Defining ‘Team’ "A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they are mutually accountable." (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993) "People working together in a committed way to achieve a common goal or mission. The work is interdependent and team members share responsibility and hold themselves accountable for attaining the results."
What is it..?
MORE DYNAMIC TEAM
Commonly held beliefs about effective teams:
Teams work together interdependently
Teams work together to develop and clarify intended learning outcomes
Teams develop a shared set of values – a vision
They collaboratively analyze student achievement data
Establish, reflect and re-define team improvement goals
Share strategies, knowledge, ideas and materials (Best Practices)
Engage in collective inquiry and action research regarding student learning and achievement
Work together to creatively problem solve
Support, nurture and care
Team Mission and Vision
The driving force and common understanding behind every team is a clear mission and vision.
Team Operating Processes
To accomplish tasks effectively and efficiently, good teams develop operating processes such as sequential steps
Types of Teams Generally fall into one of two primary groups: permanent teams and temporary teams.
Why do we work in groups?
Teams typically outperform individuals.
Teams use employee talents better.
Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.
Teams facilitate employee involvement.
Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation.
Team building is any activity that builds and strengthens the team as a team.
Camaraderie are vitally important.
Types of Teams Task force A temporary team assembled to investigate a specific issue or problem. Problem solving team A temporary team assembled to solve a specific problem. Product design team A temporary team assembled to design a new product or service. Committee A temporary or permanent group of people assembled to act upon some matter. Quality circle A group of workers from the same functional area who meet regularly to uncover and solve work-related problems and seek work improvement opportunities.
Types of Teams (cont’d) Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
Stages of Team Development
Forming (Orientation)- the team tries to figure out its goals, roles and processes.
1 st Stage -
2 nd Stage
Storming (Dissatisfaction) - this is the negotiation phase when egos emerge and turf wars develop.
3 rd Stage
Norming (Resolution) - once issues are resolved, team members work well together.
4 th Stage
Performing (Production) - this is where true team synergy happens and the maximum benefit of teamwork is achieved.
5 th Stage
Adjourning (Mission Accomplished) – Hard to say good- bye. Task has been completed or job tasks have been terminated.
Communication in Groups
Verbal and non-verbal
Explicit and the implied messages
Information, ideas and feelings must all be considered.
Deadlines and due dates
Expectations of team members and leadership
Clarification of doubts, confusions and misconceptions
Both parties understanding each other
Receiving and giving of feedback
Participation in Groups
The content or task of the group
The physical atmosphere - the psychological atmosphere - is it accepting, non-threatening?
Member’s personal preoccupations
The level of interaction and discussions
Familiarity between group members
Decision Making in Groups
Clearly define the problem: Is it what appears on the surface or are there deep hidden aspects?
Try to thoroughly explore and understand the causes behind the problem
Collect additional information, from elsewhere if necessary, and analyze it to understand the problem further
The group should suspend criticism and judgment for a while and try to combine each other's ideas or add on improvements.
Takes advantage of the diverse strengths and expertise of its members.
How do groups decide?
Consensus : The group members all agree on the final decision through discussion and debate.
Compromise : Through discussion and readjustment of the final plan, group members come to agreement by giving up some of their demands.
Majority Vote : The decision is based on the opinion of the majority of its members.
Decision by Leader : The group gives the final decision to its leader.
Arbitration : An external body or person makes a decision for the group.
Dysfunction in Groups
Cutting off others
Attacking people rather than issues
Withholding reactions, feelings or information
Attending to side issues -nitpicking
Side grouping –side conversations
Operating on assumptions – “not checking it out ”
The Six Team Building Roles
Encourager - praises other members' contributions to the team
Harmonizer - mediates differences between other members
3. Compromiser - offers a compromise during disagreement or conflict by yielding position or admitting error
4. Gatekeeper -regulates the flow of communication, particularly in meetings, by encouraging the participation of those less inclined to participate and quieting those who are overly talkative
5. Standard Setter - expresses standards for the team regarding its operation
6. Group Observer - observes and reports back to the team on its group dynamics
Don't Blame Others
Support Group Member's Ideas
No Bragging – Don’t be Full of yourself
Coach, Don't Demonstrate
Provide Constructive Criticism
Try To Be Positive
Value Your Group's Ideas
Keys to Leadership
A leader plans – Planning for the group
A leader has a Vision – Goal setting
A leader shares his/her vision - Communication
A leader takes charge – Implementation & Control
A leader inspires through example
Systems Thinking -shape the behavior of systems
A simple definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Three basic functions that a leader performs: 1. Organizational 2. Interpersonal 3. Decisional
How to energize your team… and keep it going…?
1. Set a positive example.
2. Give support to create trust.
3. Develop an open line of communication.
4. Create regular and productive meetings.
5. Assess strengths and weaknesses
Creating Effective Teams Group Size Performance Expected Actual
1. Process Losses – see chart.
2. Social loafing – The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working with a group.
3. Groupthink – Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.