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Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
Molecular Biology 1-2
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Molecular Biology 1-2

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Cell Structure, Cell Parts, Bacteria, Gram Positive Gram Negative, Viruses: The images have big font size and reduced background color. Useful for smartphones, classroom and printouts. The rest is …

Cell Structure, Cell Parts, Bacteria, Gram Positive Gram Negative, Viruses: The images have big font size and reduced background color. Useful for smartphones, classroom and printouts. The rest is standard stuff.

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  • 1. Molecular Biology 1-2 put together by: Linda Fahlberg-Stojanovska Disclaimer: I put these together for my kid for his smartphone. However, I found most images had very small type and increased thefont size. I am posting it because another teacher might find this useful. The sources are given. If I have used anything illegally, write me and I will take it off. 1
  • 2. Contents• Cell Structure - Eukaryotes• Cell Parts - Eukaryotes• Bacteria – Gram Positive / Negative• Viruses
  • 3. Eukaryote Cell 3 http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/cell.html
  • 4. Eukaryote 4http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/animals/cell/
  • 5. Eukaryote 5http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/cell/
  • 6. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 6 http://endoplasmicreticulum.net/
  • 7. Golgi apparatus (GA)• Like a post office - it packages and labels items and then sends to different parts of the cell.• It primarily modifies proteins from the rough ER• transport of lipids• creation of lysosomes• creation of polysacharides• Modify, sort, and store macromolecules for cell secretion (exocytosis) In glandular (secretion) cells > 100 GA. 7
  • 8. Golgi apparatus (GA) 8http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_er.html
  • 9. Golgi apparatus (GA) 9http://creationrevolution.com/2010/11/golgi-apparatus-steel-industry-of-the-simple-cell-%E2%80%93-part-6/
  • 10. Mitochondria- animals Chloroplast - plantMitochondria = organelles that produce energy ATP • Both plants and animals have mitochondria, but plants produce ATP in their chloroplasts. • signaling, • cellular differentiation, • control of cell cycle; cell growth and death, • Mitochondria have a double membrane • Outer is relatively smooth; Inner is very convoluted • The membrane proteins are part of cellular respiration and the synthesis of compounds, they are energy dense with ATP adenosintriphosphate). 10
  • 11. Mitochondria- animals Chloroplast - plant 11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion
  • 12. Chloroplast - plant Mitrochondria – animalChloroplasts are organelles • found in plant cells • conduct photosynthesis , that is the chemical process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. • capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP. • are green because they contain the chlorophyll pigment. • are members of a class of organelles known as plastids. 12
  • 13. Chloroplast - plant Mitrochondria – animal 13 http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/chloroplasts
  • 14. Lysosome - animal Vacuoles – plant• Lysosomes are organelles• They contain acid hydrolase enzymes. hydrolase is a digestive enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond (breaks down polymers).• Lysosomes break down waste materials and cellular debris. • Lysosomes also digest food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. • The membrane around a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at the 4.5 pH they require. 14 http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_lysosome.html
  • 15. Lysosome - animal Phagocytosis Lysosome digesting food 15 http://apbio-werle.wikispaces.com/Cell+and+Cell+Transport+%28Ch+6-7%29
  • 16. Vacuoles - plant Lysosomes – animals• Vacuoles are large, liquid-filled organelles found only in plant cells, occupying up to 90% of a cells volume and have a single membrane. Vacuole • Their main function is as a space-filler in the cell but they also perform digestive functions similar to lysosomes. 16 http://www.biologycorner.com/APbiology/cellular/notes_cells2.html
  • 17. Plasma membrane = Cell membrane• The cell membrane or plasma membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.• Cell membrane is semi-permeable (selectively permeable) to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells.• It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins.• Cell membranes serve as the attachment surface for the cell wall, glycocalyx, and intracellular cytoskeleton. 17
  • 18. Plasma membrane = Cell membrane 18
  • 19. Cytoskeleton • The cytoskeleton (CSK) is a cellular "skeleton" made out of protein. It is within a cells cytoplasm. • Eukaryotic cells contain 3 main kinds of cytoskeletal filaments: – microfilaments, – intermediate filaments – microtubules. 19http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellstructure/intracellularcomponents/section1.rhtml
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Bacteria Cell Prokaryote 21 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_cell_structure
  • 22. Bacteria• Bacteria are divided into two major groups: Gram-negative and Gram-positive• Gram-negative bacteria – Inner membrane – Thin layer of peptidoglycan in periplasmic space – Outer membrane = lipopolysaccharide + protein 22
  • 23. Bacteria• Bacteria are divided into two major groups: Gram-negative and Gram-positive• Bacteria come in 4 basic shapes: – Baccilli (rod ) – Cocci (spherical) – Spirilli (spiral) – Vibrios (comma) 23
  • 24. Bacteria - Shapes 24 http://www.biotopics.co.uk/microbes/bacter.html
  • 25. Bacteria – Gram Staining• Gram-negative bacteria – Inner membrane – Thin layer of peptidoglycan in periplasmic space – Outer membrane = lipopolysaccharide + protein• Gram-positive bacteria – Inner membrane – Thick layer of peptidoglycan called wall (causes staining) – No outer membrane (usually) 25
  • 26. Bacteria – Gram Staining 26http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/micro229/terry/images/micro/gramposneg.gif
  • 27. Bacteria – Gram Staining• Steps in Gram Staining – heat fix a smear of bacterial culture – apply a primary stain of crystal violet – add Gram’s iodine solution to bind crystal violet in the cell – rapid decolorization with alcohol or acetone Gram-positive cells are stained deep purple. – counterstain with safranin Gram-negative cells are stained red. 27
  • 28. Bacteria – Gram Staining 28 http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/fox/culture.htm
  • 29. Bacteria – Gram Staining• Reagents of Gram Staining – Crystal violet (primary stain) – Grams Iodine solution (mordant that fixes crystal violet to cell wall) – Decolorizer (e.g. ethanol) – Safranin (secondary stain) – Water (preferably in a squirt bottle) 29
  • 30. Bacteria – Gram Staining• How Gram Staining Works – 2. Grams iodine solution (iodine and potassium iodide) is added to form a complex between the crystal violet and iodine. This complex is a larger molecule than the original crystal violet stain and iodine and is insoluble in water. – 3. decolorizer dehydrates the peptidoglycan layer, shrinking and tightening it. The large crystal violet-iodine complex is trapped in the thick peptidoglycan layer of Gram positive bacteria and stained. – Conversely, the thin peptidoglycan layer of Gram negative cells cannot hold the crystal violet-iodine complex and the color (stain) is washed out and lost. 30
  • 31. Virus Virus particles (virions) •genetic material (DNA or RNA segment) •capsid (protein coat that protects these genes) •envelope (of lipids) (some virions) Flu virushttp://www.abc.net.au/health/library/stories/2004/07/08/1831345.htm 31 http://www.synapses.co.uk/science/fluvirus.html
  • 32. Virus - Bacteriophage• The Capsid – Head. It is protein coat around nucleic acid. Capsid is divided into subunits called capsomeres.• The Body - Rod shaped structure has retractible sheath around a central hollow core.• The Tails – At end of core is spiked plate with 6 tail fibers which help anchor the virus to its host. 32 http://www.armageddononline.org/viruses.html

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