#1 #2 #3  What is happening here?  These are called ______ _________ #4 #5 Diploid or Haploid ? #6 Diploid or Haploid?
Completely Random!!!!!!
<ul><li>Genes – determine the characteristics of an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Alleles – alternate forms of genes </li></...
 
The Terms… <ul><li>Genotype – genetic make-up of an individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. T T =  genotype (letter combinati...
 
Genotype Possibilities <ul><li>Homo zygous (purebred)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organism with genes that are  alike .  </l...
DOMINANT TRAITS!!! <ul><li>Homozygous  Dominant  Genotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Both alleles are the same.  </li></ul></u...
Recessive Traits  <ul><li>recessive genotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both alleles are the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bo...
Mendel’s 1 st  Law <ul><li>Law of Segregation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary characteristics are determined by factors c...
Genotype and Phenotype <ul><li>Letters represent traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital letter = dominant trait </li></ul></...
Gene Expression <ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of an individual’s genes…what it  looks like . </li></u...
Ww 2 wings
 
Solving Genetics Problems <ul><li>If you know the genotype of the parents, it is possible to predict the likelihood of an ...
Examples <ul><li>Homo zygous  tall  plant (TT) with  homo zygous  short  plant (tt). </li></ul><ul><li>100% Tt </li></ul><...
Examples… <ul><li>Heterozygous long hair female with homozygous short hair male (long is dominant).  L l  x  l l </li></ul...
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Genetics

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Vocabulary, Punnett Squares

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Genetics

  1. 3. #1 #2 #3 What is happening here? These are called ______ _________ #4 #5 Diploid or Haploid ? #6 Diploid or Haploid?
  2. 4. Completely Random!!!!!!
  3. 5. <ul><li>Genes – determine the characteristics of an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Alleles – alternate forms of genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Gene = seed color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green or Yellow  Alleles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>*Remember* </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1 allele for each trait is passed on to the offspring from each parent! </li></ul>
  4. 7. The Terms… <ul><li>Genotype – genetic make-up of an individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. T T = genotype (letter combination) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each letter is inherited from different parents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dad Mom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T T </li></ul></ul>
  5. 9. Genotype Possibilities <ul><li>Homo zygous (purebred) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organism with genes that are alike . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. BB or bb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hetero zygous (hybrid) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organism with genes that are different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. B b </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 10. DOMINANT TRAITS!!! <ul><li>Homozygous Dominant Genotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Both alleles are the same. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Both are capital letters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. TT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterozygous Genotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Different alleles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. T t </li></ul></ul>
  7. 11. Recessive Traits <ul><li>recessive genotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both alleles are the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both represented by lower case letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example = tt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**For an organism to show a recessive phenotype, the genotype must be homozygous recessive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: tt = short </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 12. Mendel’s 1 st Law <ul><li>Law of Segregation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary characteristics are determined by factors called genes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For each characteristic, an offspring gets 2 genes, one from each parent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 2 genes of each pair segregate from each other and end up in separate gametes. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 13. Genotype and Phenotype <ul><li>Letters represent traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital letter = dominant trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower case = recessive trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. H E I G H T </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tall = T (dominant) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short = t (recessive) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TT, Tt  Tall tt  short </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 14. Gene Expression <ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of an individual’s genes…what it looks like . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Tall = phenotype (physical appearance) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Ww 2 wings
  12. 17. Solving Genetics Problems <ul><li>If you know the genotype of the parents, it is possible to predict the likelihood of an offspring inheriting a particular phenotype. </li></ul><ul><li>- Probability – the chance that a given event will occur </li></ul><ul><li>- Punnett Square – named for R.C. Punnett, British biologist and mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>- Probability is shown through monohybrid crosses – genetic cross involving only 1 trait of the parents. </li></ul>
  13. 18. Examples <ul><li>Homo zygous tall plant (TT) with homo zygous short plant (tt). </li></ul><ul><li>100% Tt </li></ul><ul><li>100% Tall </li></ul><ul><li>heterozygous tall </li></ul>
  14. 19. Examples… <ul><li>Heterozygous long hair female with homozygous short hair male (long is dominant). L l x l l </li></ul><ul><li>50% Ll = long hair </li></ul><ul><li>50% ll = short hair </li></ul><ul><li>1 : 1 ratio (1Ll to 1ll) </li></ul>

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