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Chapter 10 presentation

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Presentation Uterus Gestation Dilation, Expulsion, and Placental Stage<br />By: Laura Garcia<br />
  2. 2. Uterus<br /> The hollow muscular organ that is pear shaped, in which the a fertilized egg is developed into the embryo and fetus. The uterus is about 7.5 cm long , it consists of a bodywith an elongated lower part called the cervix. <br /> The upper rounded portion of the uterus is the fundus, at each side of the uterus is the horn marking the part where the uterine tube joins the uterus. In order for a morula to reach the uterine cavity after leaving the uterine tube. <br /> The uterus is supported in the pelvic cavity by the vagina and paracolpium and by the anteflexion and anteversion of the uterus, which places its mass superior to the bladder. It is actively supported by the tonic and phasic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor. <br />
  3. 3. Abnormal Conditions of the Uterus <br />Fibroids -growths in the walls of the uterus. Sometimes, a fibroid is attached to the outside of the uterus by a stalk. Fibroids can be as small as a seed or a pea or as large as an orange or small melon. Although fibroids are called tumors, they are not cancer. They are smooth muscle growths. <br />Endometriosis-Endometrial tissue lines the uterus. Each month with the menstrual cycle, the endometrial tissue thickens and is shed during menstruation. Endometriosis is the same kind of tissue that lines your uterus and is growing in other parts of your body, usually in the abdomen. This can cause scar tissue to build up around your organs. Also can cause severe pain and abnormal bleeding, around the time of your period. Pain during intercourse is another common symptom. Endometriosis is a leading cause of infertility.<br />Endometrial Hyperplasia - a condition in which the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which results in abnormal bleeding. Hyperplasia is thought to be caused by too much estrogen.<br />
  4. 4. Uterine Prolapse – happens when uterus has tilted or slipped. Sometimes it slips so far down that it reaches into the vagina. This happens when the ligaments that hold the uterus to the wall of the pelvis become too weak to hold the uterus in its place.<br />Unicornuate uterus – a banana shaped uterus with a single horn and sometimes a rudimentary second horn. Bicornuate uterus – characterized by a heart shape.<br />Uterus didelphys – a double uterus that may also be associated with a double cervix and/or vagina.<br />Uterus bicornuate - A uterus which has 2 horns<br />Septate uterus – a wall or septum partially or fully divides the uterus into two cavities.<br />Arcuate uterus - A uterus that has an arc<br />
  5. 5. Uterine Cancer <br /> Uterine cancer usually occurs after menopause. Being obese and taking estrogen-alone hormone replacement therapy also increase your risk. Treatment varies depending on your overall health, how advanced the cancer is and whether hormones affect its growth. Treatment is usually a hysterectomy. Other options include hormone therapy and radiation.<br />Signs and symptoms : <br />Unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge<br />Trouble urinating <br />Pelvic pain <br />Pain during intercourse <br />
  6. 6. Gestation <br /> Gestation is the period of time between conception and birth during which the fetus grows and develops inside the mother's uterus. Gestational age is the time measured from the first day of the woman's last menstrual cycle to the current date. It is measured in weeks. A normal pregnancy can range from 38 to 42 weeks.<br />*** Determination of gestational age is important because it provides valuable information regarding expected or potential problems and directly affects the medical treatment plan for the baby.<br />
  7. 7. Gestational stages:<br />There are three stages of pregnancy called trimesters. Each trimester is three months. The word trimester comes from a Latin word meaning three months long.<br />First trimester - the first 12 weeks of pregnancy<br />Second trimester - begins at week 14 and ends at week 26<br />Third trimester - weeks 26 to 40 <br />
  8. 8. Dilation Stage<br /> The first stage of labor begins with the onset of contractions that cause progressive changes in the cervix and ends when the cervix is fully dilated. <br />This stage is divided into two phases: early and active labor.<br />Early labor, the cervix gradually effaces (thins out) and dilates (opens).<br />Active labor, the cervix begins to dilate more rapidly and contractions are longer, stronger, and closer together.<br />
  9. 9. Expulsion Stage<br />This stage is the second stage of labor and is referred to as the delivery or expulsive stage. This is the period from complete dilatation of the cervix to birth of the baby. The forces involved are uterine contractions plus intra-abdominal pressure. <br />
  10. 10. Placental Stage<br /> This is the third stage of labor the period from birth of the baby through delivery of the placenta. This is considered a dangerous time because of the possibility of hemorrhaging. <br />