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DesignProcess & MethodsL.Galli(2011-2013)Copyright of this presentation is by referred sources for quoted/reproduced conte...
This short deck is mainly meant to help with my Design Studieslessons to undergraduate students at NABA, Media Design andM...
What is designing?John Chris Jones opening question inDesign Methods, 1970-1992L.Galli Design Process & MethodsJ.C.Jones 1...
Rather than pursue the question “What is design?” [...]let us ask a different (and perhaps better) question:“What is the a...
For Jones (1992) the answer would be drawing [...]Fallman’s answer [...] would be sketching.In agreeing with him, I am not...
Photo credits:“Sketching” by NathanaelB - Nathanael Boehm (2010) published under Creative Commons terms CC BY-NC-SA 2.0Ret...
Photo credits:“Prototyping at OpenAustralia hackfest” by NathanaelB - Nathanael Boehm (2009) published under Creative Comm...
Sketching in HCI [Human-Computer Interaction]differs in some ways from sketching in other design fields[because of] the nee...
L.Galli Design Process & MethodsB.Buxton 2007, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann
Some definitions of process:[...] progress, advance <in the process of time>; [...]a series of actions or operations conduc...
In most professions, process is a dirty word [...]But in design, nothing could be further from the truth.For designers, pr...
[...] we had better look outside the process itselfand try to defining design by its results.J.C. Jones, 1970-1992J.C. Jone...
[...] we had better look outside the process itselfand try to defining design by its results.J.C. Jones, 1970-1992J.C. Jone...
Look at the chain of events that begin withthe sponsor’s wish and moves through the actions ofdesigners, manufacturers, di...
J.C. Jones (badly) interpolated to look forsome media design emphasis:“Look at the chain of events that begin withthe [cli...
[...] the effect of designing isto initiate change in man-made things.J.C. Jones, 1970-1992John Chris Jones 1970-1992, Des...
Photo credits:“Untitled” by By M0J0jojo - Jojo Korsh (2011) published under Creative Commons terms CC BY-NC-SA 2.0Retrieve...
Notice a number of roles, or “stakeholders”(*).Roles are played by actors(some actors play more than one role at once,but ...
Bill Buxton’s (double) design funnelL.Galli Design Process & Methodssee B.Buxton 2007, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan ...
see John Chris Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,WileyDivergence Transformation ConvergenceL.Galli Design Process & MethodsJ...
Methodology should not be a fixed trackto a fixed destination but a conversationabout everything that could be made of happe...
StartingpointDesign ProcessFocalpointElaborationOpportunity-seeking:from singular to multiplesReductionDecision-making:fro...
Methods & techniques(there are many of them andthey apply all along the process)L.Galli Design Process & Methods
Design methods are like toothbrushes.Everyone uses them,but no one likes to use someone else’s.John Zimmerman, 2011John Zi...
Listed below there are a few very notable books on designprocess and methods that I would recommend.Design Methods (1970-1...
References:Bill Buxton (2007) Sketching User Experiences, Morgan KaufmannHazel Clark and David Brody (2009) ed. by, Design...
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Design process & methods

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Hi, this (very short) deck is mainly meant to help with my Design Studies lessons to undergraduate students at NABA, Media Design and Multimedia Arts School, Milan. These slides are supposed to come with a live commentary for the class, so sorry if you wish to have more explicit context and liaisons. Please see referred sources to this purpose.

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  1. 1. DesignProcess & MethodsL.Galli(2011-2013)Copyright of this presentation is by referred sources for quoted/reproduced content (text & images) and/or Luca Galli for original content.Original content by Luca Galli is released as Creative Commons License BY-NC-ND 2.0
  2. 2. This short deck is mainly meant to help with my Design Studieslessons to undergraduate students at NABA, Media Design andMultimedia Arts School, Milan (http://www.lgalli.it/teaching/).These slides are supposed to come with a live commentary forthe class; sorry if you wish to have more explicit context andliaisons. Please see referred sources to this purpose.
  3. 3. What is designing?John Chris Jones opening question inDesign Methods, 1970-1992L.Galli Design Process & MethodsJ.C.Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,Wiley; see also J.C.Jones What is Designing? in Clark-Brody 2009 (ed. by), Design Studies, Berg
  4. 4. Rather than pursue the question “What is design?” [...]let us ask a different (and perhaps better) question:“What is the archetypical activity of design”?Bill Buxton, 2007L.Galli Design Process & MethodsB.Buxton 2007, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann, p.97
  5. 5. For Jones (1992) the answer would be drawing [...]Fallman’s answer [...] would be sketching.In agreeing with him, I am not alone.Bill Buxton, 2007L.Galli Design Process & MethodsB.Buxton 2007, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann, p.97
  6. 6. Photo credits:“Sketching” by NathanaelB - Nathanael Boehm (2010) published under Creative Commons terms CC BY-NC-SA 2.0Retrieved on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/purecaffeine/4325067780/L.Galli Design Process & Methods
  7. 7. Photo credits:“Prototyping at OpenAustralia hackfest” by NathanaelB - Nathanael Boehm (2009) published under Creative Commonsterms CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 - Retrieved on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/purecaffeine/3621432701/sizes/o/L.Galli Design Process & Methods
  8. 8. Sketching in HCI [Human-Computer Interaction]differs in some ways from sketching in other design fields[because of] the need to deal with issues such asinteractivity, temporality, tangibility,immersion, sound and haptics [...]Daniel Fallman, 2003L.Galli Design Process & MethodsD.Fallman 2003, Design-oriented Human-Computer Interaction, CHI 2003 Proceedings,ACM
  9. 9. L.Galli Design Process & MethodsB.Buxton 2007, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann
  10. 10. Some definitions of process:[...] progress, advance <in the process of time>; [...]a series of actions or operations conducing to an end;Middle English proces, from Anglo-French procés, from Latin processus, from procedere. [...]Merriam-WebsterMerriam-Webster, consulted online on 27th Apr. 2013 http://www.merriam-webster.comL.Galli Design Process & Methods
  11. 11. In most professions, process is a dirty word [...]But in design, nothing could be further from the truth.For designers, process is the language of rigor,and a particular processnearly guarantees a desired outcome.Jon Kolko, 2013J.Kolko (2013) Trusting the design process, in InteractionsL.Galli Design Process & Methods
  12. 12. [...] we had better look outside the process itselfand try to defining design by its results.J.C. Jones, 1970-1992J.C. Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,WileyL.Galli Design Process & Methods
  13. 13. [...] we had better look outside the process itselfand try to defining design by its results.J.C. Jones, 1970-1992J.C. Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,WileyL.Galli Design Process & Methods
  14. 14. Look at the chain of events that begin withthe sponsor’s wish and moves through the actions ofdesigners, manufacturers, distributors, consumersto the ultimate effects of a newly designed thingupon the world at largeJ.C. Jones, 1970-1992John Chris Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,WileyL.Galli Design Process & Methods
  15. 15. J.C. Jones (badly) interpolated to look forsome media design emphasis:“Look at the chain of events that begin withthe [client/investor/producer]’s wish and movesthrough the actions of[agencies/studios/suppliers], [retailers]and [audience/users/people]to the ultimate effects of a newly designed[media/service/hybrid(*)] upon the world at large”cf. J.C. Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,Wiley; insertions are mine.See also B. Latour 1993,We have never been modern, Harvard University PressL.Galli Design Process & Methods(*) Hybrids à la Bruno Latour
  16. 16. [...] the effect of designing isto initiate change in man-made things.J.C. Jones, 1970-1992John Chris Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,WileyL.Galli Design Process & Methods
  17. 17. Photo credits:“Untitled” by By M0J0jojo - Jojo Korsh (2011) published under Creative Commons terms CC BY-NC-SA 2.0Retrieved on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/jojofosho/6333830266/L.Galli Design Process & Methods
  18. 18. Notice a number of roles, or “stakeholders”(*).Roles are played by actors(some actors play more than one role at once,but monologues are very rare;we design for others, if not for all).L.Galli Design Process & Methods(*) “Stakeholders” is a form of bad “office jargon” according to some. I tend to agree.See the article of Steven Poole quoted in the footer.Re:”Stakeholders”, see Steven Poole, 10 of the worst examples of management-speak, 25th Apr. 2013,The Guardian, consulted online,http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/apr/25/top-10-worst-management-speak?CMP=twt_gu
  19. 19. Bill Buxton’s (double) design funnelL.Galli Design Process & Methodssee B.Buxton 2007, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann, p.144
  20. 20. see John Chris Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,WileyDivergence Transformation ConvergenceL.Galli Design Process & MethodsJ.C. Jones’ design phases
  21. 21. Methodology should not be a fixed trackto a fixed destination but a conversationabout everything that could be made of happen.Jones, 1970-1992John Chris Jones 1970-1992, Design Methods,WileyL.Galli Design Process & Methods
  22. 22. StartingpointDesign ProcessFocalpointElaborationOpportunity-seeking:from singular to multiplesReductionDecision-making:from broad to specificL.Galli Design Process & Methodssee B.Buxton 2007, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann, p.144Bill Buxton’s design funnel (in detail)
  23. 23. Methods & techniques(there are many of them andthey apply all along the process)L.Galli Design Process & Methods
  24. 24. Design methods are like toothbrushes.Everyone uses them,but no one likes to use someone else’s.John Zimmerman, 2011John Zimmerman quoted by Steve Harrison and Deborah Tatar 2011, On Methods, in Interactions,ACML.Galli Design Process & Methods
  25. 25. Listed below there are a few very notable books on designprocess and methods that I would recommend.Design Methods (1970-1992), by John Chris Jones,is a classic title on the topic.Design Research (2003), edited by Brenda Laurel, whilefocused on research, it is also relevant for design in general.The same it goes for Sketching User Experiences (2007),by Bill Buxton, which combines discussions on interactiondesign, design history and technology R&D.Universal Methods of Design (2012), by Bruce Haningtonand Bella Martin, is an extensive survey that follows thesimilarly conceived Universal Principles of Design(2003-2010), by William Lidwell, Kritina Holdenand Jill Butler.L.Galli Design Process & Methods
  26. 26. References:Bill Buxton (2007) Sketching User Experiences, Morgan KaufmannHazel Clark and David Brody (2009) ed. by, Design Studies.A Reader, BergDaniel Fallman (2003) Design-oriented Human-Computer Interaction, CHI 2003Proceedings,ACMSteve Harrison and Deborah Tatar (2011) On Methods, in Interactions vol. XVIIIn. 2, ACMJohn Chris Jones (1970-1992) Design Methods,WileyJon Kolko (2013) Trusting the design process, in Interactions vol. XX, n. 2, ACML.Galli Design Process & Methods
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