Anatomy and physiology2007
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Anatomy and physiology2007

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Anatomy and physiology2007 Anatomy and physiology2007 Presentation Transcript

  • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    rlgbautista,rn
  • MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM*** External Structures ***
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  • SCROTUM
    Rugated, skin covered muscular pouch suspended from the perineum.
    Supports the testes
    Helps regulate the temperature of sperm
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  • TESTES
    Two ovoid glands, 2-3 cm wide that lie in the scrotum.
    Each is encased by a protective white fibrous capsule composed of lobules, with each lobule containing the following:
    • Interstitial cells or Leydig’s Cells – responsible for the production of testosterone
    • Seminiferous tubules – responsible for the production of spematozoa
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  • PENIS
    Glans – located at the distal end, a bulging and sensitive ridge of tissue.
    Prepuse – a retractable skin casing that protects the nerve-sensitive glans at birth.
    Composed of three cylindrical mass of erectile tissue in the shaft where the urethra passes:
    • 2 Corpus cavernosa
    • 1 corpus spongiosum
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  • MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM*** Internal Structures ***
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  • EPIDIDYMIS
    A tightly coiled tube responsible for conducting the sperm from the seminiferous tubule to the vas deferens
    Over 20 feet long
    Serves as the storage for sperm
    A portion of the seminal fluid is secreted by the cells lining it.
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  • VAS DEFERENS
    A hollow tube surrounded by arteries and veins and protected by a thick fibrous coating.
    Carries sperm from the epididymis through inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity ending at the seminal vesicles and the ejaculatory duct
    At this level, sperm matures but are immobile because of the fairly acidic medium of the semen.
    Blood vessels + vas deferens = spermatic cord
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  • SEMINAL VESICLES
    Two convoluted pouches that lie along the lower portion of the posterior surface of the bladder and empty into the urethra by way of the ejaculatory ducts
    Secretes a viscous alkaline liquid high in sugar, protein and prostaglandin
    Sperm are motile at this point
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  • EJACULATORY DUCTS
    Two ducts that pass through the prostate gland and joins the seminal vesicles to the urethra.
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  • PROSTATE GLAND
    A chestnut sized gland that lie below the bladder
    Secretes a thin alkaline fluid which will protect the sperm from the acidic medium of the urethra
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  • BULBOURETHRAL GLAND
    Also called Cowper’s Gland
    Lies beside the prostate gland and empty via short ducts into the urethra
    Also secretes an alkaline fluid that helps counteract the acid secretion of the urethra and ensures safe passage of the spermatozoa.
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  • URETHRA
    Lined with mucous membrane, it is a hollow tube leading from the base of the bladder, which after passing through the prostate gland continues to the outside through the shaft and glans penis
    Approximately 8 inches (18-20cm) long
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    Semen is derived from:
    60% prostate gland,
    30% seminal vesicles,
    5% epididymis,
    5% bulbourethral glands
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  • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM*** External Structures ***
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    VULVA – the collective term used to refer to the structures that form the female external genitalia (derived from the Latin word for “covering”)
  • MONS VENERIS
    A pad of adipose tissue located over the symphysis pubis
    Covered by a triangle of coarse, curly hairs
    Protects the junction of the pubic bone from trauma
    8/14/2010
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  • LABIA MINORA
    Two hairless folds of connective tissue
    Folds are pink, the internal surface is covered with mucous membrane and the external surface with skin.
    Area is abundant with sebaceous glands
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  • LABIA MAJORA
    Two folds of adipose tissue covered by loose connective tissue and epithelium that are positioned lateral to the labia minora
    Covered with pubic hair, it serves as a protection for the external genitalia and the distal urethra and vagina
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  • VESTIBULE
    Flattened smooth surface inside the labia where the opening to the bladder (urethra) and opening to the uterus (vagina) arise.
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  • CLITORIS
    A small rounded organ of erectile tissue at the forward junction of the labia minora
    Covered by a prepuce
    Approximately 1-2 cm
    Sensitive to touch and temperature and is the center of sexual arousal and orgasm in a woman.
    Arterial blood supply is also plentiful causing muscular contraction leading to clitoral erection
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  • SKENE’S GLANDS (paraurethral gland)
    Located lateral to the urinary meatus, one on each side
    Ducts open into the urethra
    BARTHOLIN’S GLANDS (vulvovaginal gland)
    Located lateral to the vaginal opening on both sides
    Ducts open into the distal vagina
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  • FOURCHETTE
    A ridge of tissue formed by the posterior joining of the two labia minora and the labia majora
    The structure that is sometimes cut during childbirth to enlarge the vaginal opening (episiotomy)
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  • PERINEAL MUSCLE/PERINEAL BODY/PERINEUM
    Located posterior to the fourchette
    A muscular area that is easily stretched during childbirth to allow for enlargement of the vagina and passage of the fetal head
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  • HYMEN
    Tough but elastic semi circle of tissue that covers the opening to the vagina in childhood
    Often torn during the time of first sexual intercourse.
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    Blood supply – mainly from the pudendal artery and a portion of the inferior rectus artery
    Venous return – through the pudendal vein
    Nerve supply – the anterior portion is from the ilioinguinal and genitofemoral nerves (L1 level)
    • The posterior portion of the vulva and vagina are supplied by the pudendal nerve (s3 level)
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  • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM*** Internal Structures *** 
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  • OVARIES
    Approximately 4cm long by 2 cm in diameter and approximately 1.5cm thick
    Almond shaped, grayish white and appears pitted or with minute indentations on the surface.
    The following can be observed on its surface:
    Unruptured, glistening, clear fluid filled graafian follicle (an ovum about to be discharged)
    A miniature yellow corpus luteum (a structure left behind after the ovum has been discharged)
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  • Ovaries...
    Located close to and on both sides of the uterus in the lower abdomen
    Produces estrogen and progesterone, regulates and initiates menstrual cycles.
    Produce, matures and discharge ova
    Necessary for maturation and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics in females
    Held suspended and in close contact with the fallopian tube by three supporting ligaments attached to the uterus or the pelvic wall.
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  • Ovaries...
    Has three principal divisions:
    Protective layer of surface epithelium
    Cortex where immature oocytes mature into ova and large amounts of estrogen and progesterone are produced
    Central medulla, which contains the nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic tissues and some smooth muscle tissue.
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  • FALLOPIAN TUBES
    Arise from each upper corner of the uterine body and extend outward and backward until each opens at its distal end, next to an ovary.
    Approximately 10cm long
    Conveys the ovum from the ovaries to the uterus
    Provides a place for fertilization of the ovum by the sperm
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  • Fallopian tube...
    Anatomically divided into four parts:
    Interstitial – the most proximal portion, the part of the tube that lies within the uterine wall; 1 cm in length, lumen is 1mm in diameter.
    Isthmus – the next distal portion; approximately 2 cm in length; the portion of the tube that is cut or sealed in a tubal ligation
    Ampulla – the longest portion of the tube; approximately 5 cm in length; the portion where fertilization occurs
    Infundibulum – the most distal; approximately 2cm long and is funnel shaped; the rim is covered by a fimriae that help guide the ovum into the fallopian tube
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  • UTERUS
    A hollow muscular, pear shaped organ located in the lower pelvis posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum
    At childhood, it is approximately the size of an olive
    With maturity, it is approx. 5-7cm long, 5cm wide and in its widest part 2.5cm deep.
    Weighs 60g in a non pregnant state
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  • Uterus...
    Function is to (1) receive the ovum from the fallopian tube; (2) provide a place for implantation and nourishment; (3) furnish protection to a growing fetus; (4) at maturity of the fetus, expel it from the woman’s body
    After pregnancy it never returns to its non pregnant size and is 80g in weight
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  • Consists of 3 divisions:
    Body or corpus – uppermost part and forms the bulk of the organ; the portion that expands to contain the growing fetus.
    Fundus – the portion between the points of attachment of the fallopian tubes; can be palpated abdominally to (1) determine the amount of uterine growth during pregnancy; (2) measure the force of uterine contractions during labor; (3) assessing the return of the uterus to its non-pregnant state after childbirth
    Isthmus – a short segment between the body and the cervix; the portion that greatly enlarges to accommodate the growing fetus; the portion that is cut if the fetus is born via CS
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  • UTERINE LININGS
    Endometrium
    Formed by two layers of cells, the basal layer and the glandular layer
    The layer that is shed off as the menstrual flow
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  • Myometrium
    Muscle layer, composed of 3 interwocen layers of smooth muscle and fibers arranged longitudinally, transverse, and oblique
    Constricts the tubal junctions and prevents regurgitation of menstrual blood into the tubes
    Holds the internal cervical os closed during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth
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  • Perimetrium
    The outermost layer, serves to add strength and support to the uterus
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  • UTERINE BLOOD SUPPLY
    Came from the descending aorta, where it divides to form two iliac arteries whose main divisions are the hypogastric arteries, further dividing to form the uterine arteries that supplies the uterus.
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  • UTERINE NERVE SUPPLY
    Both by afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerves
    Efferent – T5 throuh T10 spinal ganglia
    Afferent – hypogastric plexus and enters the spinal column at T11 and T12
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  • POSITIONAL DEVIATIONS OF THE UTERUS
    Anteversion – tipped far forward
    Retroversion – tipped backwards
    Anteflexion – body of the uterus bent sharply forward at the junction with the cervix
    Retroflexion – body is bent sharply backwards just above the cervix
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  • CERVIX
    The lowest portion of the uterus
    1/3 of the total uterus size approx 2-5cm long
    2 openings:
    • Internal cervical os – opening of the canal at the junction of the cervix and isthmus
    • External cervical os – the level of the ischial spine
     
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  • cervix ...
    Endocervix – the mucous membrane lining the cervix and is continuous with the endometrium. These secretes (alkaline) mucous to provide a lubricated surface so that spermatozoa can readily pass through the cervix
    During pregnancy it becomes plugged with mucus (operculum/mucus plug) forming a seal to keep out ascending infections
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  • VAGINA
    Hollow musculomembranous canal located posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum
    Acts as the organ of intercourse
    Conveys sperm to the cervix so that sperm can meet with the ovum in the fallopian tube
    With childbirth, it expands to serve as the birth canal
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  • The walls are rugated that lie in close approximation with each other that makes the vagina elastic and able to expand at the end of pregnancy to allow a full term baby to pass through without tearing
    Mucus produced by the lining is rich in glycogen and with the action of a bacteria that frequents the vagina (Doderlein’s bacillus) lactic acid is formed, that makes the vaginal pH acidic
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