How open is public data agi 2011-13

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  • Open data in relation to public services has typically been collected as a by- product of delivery and include datasets about public services, user satisfaction and performance of providers. Large non-personal datasets routinely collected by public services Service records (such as school, public health record) to give individuals right to access and control their own records User feedback on services (i.e. social care or health) Currently published: spending data, senior salaries, To be published: key data on the National Health Service, schools, criminal courts and transport
  • Accountability: public sector organisation sharing information about the use of public funds (Public Asset register) Choice: providing comparative information to enable a meaningful choice between different public services (spending data) Productivity: reporting of costs and service performance can be a driver for efficiencies (comparable data, spikes cavell), use of data can lead to productivity improvements (GI Value study) Quality and Outcomes: benchmarking of data can help peer based competition and better quality outcomes. Self service by people may improve the quality of data Social growth: access to self-serve (incidence reporting, london cycle hire, wehre is my nearest) Economic Growth: data for reuse to foster analytic service leading to innovation. Operational use: collected for carrying out services (ie asset management, public transport, planning, etc.) Prevention, risk reduction: Linking services 24/7 access to information through the web (on holiday, at home, on travel or in the office)
  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/aug/16/riots-poverty-map-suspects We have been collecting courts data for people accused of riots going through the magistrates courts - as of today, the legal system has processed over 1,100 cases and we have been recorded addresses and demographic details . Against map of multiple deprivation. Location based on crowd sourcing, flickr etc.
  • 1. Make it open No T&Cs about not using the data for commercial use, no restrictions on access. Make the data available to anyone to do whatever they want to with it. That's the only way that the data information revolution is going to work. 2. Make it readable for computers The data needs to be in a format that any computer can use - no more PDFs, thank you very much. If developers can't build applications and campaigners can't analyse it, what use is it? 3. Make it granular The days when we only wanted official statisticians to just put the numbers together in a way we could understand are gone. Now we also want the full, disaggregated data too. It's the only way it will ever be useful for someone wanting to gather the true local picture of local spending. Let us worry about whether the dataset is too big or not. It's not your problem anymore. 4. Make it quick Just get the stuff out there. We'd rather have it as it is - and then get it revised later than have to wait months for it to be finalised. The government has provided express permission for local authorities to do this. So just do it. 5. Make it easy to find There's no point hiding this stuff away. If we can't find it, it may as well not exist. It should be easy to discover and simple to access.
  • Open Public Data ONS: Statistics some published in linked data format NOMIS OS Open Data: Small scale data Natural England: Open data Local authorities: 81 published spending data according to guidelines (87 authorities across uk local authorities publish open data according to openlylocal http://openlylocal.com/councils/open (following OGL and machine readable) )n 7 July only 15 out of 434 had totally opened data Open data not government: Open street map Non-open data: Google maps (open for public use but licences apply Non-open public data: OS large scale data OS derived data which are not exempt: Public assets, government service location,
  • Human readable data : to be easily understandable to humans, most commonly in html or pdf format, data cannot be easily reused, processed, analysed and linked to other data Open Data : follows open data standards developed by the w3 consortium, to be machine-readable (CSV, XML) Linkable Data: Data that can be compared using comon reference Linked data : specific form of open data, enables the data to be joint up with other related information, coded according to specific classifications (ontologies) published in linked data formats such as RDF using specific uniform resource identifiers.

Transcript

  • 1. How Open is Public Data? Dr Gesche Schmid Head of Geographic Information Policy [email_address] Presented at:
  • 2. Coalition Government: Data Transparency
    • To enable the public to hold politicians and public bodies to account
    • To reduce the deficit and deliver better value for money in public spending
    • To realize significant economic benefits by enabling businesses and non-profit organisations to build innovative applications and websites using public data.
  • 3. What is Open Public Data?
    • " Public Data " is the objective, factual, non-personal data on which public services run and are assessed, on which policy decisions are based, or which is collected or generated in the course of public service delivery.
    • (Transparency Board, http://data.gov.uk/blog/new-public-sector-transparency-board-and-public-data-transparency-principles )
    • Open data is data which can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone.
    • (Open knowledge foundation, www.opendefinition.org/government )
  • 4. Transparency Board: Public data principles
    • Public data will be
      • published in reusable, machine-readable form
      • released under the same open licence which enables free reuse
      • available and easy to find through a single easy to use online access point ( data.gov.uk )
      • published using open standards and in reusable form for others to use
      • timely and fine grained
    • Public bodies should
      • actively encourage the re-use of their public data
      • maintain and publish inventories of their data holdings
      • release data quickly, and then re-publish it in linked data form
    Nigel Shadbolt Tim Berners-Lee Rufus Pollock Tom Steinberg
  • 5. Open Data consultation
    • The Open Data consultation paper sets out Government’s proposed approach for Transparency and Open Data Strategy, which is aimed at establishing a culture of openness and transparency in public services.
    • We want to hear from everyone – citizens, businesses, public services themselves, and other interest groups – on how we can best embed a culture of openness and transparency in our public services.  The consultation closes on 27 October 2011. 
  • 6. Data Transparency: Why open public data?
    • Improve local accountability
    • Lead to greater choice and informed choice
    • Power economic growth
    • Give users more power to self serve (social growth)
    • Improve productivity through better consistent and comparable data (better quality)
  • 7. Legislation and Policies: What should/can be released and how
    • Access to data: Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), Environmental Information Regulation (EIR), Data Protection Act (DPA),
    • Reuse of data: Reuse of Public Sector Information Regulation (RPSI)
    • Technical standards framework for location data (INSPIRE) to facilitate the access and sharing of data.
    • Data transparency (Making open data real, Code of practice on transparency, Data policy for a public data corporation)
  • 8. Open Data consultation on
    • Enhance the Right to data to reuse (FOI, EIR)
    • Set transparency standards (machine readable and linked data as the goal)
    • Hold bodies to account for delivering open data
    • Ensure collection and publication of the most useful data (meaningful data), standards set by central government
    • Make the working of public sector more open
    • Stimulate enterprise and market making in the use of open data (innovation)
  • 9. Open Public Data
  • 10. Examples of Open Data Use Birmingham Gritting routes based on OSM http://mappa-mercia.org/gritting-map.shtml
  • 11. Examples: Use of Open data
    • Mapping of England riots against poverty indicator (deprivation index):
    Guardian data blog, Simon Rogers: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/aug/16/riots-poverty-map-suspects
  • 12. London Bike App
  • 13. How to make data really open
    • 1. Make it open
    • No T&Cs about not using the data for commercial use, no restrictions on access.
    • 2. Make it readable for computers
    • The data needs to be in a format that any computer can use
    • 3. Make it granular
    • Publish the full, disaggregated data to gather the true local picture of local spending.
    • 4. Make it quick
    • Just get the stuff out there. We'd rather have it as it is - and then get it revised later than have to wait months for it to be finalised.
    • 5. Make it easy to find
    • There's no point hiding this stuff away. It should be easy to discover and simple to access.
    (open knowledge foundation http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/jul/07/local-government-data )
  • 14.  
  • 15. Local Government Open Data
    • Barrow Borugh Council (57)
    • Warwickshire Borrow Council (54)
    • Sunderland City Council (43)
    • Bristol City Council (27)
    • Lichfield District Council (19)
    • East Staffordshire Borough Council (12)
    • East Sussex County Council (12)
  • 16.  
  • 17. What people say about Open Data Not a question of how much data to make open but how to make it open What is the return on investment? There has been little interest in OpenData from our citizen Are the opening up of data enough to meet the need of transparency and accountability? Datasets are inherently dull and are they understood by the local citizen?
  • 18. Just open data or meaningful open data
    • Establish inventories of data so people know what is available and where to find it
    • Follow Open standards so that data can be combined and compared?
    • Requires some data quality (currency, accuracy, validity)
      • Else: Health Warning!
  • 19. Open to Linked Data Adapted from Ian Painter Snowflake by Local Government Group
  • 20. Meeting INSPIRE Compliance: From discovery to mapping Barrow Borough Council using INSPIRE compliant Open Source Web Mapping Service
  • 21. Use of Open Data
    • Open, Linkable and Linked data: enables connections of data through the web
    • Mobile Technology: Access to location based information anywhere.
    • Apps: linking location data to local authority records such as environmental health, ratings of restaurants, recording incidences.
  • 22. Open kent
  • 23.  
  • 24. Licences regulates the use of data
    • UK Government Licence Framework (UKGLF) defines a licensing framework for the use of public data.
    • Open Government Licence: free commercial reuse of data with limited exceptions
    • Creative commons: set of licenses that permit the sharing of copyright largely for non-commercial use http://creativecommons.org/
    • Other licensing: operational guidance on data sharing ( http://location.defra.gov.uk/2011/08/data-sharing-operational-guidance-updated/
  • 25. Other licences
    • Third party licences define the use of data
    • Example Public Sector Mapping Agreement (PSMA) license: licences the use of Ordnance Survey data across the public sector
      • free-to-use: created independent of OS datasets and does not include OS attribute data.
      • Derived data: contains one or more feature contained in an OS dataset
      • End User License for contractors and community groups
      • Exemption process for derived data
  • 26. Limitations on open public data
  • 27. Data Privacy
    • Transparency and privacy complement each other. A successful transparency programme is build on confidence of the public that their privacy is protected
    • De-anonymisation of large scale datasets may be possible
    • O’Hara argues in Transparent Government, Not Transparent Citizens for a case by case assessment of privacy
  • 28. Affordability: Data is not costless
    • Cost:
      • Collection (as part of services)
      • Prepare data for publication (extract, convert, check for personal data)
      • Sign post (metadata on data.gov.uk)
      • Dissemination (publishing)
        • 5 stages of publishing
        • Meeting INSPIRE compliance requires additional webmapping services
    • Charging
      • Freely reusable (raw data)
      • Marginal cost pricing (to cover costs)
      • Commercial rate (value add)
  • 29. Conclusions
    • Government is opening up public data: many examples of uses
    • Data becomes more reusable (license, standards)
    • but far from consistent; start of a journey!
    • Opening of data is not costless!!
    • INSPIRE adds usability of data but also costs
    • Who is benefitting from open data?
      • My granny versus geek?!
    • Who should fund the opening of public data?
      • Taxpayer?
      • Private sector sponsor?
      • Users?
    • Who should provide open data?
      • Government in form of public data?
      • Crowd sourced open data (OSM)?
    • What data should be opened up?
    • Have your say in the Open Data Consultation!
    • http:// www.local.gov.uk /open-data-consultation