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Fluency Fluency Presentation Transcript

  • Fluency Spider, Spider Video
  • Agenda 1. What is fluency? Why does it matter? 2. How does a reader’s brain produce fluent reading? 3. Critical elements of teaching fluency: •Modeling •Guided practice •Independent practice
  • What is fluency? Fluency is the ability of readers to read quickly, effortlessly, and efficiently with good, meaningful expression. (The Fluent Reader, p. 26)
  • Fluent readers:
  • Fluent readers: • ecognize words automatically R
  • Fluent readers: • ecognize words automatically R • ead aloud effortlessly and with expression R
  • Fluent readers: • ecognize words automatically R • ead aloud effortlessly and with expression R • o not have to concentrate on decoding D
  • Fluent readers: • ecognize words automatically R • ead aloud effortlessly and with expression R • o not have to concentrate on decoding D • an focus on comprehension C
  • Non-fluent readers:
  • Non-fluent readers: 1) read less text than peers and have less time to remember, review, or comprehend the text
  • Non-fluent readers: 1) read less text than peers and have less time to remember, review, or comprehend the text 2) expend more cognitive energy than peers trying to identify individual words
  • Non-fluent readers: 1) read less text than peers and have less time to remember, review, or comprehend the text 2) expend more cognitive energy than peers trying to identify individual words 3) may be less able to retain text in their memories and less likely to integrate those segments with other parts of the text
  • Non-fluent readers: 1) read less text than peers and have less time to remember, review, or comprehend the text 2) expend more cognitive energy than peers trying to identify individual words 3) may be less able to retain text in their memories and less likely to integrate those segments with other parts of the text (Mastropieri, Leinart, & Scruggs, 1999).
  • How does the reader’s brain produce fluent reading?
  • Reading in the Brain from Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz
  • Reading in the Brain from Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz Readers use three primary areas of the brain:
  • Reading in the Brain from Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz Readers use three primary areas of the brain: ✴ Broca’s area - articulating spoken words
  • Reading in the Brain from Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz Readers use three primary areas of the brain: ✴ Broca’s area - articulating spoken words ✴ Parieto-temporal area - “pulling apart” words and linking their letters to sounds
  • Reading in the Brain from Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz Readers use three primary areas of the brain: ✴ Broca’s area - articulating spoken words ✴ Parieto-temporal area - “pulling apart” words and linking their letters to sounds ✴ Occipito-temporal area - “Word Form” - reacts almost instantly to the whole word as a pattern
  • How the word form system works:
  • How the word form system works: • Reader analyzes an unfamiliar word
  • How the word form system works: • Reader analyzes an unfamiliar word • After correctly reading the word several times, forms an exact model (form) of the word
  • How the word form system works: • Reader analyzes an unfamiliar word • After correctly reading the word several times, forms an exact model (form) of the word • Word form includes word’s spelling, pronunciation, and its meaning.
  • How the word form system works:
  • How the word form system works: • From now on, just seeing the word in print activates the word form area, calling up all relevant information about the word.
  • How the word form system works: • From now on, just seeing the word in print activates the word form area, calling up all relevant information about the word. • Skilled readers rely upon the word form system.
  • How the word form system works: • From now on, just seeing the word in print activates the word form area, calling up all relevant information about the word. • Skilled readers rely upon the word form system. • Dyslexic readers show less brain activation in this area, and much more activation in other areas - less automatic.
  • How automatic is automatic? Part 1
  • How automatic is automatic? Part 2
  • Fluency Takes Practice... A reader must have four or more successful encounters with a new word to be able to read it fluently.
  • Fluency: Critical Elements
  • Fluency: Critical Elements • Focus on oral reading
  • Fluency: Critical Elements • Focus on oral reading • Fluency is built on accuracy - select decodable text (less than one error for every twenty words)
  • Fluency: Critical Elements • Focus on oral reading • Fluency is built on accuracy - select decodable text (less than one error for every twenty words) • Provide frequent opportunities for practice - need only be a few minutes a day
  • Fluency: Critical Elements • Focus on oral reading • Fluency is built on accuracy - select decodable text (less than one error for every twenty words) • Provide frequent opportunities for practice - need only be a few minutes a day • Ongoing feedback
  • Fluency: Critical Elements • Focus on oral reading • Fluency is built on accuracy - select decodable text (less than one error for every twenty words) • Provide frequent opportunities for practice - need only be a few minutes a day • Ongoing feedback
  • Fluency: Critical Elements • Focus on oral reading • Fluency is built on accuracy - select decodable text (less than one error for every twenty words) • Provide frequent opportunities for practice - need only be a few minutes a day • Ongoing feedback This technique is sometimes referred to as guided repeated oral reading.
  • Faster is not always better!
  • Components of Fluency Instruction: •Modeling •Guided practice •Independent practice
  • Modeling What does fluent reading look and sound like? What does it NOT sound like? •Automatic decoding •Pitch •Stress •Phrasing Ways to model: teacher or parent read-alouds, older buddy reading with a younger child, listening to a book on CD
  • What does fluent reading sound like? Fluency Comment Form - Students can begin by rating the teacher!
  • Rory Reading, Age 3
  • Nia Reading In Spanish and English
  • Modeling Visually Poetry books - how phrases are arranged “Scooping” text to show phrasing Highlighting stressed syllables and punctuation Drawing symbols to indicate pauses (like in music!)
  • Try: noticing line breaks highlighting drawing “pause” symbols
  • Try: scooping phrases highlighting
  • More visual modeling... Select a short passage from a text to rewrite in “poem” format. Use visual cues (size, shape, position on the page, color) to represent the text as it would be heard.
  • Guided Practice
  • Guided Practice •Echo reading - Teacher reads and students echo. Students might follow along on a sheet, in a book, or on an overhead/computer screen.
  • Guided Practice •Echo reading - Teacher reads and students echo. Students might follow along on a sheet, in a book, or on an overhead/computer screen. • As students gain fluency, they may take turns as the “echo leader”.
  • Guided Practice •Echo reading - Teacher reads and students echo. Students might follow along on a sheet, in a book, or on an overhead/computer screen. • As students gain fluency, they may take turns as the “echo leader”. This is the strategy that Lisa uses for theater practice, especially the first few months that the children are working with their scripts.
  • Guided Practice
  • Guided Practice •Choral reading - Teacher and students read together. Students might follow along on separate sheets, in a book, or on an overhead/computer screen.
  • Guided Practice •Choral reading - Teacher and students read together. Students might follow along on separate sheets, in a book, or on an overhead/computer screen. Works well with
  • Guided Practice •Choral reading - Teacher and students read together. Students might follow along on separate sheets, in a book, or on an overhead/computer screen. Works well with • Poems, song lyrics, familiar rhymes
  • Guided Practice •Choral reading - Teacher and students read together. Students might follow along on separate sheets, in a book, or on an overhead/computer screen. Works well with • Poems, song lyrics, familiar rhymes • Excerpts from chapter books - posted on an overhead so students can follow along.
  • Guided Practice •Choral reading - Teacher and students read together. Students might follow along on separate sheets, in a book, or on an overhead/computer screen. Works well with • Poems, song lyrics, familiar rhymes • Excerpts from chapter books - posted on an overhead so students can follow along. • Text with simple dialogue - break the class up into two groups.
  • Tips for Choral Reading
  • Tips for Choral Reading • Read each text repeatedly - several times at once or spread out over time.
  • Tips for Choral Reading • Read each text repeatedly - several times at once or spread out over time. • Pause the group to review sections that are difficult to decode or that require particular phrasing and expression.
  • Tips for Choral Reading • Read each text repeatedly - several times at once or spread out over time. • Pause the group to review sections that are difficult to decode or that require particular phrasing and expression. • Encourage students to read loudly and with slightly exaggerated expression - build their confidence.
  • Tips for Choral Reading • Read each text repeatedly - several times at once or spread out over time. • Pause the group to review sections that are difficult to decode or that require particular phrasing and expression. • Encourage students to read loudly and with slightly exaggerated expression - build their confidence. • Assign students to sections of text based on strengths and needs.
  • Types of Choral Reading
  • Types of Choral Reading • Refrain – for texts that have a repeating line
  • Types of Choral Reading • Refrain – for texts that have a repeating line • Line-a-child
  • Types of Choral Reading • Refrain – for texts that have a repeating line • Line-a-child • For a piece with dialogue, assign small groups of students to act as each character.
  • Types of Choral Reading • Refrain – for texts that have a repeating line • Line-a-child • For a piece with dialogue, assign small groups of students to act as each character. • Antiphonal reading – Divide the class into groups and assign parts of the text or poem
  • Types of Choral Reading • Refrain – for texts that have a repeating line • Line-a-child • For a piece with dialogue, assign small groups of students to act as each character. • Antiphonal reading – Divide the class into groups and assign parts of the text or poem • Call and response – One student reads a part of the text and the rest of the class responds
  • Types of Choral Reading • Refrain – for texts that have a repeating line • Line-a-child • For a piece with dialogue, assign small groups of students to act as each character. • Antiphonal reading – Divide the class into groups and assign parts of the text or poem • Call and response – One student reads a part of the text and the rest of the class responds • Cumulative/layered reading – One or two students read the first line, then another student chimes in, etc., until the whole class is reading. Alternately, point to students to prompt them to “drop out”.
  • Types of Choral Reading • Refrain – for texts that have a repeating line • Line-a-child • For a piece with dialogue, assign small groups of students to act as each character. • Antiphonal reading – Divide the class into groups and assign parts of the text or poem • Call and response – One student reads a part of the text and the rest of the class responds • Cumulative/layered reading – One or two students read the first line, then another student chimes in, etc., until the whole class is reading. Alternately, point to students to prompt them to “drop out”. • Choral singing – use songs for word work
  • Types of Choral Reading • Refrain – for texts that have a repeating line • Line-a-child • For a piece with dialogue, assign small groups of students to act as each character. • Antiphonal reading – Divide the class into groups and assign parts of the text or poem • Call and response – One student reads a part of the text and the rest of the class responds • Cumulative/layered reading – One or two students read the first line, then another student chimes in, etc., until the whole class is reading. Alternately, point to students to prompt them to “drop out”. • Choral singing – use songs for word work • Impromptu choral reading – children join in reading the text, as desired, at different times
  • Choral Reading Example
  • The sun was shining on the sea, Shining with all his might: He did his very best to make Excerpt from “The The billows smooth and bright-- Walrus and the And this was odd, because it was The middle of the night. Carpenter” The Walrus and the Carpenter Were walking close at hand; Lewis Carroll, They wept like anything to see Such quantities of sand: “Through the Looking "If this were only cleared away," Glass” They said, "it would be grand!" "O Oysters, come and walk with us!" The Walrus did beseech. "A pleasant walk, a pleasant talk, Along the briny beach: We cannot do with more than four, To give a hand to each." "The time has come," the Walrus said, "To talk of many things: Of shoes--and ships--and sealing-wax-- Of cabbages--and kings-- And why the sea is boiling hot-- And whether pigs have wings."
  • Guided Practice
  • Guided Practice Paired/Buddy Reading -
  • Guided Practice Paired/Buddy Reading - • Students alternate reading paragraphs or pages of a text, stanzas of a poem, or dialogue from a reader’s theater script.
  • Guided Practice Paired/Buddy Reading - • Students alternate reading paragraphs or pages of a text, stanzas of a poem, or dialogue from a reader’s theater script. • Material should be at the student’s instructional decoding level - not too easy or too difficult.
  • Guided Practice Paired/Buddy Reading - • Students alternate reading paragraphs or pages of a text, stanzas of a poem, or dialogue from a reader’s theater script. • Material should be at the student’s instructional decoding level - not too easy or too difficult. • Each student should follow along with a finger or pencil eraser both while reading and while the other is reading.
  • Guided Practice Paired/Buddy Reading - • Students alternate reading paragraphs or pages of a text, stanzas of a poem, or dialogue from a reader’s theater script. • Material should be at the student’s instructional decoding level - not too easy or too difficult. • Each student should follow along with a finger or pencil eraser both while reading and while the other is reading. • Students can use the rating scale to rate their partners.
  • Guided Practice Paired/Buddy Reading - • Students alternate reading paragraphs or pages of a text, stanzas of a poem, or dialogue from a reader’s theater script. • Material should be at the student’s instructional decoding level - not too easy or too difficult. • Each student should follow along with a finger or pencil eraser both while reading and while the other is reading. • Students can use the rating scale to rate their partners. • Depending on the group, students may be able to correct one another’s miscues, or they may require a teacher’s presence.
  • Independent Practice
  • Independent Practice •Repeated readings - Students re-read a text until they have achieved fluency with it.
  • Independent Practice •Repeated readings - Students re-read a text until they have achieved fluency with it. Possible activities:
  • Independent Practice •Repeated readings - Students re-read a text until they have achieved fluency with it. Possible activities: ★ Individual work - Children read to a teacher, who marks miscues and times the reading (fluent reading = approx. 100 words per minute).
  • Independent Practice •Repeated readings - Students re-read a text until they have achieved fluency with it. Possible activities: ★ Individual work - Children read to a teacher, who marks miscues and times the reading (fluent reading = approx. 100 words per minute). ★ Poems - Work up to a recital!
  • Independent Practice •Repeated readings - Students re-read a text until they have achieved fluency with it. Possible activities: ★ Individual work - Children read to a teacher, who marks miscues and times the reading (fluent reading = approx. 100 words per minute). ★ Poems - Work up to a recital! ★ Excerpts from current chapter book or text of interest to the child (Oompa Loompa songs from Charlie & the Chocolate Factory)
  • Independent Practice •Repeated readings - Students re-read a text until they have achieved fluency with it. Possible activities: ★ Individual work - Children read to a teacher, who marks miscues and times the reading (fluent reading = approx. 100 words per minute). ★ Poems - Work up to a recital! ★ Excerpts from current chapter book or text of interest to the child (Oompa Loompa songs from Charlie & the Chocolate Factory) ★ “Radio show” - students practice their pieces until ready for recording.
  • Independent Practice •Repeated readings - Students re-read a text until they have achieved fluency with it. Possible activities: ★ Individual work - Children read to a teacher, who marks miscues and times the reading (fluent reading = approx. 100 words per minute). ★ Poems - Work up to a recital! ★ Excerpts from current chapter book or text of interest to the child (Oompa Loompa songs from Charlie & the Chocolate Factory) ★ “Radio show” - students practice their pieces until ready for recording. ★ Older students can prepare a text to read to younger students - a good way to help them feel OK with practicing easier texts.
  • Independent Practice
  • Independent Practice Speeded Word Training (Shaywitz, 2003)
  • Independent Practice Speeded Word Training (Shaywitz, 2003) • Use flash cards, slides on a computer screen, game pieces
  • Independent Practice Speeded Word Training (Shaywitz, 2003) • Use flash cards, slides on a computer screen, game pieces • Stimulus: single printed words
  • Independent Practice Speeded Word Training (Shaywitz, 2003) • Use flash cards, slides on a computer screen, game pieces • Stimulus: single printed words • Deadline: Child must name word aloud in ___ seconds
  • Independent Practice Speeded Word Training (Shaywitz, 2003) • Use flash cards, slides on a computer screen, game pieces • Stimulus: single printed words • Deadline: Child must name word aloud in ___ seconds • Goal: increase reader’s ability to read words accurately and quickly (less than one second per word = 60 words per minute)
  • Science Terms • Homeostasis • Chemical • Photosynthesis • Reproduction • Habitat • Hypothesis • Cycle • Biological • Oxygen • Equipment • Laboratory • Scientist
  • Science Review Each slide will stay up for 5 seconds.
  • Oxygen
  • Habitat
  • Laboratory
  • Scientist
  • Temperature
  • Science Review Each slide will stay up for 2 seconds.
  • Oxygen
  • Habitat
  • Laboratory
  • Scientist
  • Temperature
  • Science Review Each slide will stay up for 1 second.
  • Oxygen
  • Habitat
  • Laboratory
  • Scientist
  • Temperature
  • Science Review Each slide will stay up for 1/2 second.
  • Oxygen
  • Habitat
  • Laboratory
  • Scientist
  • Temperature
  • Independent Practice
  • Independent Practice “Jazzing up” repeated readings...
  • Independent Practice “Jazzing up” repeated readings... • Relay race - assign each child a section of a text and time the group
  • Independent Practice “Jazzing up” repeated readings... • Relay race - assign each child a section of a text and time the group • Reverse relay race - for students who tend to speed at the expense of accuracy
  • Independent Practice “Jazzing up” repeated readings... • Relay race - assign each child a section of a text and time the group • Reverse relay race - for students who tend to speed at the expense of accuracy • “Tic-tac-toe” board filled with sounds, words, phrases or sentences.
  • Independent Practice “Jazzing up” repeated readings... • Relay race - assign each child a section of a text and time the group • Reverse relay race - for students who tend to speed at the expense of accuracy • “Tic-tac-toe” board filled with sounds, words, phrases or sentences. • Reading “in character” - especially useful if reading from a book or readers theater script.
  • Independent Practice “Jazzing up” repeated readings... • Relay race - assign each child a section of a text and time the group • Reverse relay race - for students who tend to speed at the expense of accuracy • “Tic-tac-toe” board filled with sounds, words, phrases or sentences. • Reading “in character” - especially useful if reading from a book or readers theater script. •ç
  • Tips for Repeated Reading
  • Tips for Repeated Reading • Keep texts short and manageable. Texts can be word lists, phrases, or short stories.
  • Tips for Repeated Reading • Keep texts short and manageable. Texts can be word lists, phrases, or short stories. • Students should stay with a selection until achieving a pre-determined criterion - specify both accuracy level and speed.
  • Tips for Repeated Reading • Keep texts short and manageable. Texts can be word lists, phrases, or short stories. • Students should stay with a selection until achieving a pre-determined criterion - specify both accuracy level and speed. • Help students take pride in mastering each selection. Some programs (i.e. Great Leaps) provide a chart for tracking progress.
  • Tips for Repeated Reading • Keep texts short and manageable. Texts can be word lists, phrases, or short stories. • Students should stay with a selection until achieving a pre-determined criterion - specify both accuracy level and speed. • Help students take pride in mastering each selection. Some programs (i.e. Great Leaps) provide a chart for tracking progress. • HOWEVER, students may feel demoralized at having to stick with the same passage for another day, or having an “easier” passage in comparison to classmates. I have dealt with this by giving students a second passage to work on or temporarily “retiring” a story text in favor of a word or passage list instead.
  • Tips for Repeated Reading • Keep texts short and manageable. Texts can be word lists, phrases, or short stories. • Students should stay with a selection until achieving a pre-determined criterion - specify both accuracy level and speed. • Help students take pride in mastering each selection. Some programs (i.e. Great Leaps) provide a chart for tracking progress. • HOWEVER, students may feel demoralized at having to stick with the same passage for another day, or having an “easier” passage in comparison to classmates. I have dealt with this by giving students a second passage to work on or temporarily “retiring” a story text in favor of a word or passage list instead. • Students who are anxious may miscue or speed with a teacher or peer, but perform well when allowed to tape their performance in private.
  • Tips for Repeated Reading • Keep texts short and manageable. Texts can be word lists, phrases, or short stories. • Students should stay with a selection until achieving a pre-determined criterion - specify both accuracy level and speed. • Help students take pride in mastering each selection. Some programs (i.e. Great Leaps) provide a chart for tracking progress. • HOWEVER, students may feel demoralized at having to stick with the same passage for another day, or having an “easier” passage in comparison to classmates. I have dealt with this by giving students a second passage to work on or temporarily “retiring” a story text in favor of a word or passage list instead. • Students who are anxious may miscue or speed with a teacher or peer, but perform well when allowed to tape their performance in private. •Recording also allows the child to reflect upon the improvement as s/he listens to what the passage sounded like before practice, and then afterwards.
  • Effective Learning Moving From Modeling to Independent Reading Graph adapted from The Fluent Reader, p. 57 Higher level of support Scaffolding fluent reading Independent Lower level Guided practice practice of support Shared reading Student reads Teacher reads Choral reading independently aloud (modeling Paired reading (timed, recitals, oral reading) Echo reading Readers Theater)
  • Summary
  • Summary Fluency is essential for skilled reading.
  • Summary Fluency is essential for skilled reading. Fluency includes reading speed, accuracy AND expression.
  • Summary Fluency is essential for skilled reading. Fluency includes reading speed, accuracy AND expression. Select decodable texts and gradually increase difficulty level.
  • Summary Fluency is essential for skilled reading. Fluency includes reading speed, accuracy AND expression. Select decodable texts and gradually increase difficulty level. Practice consistently, but can be in short sessions - just a few minutes per day.
  • Summary Fluency is essential for skilled reading. Fluency includes reading speed, accuracy AND expression. Select decodable texts and gradually increase difficulty level. Practice consistently, but can be in short sessions - just a few minutes per day. Repetition!