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Vocabulary, Punnett Squares

Vocabulary, Punnett Squares

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3. #1 #2 #3 What is happening here? These are called ______ _________ #4 #5 Diploid or Haploid ? #6 Diploid or Haploid?
  • 4. Completely Random!!!!!!
  • 5.
    • Genes – determine the characteristics of an organism.
    • Alleles – alternate forms of genes
      • Ex. Gene = seed color
            • Green or Yellow  Alleles
    • *Remember*
    • Only 1 allele for each trait is passed on to the offspring from each parent!
  • 6.  
  • 7. The Terms…
    • Genotype – genetic make-up of an individual
      • Ex. T T = genotype (letter combination)
      • Each letter is inherited from different parents.
      • Dad Mom
      • T T
  • 8.  
  • 9. Genotype Possibilities
    • Homo zygous (purebred)
      • An organism with genes that are alike .
        • Ex. BB or bb
    • Hetero zygous (hybrid)
      • An organism with genes that are different
        • Ex. B b
  • 10. DOMINANT TRAITS!!!
    • Homozygous Dominant Genotype
      • -Both alleles are the same.
      • -Both are capital letters.
      • Ex. TT
    • Heterozygous Genotype
      • - Different alleles.
      • Ex. T t
  • 11. Recessive Traits
    • recessive genotype
      • Both alleles are the same
      • Both represented by lower case letters
        • Example = tt
      • **For an organism to show a recessive phenotype, the genotype must be homozygous recessive.
        • Example: tt = short
  • 12. Mendel’s 1 st Law
    • Law of Segregation
      • Hereditary characteristics are determined by factors called genes.
      • For each characteristic, an offspring gets 2 genes, one from each parent.
      • The 2 genes of each pair segregate from each other and end up in separate gametes.
  • 13. Genotype and Phenotype
    • Letters represent traits
      • Capital letter = dominant trait
      • Lower case = recessive trait
        • Ex. H E I G H T
        • Tall = T (dominant)
        • Short = t (recessive)
        • TT, Tt  Tall tt  short
  • 14. Gene Expression
    • Phenotype
      • Expression of an individual’s genes…what it looks like .
        • Ex. Tall = phenotype (physical appearance)
  • 15. Ww 2 wings
  • 16.  
  • 17. Solving Genetics Problems
    • If you know the genotype of the parents, it is possible to predict the likelihood of an offspring inheriting a particular phenotype.
    • - Probability – the chance that a given event will occur
    • - Punnett Square – named for R.C. Punnett, British biologist and mathematician
    • - Probability is shown through monohybrid crosses – genetic cross involving only 1 trait of the parents.
  • 18. Examples
    • Homo zygous tall plant (TT) with homo zygous short plant (tt).
    • 100% Tt
    • 100% Tall
    • heterozygous tall
  • 19. Examples…
    • Heterozygous long hair female with homozygous short hair male (long is dominant). L l x l l
    • 50% Ll = long hair
    • 50% ll = short hair
    • 1 : 1 ratio (1Ll to 1ll)