,000.00 90% 90% 24 5 Thabazimbi 2 1,346,257.00 80% 90% 24 5 Blouberg 5 - 90% 90% 24 5 Southern District 3 - 100% 100% 24 5 Frances Baard 2 5,949,910.00 70% 70% 24 5 Theewaterskloof 1 242,000.00 100% 100% χ 24 5 Stellenbosch 7 8,000,000.00 90% 0% 24 5 Drankenstein 3 16,000,000.00 30% 90% 24 5 Kou-kamma Local 1 561,750.00 60% 100% 23 5 King Sebata 100% 100% 23 5 Nala 2 1,728,480.00 60% 90% 23 5 Hlabisa 1 80,000 100% 100% - 23 5 uMzinyathi District 3 70,000 80% 80% 23 5 Fetakgomo 1 284,000.00 90% 90% 23 5 Greater Marble Hall 1 200,000.00 90% 100% 23 5 Maruleng 5 - 90% 90% 23 5 Mutale 2 452,222.22 90% 90% 23 5 Bophirima 1 - 100% 100% 23 5 Naledi 6 585,150.00 20% 100% 23 52008 ICT in Government Report 96-119
    • Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage Total Points Annually TSM Municipalities Sol Plaajtie 2 4,459,120.00 40% 100% 23 5 Oudtshoorn 4 1,225,043.00 60% 60% 23 5 Inxuba Yethemba 2 135,144.00 90% 90% 22 5 Baviaans Local 1 164,162.00 80% 100% 22 5 Nquthu 4 500,000 70% 70% 22 5 Dipaliseng 0 - 100% 100% 22 5 Moqhaka 4 1,000,000.00 40% 70% 21 4 Maluti A Phofung 2 3,000,000.00 40% 90% 21 4 Xhariep District 1 100,000.00 80% 100% 21 4 Lesedi 5 5,800,000.00 30% 60% 21 4 Greater Taung district 4 520,000.00 60% 70% 21 4 Richtersveld 0 - 100% 100% 21 4 Kgalagadi 5 - 70% 70% 21 4 Siyanda District 0 2,500,000.00 80% 60% 21 4 Kannaland 1 350,000.00 70% 90% 21 4 Sundays River Local 5 350,000.00 10% 100% 20 4 Ndlambe Local 1 - 90% 90% 20 4 Metsimaholo 1 974,850.00 90% 50% 20 4 Indaka 4 - 100% 50% 20 4 Greater Kokstaad 1 - 90% 90% - 20 4 Msinga 0 - 100% 100% - 20 4 eNdodakusuka 1 - 90% 90% 20 4 Umdoni 7 - 10% 100% 20 4 UMgeni 4 350 000 40% 70% 20 4 uThungulu District 1 2 537 500 60% 60% 20 4 Albert Luthuli 2 1,050,000.00 40% 80% 20 4 Matlosana 3 7,400,000.00 30% 80% 20 4 Karoo Hoogland 2 278,000.00 70% 70% 20 4 Cape Agulhas 3 675,000.00 20% 100% 20 4 Overstarnd 4 3,858,750.00 100% 0% 20 4 Nxuba Local 1 168,000.00 90% 50% 19 4 Mafube 2 400,000.00 80% 70% 19 4 Kungwini 2 - 90% 70% 19 4 Big 5 False Bay 2 - 80% 80% - 19 4 Umuziwabantu 1 500 000 70% 70% 19 4 Makhado 2 1,300,000.00 90% 20% 19 4 Ditsobotla 7 3,000,000.00 60% 10% 19 42008 ICT in Government Report 97-119
    • Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage Total Points Annually TSM Municipalities Ga-Segonyane 2 1,148,579.00 60% 60% 19 4 Nama Khoi 2 500,000.00 10% 100% 19 4 Cederberg 3 430,000.00 60% 60% 19 4 Breede River 4 2,038,032.00 100% 0% 19 4 Kopanong 1 1,450,000.00 20% 100% 18 4 Nokeng Tsa Taemane 1 - 90% 70% 18 4 Mbonambi 5 250,000 90% - 18 4 Ndwedwe 1 241,500 70% 70% 18 4 UMhlabauyalingana 4 - 10% 100% 18 4 Umgungundlovu 3 - 60% 60% 18 4 Lephalale 2 530,000.00 50% 50% 18 4 Gert Sibande District 4 3,401,050.00 - 100% 18 4 Lekwa Teemane 1 - 60% 100% 18 4 Namakwa District 4 581,375.00 50% 50% 18 4 Central Karoo District 2 463,330.00 100% 20% 18 4 Ntabankulu Local 3 450,000.00 60% 40% 17 3 Emfuleni 7 6,500,000.00 10% 10% 17 3 Umtshezi 3 115,000 40% 80% - 17 3 Nongoma 1 27 000 70% 70% - 17 3 Emnambithi/Ladysmith 5 - 20% 80% 17 3 Thulamela 1 2,500,000.00 50% 50% 17 3 Enthanjeni 1 822,222.22 90% 20% 17 3 Kgalagadi District 3 - 70% 70% 17 3 Hantam 1 - 90% 60% 17 3 Swatland 3 400,000.00 10% 90% 17 3 Senqu Local 4 - 10% 100% 16 3 Tsolwana Local 1 1,479,000.00 10% 100% 16 3 uThukela District 2 500,000 50% 50% - 16 3 Bergrivier 2 - 40% 90% 16 3 Kouga Local 1 2,233,500.00 10% 90% 15 3 Quankeni Local 2 1,000,000.00 7% - 15 3 Groblersdal 2 2,000,000.00 90% 90% 15 3 Pixley ka Seme 1 75,000.00 60% 60% 15 3 Thembelihle 1 242,000.00 70% 40% 15 3 Swellendam 3 250,000.00 90% - 15 3 Setsoto 2 66,150.00 10% 100% 14 3 eDumbe 4 - 10% 80% 14 32008 ICT in Government Report 98-119
    • Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage Total Points Annually TSM Municipalities Sisonke (District) 1 - 10% 100% 14 3 Mopani Mopani 2 - 50% 50% 14 3 Overberg District 5 - 70% - 14 3 Lukanji Local 5 890,451.00 2% 2% 13 2 Hibiscus Coast 6 - 30% 30% 13 2 Bela-Bela 4 2,760,884.00 20% 20% 13 2 Khara Hais 2 1,600,000.00 20% 20% 13 2 Sakhisizwe 1 - 10% - 12 2 Thabo Mofutsanyane 1 450,000.00 10% 60% 12 2 Kwasani 0 130, 375 50% 50% 12 2 Maquassi Hills 1 - 10% 100% 12 2 Kamiesberg 3 160,000.00 20% 30% 12 2 Mokgoophong 2 500,000.00 20% 20% 11 2 Msukaligwa 4 1,387,000.00 - - 11 2 Delmas 4 541,806.00 10% 20% 11 2 George 2 2,435,565.00 20% 20% 11 2 Breeds Valley 5 2,337,300.00 - - 11 2 Cacadu District 4 1,614,900.00 - - 10 2 Camdeboo Local 2 143,850.00 3% 3% 10 2 Richmond 2 - 30% 30% 10 2 Greater Tubatse 0 735,000.00 30% 30% 10 2 Kai! Garip 2 200,000.00 20% 40% 10 2 Tsantsabane 1 500,000.00 20% 20% 10 2 Matzikama 4 1,823,598.00 - - 10 2 Mossel bay 3 4,257,000.00 10% - 10 2 Mkhondo 0 - - 90% 9 1 Central District 1 2,649,916.00 10% 10% 9 1 Kgetleng River 1 - 50% 10% 9 1 Molemole 4 - 20% 20% 8 1 Beaufort West 2 653,660.00 10% 10% 8 1 Mohokare 0 350,000.00 20% 20% 7 1 Mooi Mpofana 1 166 666 20% 20% 7 1 Nkomazi 3 388,888.00 10% 10% 7 1 Emakhazeni 3 800,000.00 - - 7 1 Lekwa 2 1,250,000.00 - - 7 1 Mamusa 1 - 30% 30% 7 1 Ventersdorp 2 - 10% 20% 7 12008 ICT in Government Report 99-119
    • Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage Total Points Annually TSM Municipalities Ratlou 1 720,000.00 10% - 7 1 Molopo 3 - 30% 10% 7 1 Khai-ma 1 30,000.00 30% - 7 1 Mier 3 40,000.00 10% 10% 7 1 Blue Crane Route Local 2 - 3% - 6 1 Endumeni 1 250, 000 10% 10% 6 1 uMzimkhulu 0 1 200 000 10% - 6 1 Mbashe 6 - - - - - 6 1 Tokologo 0 150,000.00 10% 10% 5 1 Ezinqoleni 1 - 2 20% 5 1 Bushbuckridge 3 - - 20% 5 1 Moretele 1 - 10% 10% 5 1 Dikgatlong 1 944,639.00 - - 5 1 Umzumbe 1 - 10% 10% 4 1 Umtubatuba 0 60,000 10% 10% 4 1 Ramotshere 2 - 10% 10% 4 1 Umsobomvu 3 - - - 4 1 Ngqushwa Local 1 465,000.00 - - - - 3 1 Ilembe District) 1 420,000 - - 3 1 Pixley Ka Seme 1 100,000.00 - 10% 3 1 Tswaing 2 - 10% - 3 1 Magareng 1 20,000.00 - - 3 1 Phalane 0 429,833.33 10% - 3 1 West Coast District 1 - - - 3 1 Newcastle 2 - - - 2 1 Umshwati 1 - - - 2 1 Siyathemba 0 22,000.00 10% - 2 1 uPhongola 1 - - - 1 1 Renosterberg 0 - 10% - 1 1 Umzimvubu 1 - - - - 0 12008 ICT in Government Report 100-119
    • Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage Total Points Annually TSM Municipalities Lepelle-nkumpi 3 3,500,000.00 100% 100% 29 6 Bojanala 3 2,625,000.00 100% 100% 29 6 Potchefstroom 3 4,601,553.00 90% 100% 29 6 Moshaweng 3 2,500,000.00 100% 100% 29 6 Frances Baard 2 1,005,321.00 100% 100% 29 6 Witzenberg 6 1,500,000.00 80% 90% 29 6 Mbizana Local 2 1,030,400.00 100% 100% 28 6 Nyandeni 4 2,000,000.00 90% 100% 28 6 Sedibeng 2 11,498,993.00 70% 100% 28 6 Mthonjaneni 6 142,000 100% 100% 28 6 Makhuduthamaga 3 684,444.44 100% 100% 28 6 Intsika Yethu Local 4 550,000.00 80% 100% 27 6 Alfred Nzo District 2 1,260,000.00 100% 100% 27 6 Tswelopele 5 - 100% 100% 27 6 Metsweding 5 - 100% 100% 27 6 Ulundi 4 771,750 80% 100% 27 6 Utrecht 2 3,909,465 100% 100% 27 6 Greater Sekhukhune District 3 5,000,000.00 90% 90% 27 6 Greater Tzaneen 4 6,057,657.00 90% 90% 27 6 Mogalakwena 4 1,243,953.00 90% 90% 27 6 Kagisano 3 272,190.00 100% 100% 27 6 Mafikeng 3 3,770,893.00 90% 90% 27 6 Rustenburg 2 3,316,000.00 90% 100% 27 6 Hasseque 3 550,000.00 100% 80% 27 6 Knysna 4 5,083,070.00 80% 80% 27 6 Midvaal 3 1,575,000.00 60% 100% 26 6 uMkhanyakude 5 - 100% 100% 26 6 Vulamehlo 3 125,800 100% 100% 26 6 Greater Groblersdal 1 826,875.00 100% 100% 26 6 Musina 2 1,592,067.00 90% 100% 26 6 Vhembe District 2 4,000,000.00 80% 90% 26 6 Aganang 2 747,333.33 90% 100% 26 6 Modimolle 1 800,000.00 100% 100% 26 6 Moses Kotane 1 565,000.00 100% 100% 26 6 Siyancuma Local 4 100,000.00 100% 100% 26 6 Bitou 5 - 100% 100% 26 6 Laingsburg 3 372,722.00 100% 100% 26 62008 ICT in Government Report 101-119
    • Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage Total Points Annually TSM Municipalities Ikwanca Local 5 - 100% 100% 25 5 Emalahleni Local 3 - 100% 100% 25 5 Matatiele Local 1 262,000.00 90% 100% 25 5 Matjhabeng 3 - 90% 100% 25 5 Lejweleputswa 2 - 100% 100% 25 5 Masilonyana 0 1,500,000.00 90% 90% 25 5 Nkandla 6 170,000 80% 80% 25 5 Zululand District 5 - 100% 80% 25 5 Imbabazane 3 - 100% 100% 25 5 Maphumolo 3 198,000 100% 100% - 25 5 Greater Letaba 3 - 100% 100% 25 5 Dr JS Moroka 4 200,000.00 80% 80% 25 5 Gamaraga 4 - 100% 100% 25 5 Engcobo Local 1 275,625.00 100% 100% 24 5 Dihlabeng 2 4,000,000.00 90% 90% 24 5 Randfontein 5 4,200,000.00 30% 100% 24 5 Jozini 4 - 100% 100% - 24 5 Amajuba 1 262,000 100% 100% 24 5 Greater Giyane 2 400,000.00 90% 90% 24 5 Thabazimbi 2 1,346,257.00 80% 90% 24 5 Blouberg 5 - 90% 90% 24 5 Southern District 3 - 100% 100% 24 5 Frances Baard 2 5,949,910.00 70% 70% 24 5 Theewaterskloof 1 242,000.00 100% 100% χ 24 5 Stellenbosch 7 8,000,000.00 90% 0% 24 5 Drankenstein 3 16,000,000.00 30% 90% 24 5 Kou-kamma Local 1 561,750.00 60% 100% 23 5 King Sebata 100% 100% 23 5 Nala 2 1,728,480.00 60% 90% 23 5 Hlabisa 1 80,000 100% 100% - 23 5 uMzinyathi District 3 70,000 80% 80% 23 5 Fetakgomo 1 284,000.00 90% 90% 23 5 Greater Marble Hall 1 200,000.00 90% 100% 23 5 Maruleng 5 - 90% 90% 23 5 Mutale 2 452,222.22 90% 90% 23 5 Bophirima 1 - 100% 100% 23 5 Naledi 6 585,150.00 20% 100% 23 52008 ICT in Government Report 102-119
    • Review System Annually Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Intranet Usage Total Points TSM Municipalities Sol Plaajtie 2 4,459,120.00 40% 100% 23 5 Oudtshoorn 4 1,225,043.00 60% 60% 23 5 Inxuba Yethemba 2 135,144.00 90% 90% 22 5 Baviaans Local 1 164,162.00 80% 100% 22 5 Nquthu 4 500,000 70% 70% 22 5 Dipaliseng 0 - 100% 100% 22 5 Moqhaka 4 1,000,000.00 40% 70% 21 4 Maluti A Phofung 2 3,000,000.00 40% 90% 21 4 Xhariep District 1 100,000.00 80% 100% 21 4 Lesedi 5 5,800,000.00 30% 60% 21 4 Greater Taung district 4 520,000.00 60% 70% 21 4 Richtersveld 0 - 100% 100% 21 4 Kgalagadi 5 - 70% 70% 21 4 Siyanda District 0 2,500,000.00 80% 60% 21 4 Kannaland 1 350,000.00 70% 90% 21 4 Sundays River Local 5 350,000.00 10% 100% 20 4 Ndlambe Local 1 - 90% 90% 20 4 Metsimaholo 1 974,850.00 90% 50% 20 4 Indaka 4 - 100% 50% 20 4 Greater Kokstaad 1 - 90% 90% - 20 4 Msinga 0 - 100% 100% - 20 4 eNdodakusuka 1 - 90% 90% 20 4 Umdoni 7 - 10% 100% 20 4 UMgeni 4 350,000 40% 70% 20 4 uThungulu District 1 2 537 500 60% 60% 20 4 Albert Luthuli 2 1,050,000.00 40% 80% 20 4 Matlosana 3 7,400,000.00 30% 80% 20 4 Karoo Hoogland 2 278,000.00 70% 70% 20 4 Cape Agulhas 3 675,000.00 20% 100% 20 4 Overstarnd 4 3,858,750.00 100% 0% 20 4 Nxuba Local 1 168,000.00 90% 50% 19 4 Mafube 2 400,000.00 80% 70% 19 4 Kungwini 2 - 90% 70% 19 4 Big 5 False Bay 2 - 80% 80% - 19 4 Umuziwabantu 1 500 000 70% 70% 19 4 Makhado 2 1,300,000.00 90% 20% 19 4 Ditsobotla 7 3,000,000.00 60% 10% 19 42008 ICT in Government Report 103-119
    • Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage Total Points Annually TSM Municipalities Ga-Segonyane 2 1,148,579.00 60% 60% 19 4 Nama Khoi 2 500,000.00 10% 100% 19 4 Cederberg 3 430,000.00 60% 60% 19 4 Breede River 4 2,038,032.00 100% 0% 19 4 Kopanong 1 1,450,000.00 20% 100% 18 4 Nokeng Tsa Taemane 1 - 90% 70% 18 4 Mbonambi 5 250,000 90% - 18 4 Ndwedwe 1 241,500 70% 70% 18 4 UMhlabauyalingana 4 - 10% 100% 18 4 Umgungundlovu 3 - 60% 60% 18 4 Lephalale 2 530,000.00 50% 50% 18 4 Gert Sibande District 4 3,401,050.00 - 100% 18 4 Lekwa Teemane 1 - 60% 100% 18 4 Namakwa District 4 581,375.00 50% 50% 18 4 Central Karoo District 2 463,330.00 100% 20% 18 4 Ntabankulu Local 3 450,000.00 60% 40% 17 3 Emfuleni 7 6,500,000.00 10% 10% 17 3 Umtshezi 3 115,000 40% 80% - 17 3 Nongoma 1 27,000 70% 70% - 17 3 Emnambithi/Ladysmith 5 - 20% 80% 17 3 Thulamela 1 2,500,000.00 50% 50% 17 3 Enthanjeni 1 822,222.22 90% 20% 17 3 Kgalagadi District 3 - 70% 70% 17 3 Hantam 1 - 90% 60% 17 3 Swatland 3 400,000.00 10% 90% 17 3 Senqu Local 4 - 10% 100% 16 3 Tsolwana Local 1 1,479,000.00 10% 100% 16 3 uThukela District 2 500,000 50% 50% - 16 3 Bergrivier 2 - 40% 90% 16 3 Kouga Local 1 2,233,500.00 10% 90% 15 3 Quankeni Local 2 1,000,000.00 7% - 15 3 Groblersdal 2 2,000,000.00 90% 90% 15 3 Pixley ka Seme 1 75,000.00 60% 60% 15 3 Thembelihle 1 242,000.00 70% 40% 15 3 Swellendam 3 250,000.00 90% - 15 3 Setsoto 2 66,150.00 10% 100% 14 3 eDumbe 4 - 10% 80% 14 32008 ICT in Government Report 104-119
    • Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Review System Intranet Usage Total Points Annually TSM Municipalities Sisonke (District) 1 - 10% 100% 14 3 Mopani Mopani 2 - 50% 50% 14 3 Overberg District 5 - 70% - 14 3 Lukanji Local 5 890,451.00 2% 2% 13 2 Hibiscus Coast 6 - 30% 30% 13 2 Bela-Bela 4 2,760,884.00 20% 20% 13 2 //Khara Hais 2 1,600,000.00 20% 20% 13 2 Sakhisizwe 1 - 10% - 12 2 Thabo Mofutsanyane 1 450,000.00 10% 60% 12 2 Kwasani 0 130,375 50% 50% 12 2 Maquassi Hills 1 - 10% 100% 12 2 Kamiesberg 3 160,000.00 20% 30% 12 2 Mokgoophong 2 500,000.00 20% 20% 11 2 Msukaligwa 4 1,387,000.00 - - 11 2 Delmas 4 541,806.00 10% 20% 11 2 George 2 2,435,565.00 20% 20% 11 2 Breeds Valley 5 2,337,300.00 - - 11 2 Cacadu District 4 1,614,900.00 - - 10 2 Camdeboo Local 2 143,850.00 3% 3% 10 2 Richmond 2 - 30% 30% 10 2 Greater Tubatse 0 735,000.00 30% 30% 10 2 Kai! Garip 2 200,000.00 20% 40% 10 2 Tsantsabane 1 500,000.00 20% 20% 10 2 Matzikama 4 1,823,598.00 - - 10 2 Mossel bay 3 4,257,000.00 10% - 10 2 Mkhondo 0 - - 90% 9 1 Central District 1 2,649,916.00 10% 10% 9 1 Kgetleng River 1 - 50% 10% 9 1 Molemole 4 - 20% 20% 8 1 Beaufort West 2 653,660.00 10% 10% 8 1 Mohokare 0 350,000.00 20% 20% 7 1 Mooi Mpofana 1 166 666 20% 20% 7 1 Nkomazi 3 388,888.00 10% 10% 7 1 Emakhazeni 3 800,000.00 - - 7 1 Lekwa 2 1,250,000.00 - - 7 1 Mamusa 1 - 30% 30% 7 1 Ventersdorp 2 - 10% 20% 7 12008 ICT in Government Report 105-119
    • Review System Annually Budget 2008/9 (Rand) Have ICT Department ICT Policies in Place Internet Connection e-Mail Connection Intranet Usage Total Points TSM Municipalities Ratlou 1 720,000.00 10% - 7 1 Molopo 3 - 30% 10% 7 1 Khai-ma 1 30,000.00 30% - 7 1 Mier 3 40,000.00 10% 10% 7 1 Blue Crane Route Local 2 - 3% - 6 1 Endumeni 1 250 000 10% 10% 6 1 uMzimkhulu 0 1 200 000 10% - 6 1 Tokologo 0 150,000.00 10% 10% 5 1 Ezinqoleni 1 - 2 20% 5 1 Bushbuckridge 3 - - 20% 5 1 Moretele 1 - 10% 10% 5 1 Dikgatlong 1 944,639.00 - - 5 1 Umzumbe 1 - 10% 10% 4 1 Umtubatuba 0 60,000 10% 10% 4 1 Ramotshere 2 - 10% 10% 4 1 Umsobomvu 3 - - - 4 1 Ngqushwa Local 1 465,000.00 - - - - 3 1 Ilembe District) 1 420,000 - - 3 1 Pixley Ka Seme 1 100,000.00 - 10% 3 1 Tswaing 2 - 10% - 3 1 Magareng 1 20,000.00 - - 3 1 Phalane 0 429,833.33 10% - 3 1 West Coast District 1 - - - 3 1 Newcastle 2 - - - 2 1 Umshwati 1 - - - 2 1 Siyathemba 0 22,000.00 10% - 2 1 uPhongola 1 - - - 1 1 Renosterberg 0 - 10% - 1 1 Umzimvubu - - - - 0 1 Mbashe - - - - - 0 1Only 235 municipalities were included based on the available information, however, ForgeAhead will ensure that all283 municipalities are included in the next TSM update.2008 ICT in Government Report 106-119
    • 10.1. TSM TechnicalitiesThe ForgeAhead municipalities Technologies Standard Measurement (TSM) isexpected to be the most widely used index research tool in Africa. It divides themunicipalities/local authorities into 10 TSM groups, 10 (highest) to 1 (lowest).The ForgeAhead TSM is a unique means of segmenting the local governmentmunicipalities. It cuts across municipality types and sizes.The lists of 7 characteristics or variables are selected to form the cluster ofindicator variables and are termed ‘Technology Standards Measure’.The seven current variables used are: 1. Number of Policies 2. ICT budget 3. ICT Division 4. Internet Connection to available PC/Laptops 5. Email Connection to available PC/Laptops 6. Usage of Intranet 7. Frequency of reviewing of municipality systems and softwareThe ForgeAhead’s current TSM weights or variables are necessary to provide thebest fit to the data. However, as the index progresses, the variables will beupdated annually and ForgeAhead will adjust the variables to include morevariables, depending on the ICT sector demanding changes. In the next TSMrating, variables such as e-Security (common policies and security methodologiesused by local government) will be included.2008 ICT in Government Report 107-119
    • 11. The way forwardThe ForgeAhead 2008 TSM Index speaks eloquently of the changing complexionof the Local Government ICTs trends. The index will be updated bi-annually tokeep track of changes and progress.However, such progress can only be observed with constant research innovationand cooperation between the public sector (particularly municipalities) andprivate sector. ForgeAhead offers the TSM Index as a tool that can contribute tothe greater understanding of ICT trends in local government.This Index could be only scratching the surface of the database. Interestedparties are free to contact ForgeAhead for data analysis, interpretation and/orconsultation.Going forward, ForgeAhead believes it is critical for the Provincial andMunicipalities Index to stay relevant to what is happening in the country whilststriving to maintain full credibility as an international study, particularly forAfrica.2008 ICT in Government Report 108-119
    • 12. Comparative Index12.1. Governance RatingGovernance is the process of decision-making and implementation, ensuringaccountability. It should be actively pursued at all government levels to minimisemismanagement and corruption and thereby enhance effective service delivery.The policy rating was conducted among 302 respondents (220 municipalities and82 provincial departments), using 10 policies mentioned in this report. Gauteng Province 64% Western Cape 49% Mpumalanga 40% Province North West 38% Province Eastern Cape 36% Province Free State 33% Province KwaZulu Natal 33% Province Limpopo Province 32% Nothern Cape 21% ProvinceTo enable good governance in government, there should be appropriate policiesin place that are aimed at creating a legislative framework for the effective useof provincial and municipal resources. The above graph depicts the level ofpolicies per province.The measurement tool indicates that Gauteng province had 64% policypenetration level, rendering it the most dominant province in terms of goodgovernance. Second on the list was Western Cape Province, netting 49percentage points. The provincial efforts in driving and adopting ICT as a keyenabler of service delivery explains this dedication to good governance.2008 ICT in Government Report 109-119
    • 12.2. Information Security Provincial Index12.2.1. Security Technologies/Methods Gauteng 84 Eastern Cape 69 Nothern Cape 69 North West 55 Free State 54 Limpopo 50 Western Cape 43KwaZulu - Natal 42 Mpumalanga 40The following seven Security methodologies were used in the questionnaire, andthe departments were asked to tick those they were using: • Control System • User Awareness • Keep system patched • Role Specific security • Monitoring • Response team • Layered securityAccording to ForgeAhead’s Comparative Index on Technology Methodology,Gauteng provincial departments are employing 84% of these technologies.Eastern and Northern Cape provincial departments are both in second position,employing 69% of the security methodologies.2008 ICT in Government Report 110-119
    • 12.2.2. Common Security Policies Used by DepartmentsOnce again the Comparative Index looks into the security policies across thenine provincial departments.Whats in a name? A policy is typically a document that outlines specificrequirements or rules that must be met. In the information/network securityrealm, policies are usually point-specific, covering a single area. For example, an"Acceptable Use" policy would cover the rules and regulations for appropriateuse of the computing facilities.A standard is typically collections of system-specific or procedure-specificrequirements that must be met by everyone. For example, you might have astandard that describes how to harden a Windows NT workstation for placementon an external (DMZ) network. People must follow this standard exactly if theywish to install a Windows NT workstation on an external network segment.A guideline is typically a collection of system-specific or procedure specific"suggestions" for best practice. They are not requirements to be met, but arestrongly recommended. Effective security policies make frequent references tostandards and guidelines that exist within an organisation.2008 ICT in Government Report 111-119
    • Gauteng Province 59 Eastern Cape 50 Province Lim popo Province 49 Western Cape 42 Nothern Cape 41 Province Free State Province 35 Mpum alanga 34 Province KwaZulu Natal 32 Province North West 25 ProvinceThe policy benchmark indicated consistency in the top 2 provinces. Even thoughthe penetration of e-Security policies is low, Gauteng departments received highresponses on Security policies. Eastern Cape Province came second.2008 ICT in Government Report 112-119
    • 12.3. Skills Retention RatingsIn an effort to retain the “scarce and critical skills” which are leaving theinstitution in droves, the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality has formulated a skillsretention policy. The policy covers adult basic education and training, studyassistance, succession planning, external bursaries, recognition of prior learningand the integration of people with disabilities in the workplace.The skills retention policy is intended to provide a framework for retainingemployees whose loss could have an adverse effect on service delivery. Thepolicy suggests offering such employees better remuneration than they could getelsewhere. The policy also discourages the use of consultants instead ofmunicipal employees. It says every effort must be made to use internal skills orcreate capacity within before engaging outside service providers. Eastern Cape 53 Province Free State Province 50 Western Cape 38 Nothern Cape 27 Province Gauteng Province 25 North West 25 Province KwaZulu Natal 24 Province Mpumalanga 19 Province Limpopo Province 72008 ICT in Government Report 113-119
    • The Skills Retention Comparative Index indicates that, municipalities generallystruggled in retaining ICT skilled personnel. Limpopo municipalities were theworst hit according to the research; over the past three yes Limpopo onlyretained 7%. Eastern Cape and Free State were able to retain about half of theirICT skilled personnel. (as illustrated on the graph).Government needs to attract and retain ICT skills in the public sector. Recruitingdirectly from the universities, among other initiatives, could do this. However, init is common knowledge that the public sector cannot compete with the privatesector.Municipalities should consider re-hiring retirees in special fields whererecruitment was difficult to either mentor employees or be employed on acontract basis. A special budget must be created for the project.2008 ICT in Government Report 114-119
    • 12.4. Access Technology Comparison(Departments) Leased Line (Diginet) SITA Network/GCCN Wireless Broadband VPN (Virtual Private Cellular networks Communication Network) Satellite Dial-Up ADSL ISDN %Eastern Cape 100 55 36 64 9 36 9 36 0Free State 100 40 50 30 30 50 30 40 20Gauteng 80 80 40 80 30 80 30 40 50KZN 92 50 33 50 83 33 8 17 17Limpopo 100 40 20 20 40 20 20 20 20Mpumalanga 90 10 20 10 10 0 0 20 0North West 18 27 82 27 18 27 18 9 0Northern Cape 100 71 29 86 57 29 14 57 0Western Cape 100 100 100 0 100 0 100 0 0Total 86% 53% 47% 39% 33% 30% 27% 25% 12%The Government Common Co-Network (GCCN) was established to connectdepartments’ sites. These connections enable officials to access financial andnon-financial systems such as Basic Accounting System (BAS), LogisticInformation System (LOGIS), Personnel and Salary system (PERSAL), theInternet and email.The report has revealed that the majority of the provincial departments areusing GCCN to connect sites, however, it has also revealed that 47% of thedepartments will be moving to their own Virtual Private Network (VPNs) and thisis explained by the need to improve security and efficiency and a third of thedepartments boost their connectivity through acquiring wireless broadband.2008 ICT in Government Report 115-119
    • 12.5. Access Technology Comparison(Municipalities)The importance of connectivity in the local government is unquestionable; hencethe need to provide and improve ICT connectivity to all important points ofaccess to the communities will always increase. The following table compares theusage of access technologies across the provinces. Technology Leased line Broadband networks Wireless (Diginet) LGNETT Satellite Cellular Dial-Up GCCN ADSL ISDN VPNEastern Cape 86 58 33 39 42 25 33 47 8 8Free State 38 33 19 19 19 29 24 14 19 5Gauteng 29 57 50 64 21 50 50 21 0 14KwaZulu Natal 65 46 52 21 35 31 21 23 10 4Limpopo 25 25 32 39 29 21 18 14 54 7Mpumalanga 47 29 35 35 41 47 29 24 6 24North West 95 38 33 19 43 19 29 24 0 33Northern Cape 65 56 74 39 39 52 39 30 4 22Western Cape 70 75 52 52 26 33 67 41 11 15 61% 47% 43% 34% 34% 33% 32% 28% 14% 13%TotalSA has one of the largest and most developed telecommunications networks inAfrica and offers the latest fixed-line, wireless, satellite and cellular technologyservices.The research indicates that ‘while wireless solutions will persist in makinginroads into the communication landscape, fixed lines will continue to be thepreferred connection choice well into the future. What will improve, however, isthe medium for these connections and the delivery time and, as a result, themarket will witness an increasing use of technologies such as WiMaX and metroEthernet – resulting in increased availability of infrastructure and enhancedspeeds respectively.2008 ICT in Government Report 116-119
    • 12.6. Future Investment Comparison(Departments)The planned future investments relate closely to ICT projects, therefore thisComparative Index indicates ICT projects likely to take place in the provinceswithin the next 12–24 months: Northern Cape KwaZulu Natal Western Cape Eastern Cape Mpumalanga North West Free State Limpopo Gauteng TotalPersonal Computers (including 36 50 90 67 80 90 82 86 100 69%Laptops)Internet /Bandwidth Extension 55 40 80 50 50 70 70 90 100 59%Voice Over IP (VoIP) 82 40 90 42 40 30 18 86 100 53%Printers 9 4 80 58 70 80 82 86 0 49%Portal Technology 45 20 70 33 70 20 36 71 100 47%Data Warehousing 36 70 80 33 50 10 18 43 100 45%System Integration 36 30 80 17 30 30 64 57 100 45%Website 54 50 60 50 50 0 55 86 0 39%Call Centre 54 30 50 33 50 20 18 14 100 39%Total Departmental Upgrade 18 70 90 33 40 20 36 43 0 34%Leased Lines 0 20 30 33 0 0 45 29 100 27%Database System 27 30 80 33 10 20 18 29 0 25%e-Commerce Portal 18 20 20 0 20 0 27 14 100 24%Integration software 27 30 70 8 10 20 36 14 0 22%Radio/Microwave Link 9 20 30 25 20 10 27 14 0 16%Satellite Technology 27 20 30 8 30 10 18 14 0 16%Financial Systems 27 30 40 25 20 0 0 0 0 15%ERP Systems 27 20 50 8 0 0 0 14 0 12%CRM 9 10 60 8 0 0 0 0 0 13%2008 ICT in Government Report 117-119
    • 12.6.1. Acquisition of New HardwareHardware acquisition is expected to be an ongoing investment in the publicsector because of expected obsolesce, equipment value and disposability. Someof the local government municipalities are considering ‘leasing’ as compared topurchasing hardware and they are basing their thoughts on calculated riskfactors that include reduced ownership risk, payment predictability andflexibility.12.6.2. System IntegrationWhile many functions and processes in government are outsourced and inter-operability is encouraged, the reality is that the associated IT systems are beingfurther fragmented. Furthermore, the need for data integration has expanded farbeyond data warehousing to encompass all types of analytic and operationalinitiatives. Hence, the current wave of data integration solutions that provincialgovernment is experiencing..12.6.3. Bandwidth ExtensionThe future Investment Index indicates that departments are facing an ever-increasing user demand and depth of information, which needs a greaterbandwidth.12.6.4. Voice Over Internet ProtocolMore than half of government departments are expected to take advantage ofthe current GCCN to enable voice calls to be made over the Internet.12.6.5. Data WarehousingData is becoming critical to the government as it is gathered into a centralrepository from which it is analysed to produce reports that are used bymanagement to support the decision-making processes. Warehousing makessense when management wants to restructure data or do period reviews oranalyse it in a particular way.2008 ICT in Government Report 118-119
    • 12.7. Future Investment Comparison (Municipalities) Northern Cape Western Cape Eastern Cape Mpumalanga North West Free state Limpopo Gauteng Total KZNMunicipalitiesFinancial Systems 36 33 29 48 57 59 48 35 15 40%Integration Software 22 43 43 25 50 53 29 28 22 35%Call Centre 25 24 71 19 50 53 29 26 22 30%Database System 14 33 36 19 50 53 29 26 22 30%Radio/Microwave Link 28 24 36 19 43 59 24 22 19 25%Internet Connection 25 24 36 42 0 29 0 26 11 21%Data Warehousing 17 19 14 17 18 53 10 9 22 20%Bandwidth Extension 14 14 29 25 21 29 5 22 11 19%Voice Over IP (VoIP) 19 10 21 10 25 18 5 4 4 15%ERP Systems 14 14 14 15 14 18 10 0 15 13%Leased Lines 25 14 14 13 11 18 5 4 4 12%Satellite Technology 11 10 14 10 18 24 5 9 4 12%e-Commerce Portal 8 5 14 6 18 29 0 4 11 11%System Integration 6 0 21 4 4 6 14 9 7 8%Portal Technology 0 0 14 4 4 12 0 4 7 5%CRM 0 0 7 4 14 0 0 4 0 3%2008 ICT in Government Report 119-119