The Power Of Perspective

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  • 1. The Power of Perspective: Games and Simulations for Transformative Learning Lisa Galarneau Ph.D. Candidate The University of Waikato, New Zealand
  • 2. Games can motivate learning… People cannot be ‘taught’. They must be motivated to learn. When learners need to memorize information, making it fun might be key. Younger generations are increasingly bored with linear content. …but motivation is not the only thing games are good for! The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 3. The sweet spot for games and simulations… They are flexible environments that allow for infinite possibilities and points-of-view (‘going meta’) Allow learners to form connections by experimenting with knowledge in context Learners learn by doing, discovery and through failure They allow learning designers to foster authentic learning experiences Facilitate transformative learning The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 4. Why learning No longer sufficient to know stuff or must be do stuff, learning is about transformative… being/becoming different. James Paul Gee: ‘Learning is a change not just in practice but in identity’ John Seely Brown and Paul DuGuid: ‘Learning to be requires more than just information It requires the ability to engage in the practice in question’ – ‘through practice, we learn to be’ The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 5. Modernism, Postmodernism and Identity Play Miroslaw Filiciak’s ‘Hyperidentities’:  ‘personality is not quite definite, its final form is never reached, and it can be manipulated’; ‘we construct it incessantly’  ‘digital media enable us to manipulate our ‘selves’ and multiply them indefinitely’ Anthony Giddens: “Narrative of the Self”  ‘everyday activities consist in strengthening and reproducing a set of expectations’ (from Filiciak) The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 6. Transformation is the natural by-product of experience… With guidance and reflection, transformations can be positive (Jack Mezirow) Without, they can result in unconscious judgment (Malcolm Gladwell’s rapid cognition) Transformative learning may be a "intuitive, creative, emotional process" (Grabov) Transformations are often abrupt shifts in perspective enabled by ‘disorienting dilemmas’ or ‘fictional recentering’ The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 7. What animal do you see? The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 8. How is perspective shifted? The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 9. What do you understand about terrorism? -- September 12th The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 10. The human immune system from the perspective of a virus – MIT’s Replicate The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 11. Try on a pioneer identity… – The Oregon Trail The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 12. What if you could change history? What if you are? – MIT’s Revolution The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 13. Can ‘replaying history’ shift one’s perspective? – Civilization 3 The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 14. What if you turned this simulation around so the player plays the student, not the teacher? – SimSchool The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 15. What if you were CEO? Would you make environmentally and socially responsible decisions? – BT’s Better Business Game The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 16. How does experience contribute to our empathy for others? – Magellan’s Understanding Diversity The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 17. How do we learn to handle the complexities of business relationships? - Simulearn’s Virtual Leader The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 18. Enabling transformations through games and simulations…. Consider using games and simulations to allow a point-of-view that is unexpected. Allow learners to play at being -- encourage them to try on different identities. Remember that simulations are well-suited to practice that is impossible or impractical in the physical world. (allow learners to ‘go meta’) Don’t forget to add fun, challenge and stickiness with ‘game elements’. Keep in mind that transformation is the goal, but transformation only comes with experience. Design authentic learning experiences, not just materials or resources. Don’t forget the importance of guidance and reflection. The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 19. Identity can be the hook for freeing people to learn and think in new ways, including learning, or at least thinking about, new values, belief systems, and world views.’ (James Paul Gee, GameZone Interview 2004) The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005
  • 20. Questions/Comments? The Power of Perspective Games * Learning * Society Conference June 23, 2005