CIDADANIAthe practice of citizenship hasconventionally been separated fromentertainment, leisure andconsumption activities. Thisinterpretation is based on a traditional butnarrow view of the public spherethat focuses on political and civic rightsand responsabilities
CIDADANIAPublic sphere (Habermas, 1992)universal space where rationalcitizens engage in the politicalprocess through critical-rationaldeliberation
CIDADANIAcitizenship is practised as muchthrough everyday life, leisure, criticalconsumption and popular entertainmentas it is through debate andengagement with capital ‘P’ politics
CIDADANIAPublic sphere (Habermas, 1996)The public sphere cannot be conceivedas an institution and certainly not as anorganization (...)(...) substantive differentiation of[multiple] public spheres’ thatare not overdetermined by expertdiscourses but that areaccessible to laypersons
CIDADANIAMcGuigan, 2005exclusion of everyday life, affect,and pleasure from ourunderstanding of democraticparticipation is a seriousmisrecognition of some of themost powerful modes of citizenengagement
CIDADANIADeuze (2006)emerging practices of participation innew media contexts3 configurations/modes of engagement
CIDADANIA.participationbecoming an active agent in theprocess of meaning-making
CIDADANIA.remediationadopt but modify and thus reformconsensual ways ofunderstanding reality
CIDADANIA.bricolagereflexively assemble our ownparticular versions of that reality
CIDADANIAcommunityshifted away from a simplisticdichotomy between online (‘virtualcyberspace’) and offline (‘real life’)modes of communication and interactionwhich were previously seen as distinct andunrelated
CIDADANIACastells (2001)portfolios of sociabilitythat is, interwoven networks ofkinship, friends and peers that mayoriginate from online interaction, are takeninto and continued face-to-face in theoffline world and vice versa
CIDADANIAResearch found70% believing in the importance of helpingthe community,68% already doing something to support acause on a monthly basis82% describing themselves at least‘somewhat involved,’it does seem that the majority of youngpeople are convinced that supporting asocial cause is something they should do.
CIDADANIAthere is a strong disparity between interestand involvement,an activation gap
CIDADANIA“the broad decline in youth participation mightbe better redressed through offline initiatives,strengthening the opportunities structures ofyoung people’s lives and the ‘communities ofpractice’ available to them, rather than buildingWeb sites which, though they will engage a few,will struggle to reach the majority or, moreimportant, to connect that majority to those withpower over their lives in a manner that youngpeople themselves judge effective andconsequential.”Nick Couldry, Livingstone, S. and Markham, T. (2007),Connection or Disconnection? Tracking the Mediated PublicSphere in Everyday Life in R. Butsch (ed.) Media and PublicSpheres. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 28-42.
CIDADANIA“Focus groups with young people suggest ageneration bored with politics, critical of theonline offer, instead interested in celebrity andconforming to peer norms.Young people protest that ‘having your say’does not seem to mean ‘being listened to’ andso they feel justified in recognising littleresponsibility to participate.”Sonia Livingstone, Nick Couldry, and Tim Markham,Youthful Steps Towards Civic Participation: Does theInternet Help? in Young Citizens in the Digital Age:Political Engagement, Young People and New Media,ed. Barney Loader (London: Routledge, forthcoming).
CIDADANIA ‘voice’It isn’t if nobody seems tobe listening
CIDADANIAThis population is both self-guided andin need of guidance: although awillingness to learn new media by point-and-click exploration might come naturallyto today’s student cohort, there’snothing innate about knowinghow to apply their skills to theprocesses of democracy (...)
CIDADANIAInternet media are not offered as thesolution to young people’s disengagementfrom political life, but as a possiblypowerful tool to be deployed towardhelping them engageRheingold, Howard. “Using Participatory Media and PublicVoice to Encourage Civic Engagement." Civic Life Online:Learning How Digital Media Can Engage Youth. Edited by W.Lance Bennett. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthurFoundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge,MA: The MIT Press, 2008. 97–118.
CIDADANIA“[t]he policy of ‘targetting’ young people sothat they can ‘play their part’ can be readeither as a spur to youth activism or anattempt to manage it (...)”
CIDADANIA(...) Indeed, the very notion of youth e-citizenship seems to be caught betweendivergent strategies of management andautonomy...”Stephen Coleman in Civic Life Online: Learning How DigitalMedia Can Engage Youth. Edited by W. Lance Bennett. TheJohn D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series onDigital Media and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press,2008.