Unit 4


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Unit 4

  1. 1. Unit 4Archeological Sites.
  2. 2. Unit 4 Archeological Sites Read the following article about the history of theruins in El Salvador, then complete the sentences bellow using words and phrases from the article Joya de Cerén: This is one of El Salvadorsmost popular and protected ancient sitesbecause of its superb level of preservation whichis said to be comparable only to that of Pompeiiand Herculaneum. An excellent choice to"see"the history of El Salvador!Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1993, Joya de Cerénoffers a glimpse into the agricultural based village that once livedhere. Buried twice by volcanic eruptions, it is one of the mostimportant archaeological sites of the Americas San Andrés: Is an impressive group of ceremonial centers and pyramids that date back to the late Classic period where the important Mayan dignitaries would live. These archaeological ruins were first discovered in the 19th century but excavations did not start until the 1940s.Findings on this ancient site prove that San Andrés had businessdealings with the Mayans in Copán (Honduras), Teotihuacán (Mexico)as well as with other Mayan villages in Belize and Guatemala; makingit an important and influential Mayan center in the region.The Mayan ruins of Joya de Cerén and San Andrés are 2 sites that arenot too far from each other, in La Libertad, so you can squeeze a tripto both of them in one day after spending some time at one ofthe beaches in La Libertad!
  3. 3. Tazumal: The Mayan ruins of Tazumal are located in Chalchuapa, in Santa Ana. This is a fascinating ancient site with many little secrets and historical treasures to discover. The findings on this site indicate that it wasoccupied during the late Classic period and was built the same way asother Toltec centers. Tazumal consists of a group of buildings thatformed the life line of a very important and sophisticated people. Itcovers an area of about 10sq km, but its not fully excavated.Among the well preserved discoveries are tombs, pyramids, palaces,water drainage systems and many other artifacts as well as a prizedlife-size statue of their god Xipe Totec. Exercise 1. Joya de Ceren is one of the most_____________ and ____________ancient sites in El Salvador. 2. Joya de Ceren offers a _______________into the__________based village that once live there. 3. San Andres archeological ruins were first discovered in the___________but excavations did not start until the ___________. 4. The Mayan ruins of Tazumal are located in________, in____________. 5. Tazumal consists of a group of buildings that formed the life line of a very ____________and_________people.
  4. 4. Exploring Grammar.Complete the table using comparatives and superlativesAdjective Comparative Superlativebig biggerlarge largestMany/much moreexpensive More expensivebeautiful Most beautifullong longerfew fewer Read the following article about National Anthropology Museum of El Salvador then discuss with classmates.The National Museum of Anthropology Dr. David J. Guzman(MUNA) is located on Avenida Revolution, San Benito, SanSalvador, El Salvador. According to its principles, the institutionfosters closeness and Salvadorans reflection on their culturalidentity in the fields of archeology and anthropology. The meansto accomplish this end include exhibitions, research, publicationsand educational programs.The National Museum arose from an executive order on October9, 1883 during the presidential term of Dr. Rafael Zaldivar. Itsfirst director was Dr. David J. Guzman, author of Prayer to theSalvadoran flag, and objects included presentations on thehistory, biology and geology. In its early years it was housed invarious locations, the first being the University of El Salvador,
  5. 5. and later in Spain Villa (1902) with samples scientific, agriculturaland industrial. After relocating to the House Model (1904-1911),came to the close by "not producing good of the nation in any ofthe results you set out to achieve." It reappeared in 1913 in thesame place by the Institute of Natural History and BotanicalGarden.Later the area was located in the former Presidential Palace of ElSalvador (1927) in the San Jacinto. From the August 13, 1945holds its current name in honor of Dr. Guzman. In 1962 he wastransferred to Avenida Revolution. Since 1974 acquired ananthropological and historical. These facilities were severelydamaged in the earthquake of 1986, so it was demolished in1993. The current building was opened in 1999 and opened in2001. Answer the following question. 1- Where was the first place was The National Museum of Anthropology Dr. David J. Guzman? 2- In what year was inaugurated the museum? 3- Who was the first director of the museum? 4- How many rooms have the museum? 5- In what year the current building was inaugurated?
  6. 6. Read the following article of maya art and artifacts and after that try to find out new vocabulary and share with the rest of the class.The art of the Maya has been called the richest of the New World because ofthe great complexity of patterns and variety of media expressions. Limestonestructures, faced with lime stucco, were the hallmark of ancient Mayaarchitecture. Maya buildings were adorned with carved friezes and roof combsin stone and stucco. With large quantities of limestone and flint available,plaster and cement were easily produced. This allowed the Mayans to buildimpressive temples, with stepped pyramids. On the summits were thatched-roof temples.Evidence show that the early Maya architects were using the corbel vaultprinciple, which is arch like structures with sides that extend inward until theymeet at the top.Another matchless feature of the Mayans was the use of colorful murals. It isalso noted that most of the Maya cities were built by being divided intoquaters by two avenues which cross-cut each other at right angles. Roofs wereflat and made with cedar beams overlaid with mortar. The walls wereplastered and painted with great gods and other mythological features.
  7. 7. Tombs were often encased within or beneath Mayan structures. Frequentlynew temples were built over existing structures.The Mayans also expressed themselves artistically. Their ceramics were madein a large variety of forms and decorated with complex scenes.The Mayans also designed works of art from flint, bone and shell, along withmaking decorated cotton textiles. Even metal was used for ceremonialpurposes. Items made with metal include necklaces, bracelets and headresses.It is evident that all of the structures built by the ancient Mayans were built inhonor of the gods. Compounds were built with large open areas, from whichall the citizens could view the religious ceremonies taking place on theplatforms elevated above the city. On the other hand, the construction of theCastillo, seems to relate to the ancient Mayas obsession with the calendar. Forexample, each stairway in the temple has 91 steps, making a total of 364 stepsin the four staircases, which, counting the platform at the top of the pyramid,equals the total number of days in the solar year. Even more so, each side ofthe pyramid has nine stepped terraces divided by a stairway, for a total ofeighteen sections on each side, consequently, the number of months in theMayan calendar.A honeycombed roofcomb towered above many structures, providing a basefor painted plaster that was the Maya equivalent of the billboard. In additionto temples, most Maya sites had multi-roomed structures that probably servedas royal palaces as well as centers for government affairs.Historically significant events, such as accessions, the capture or sacrifice ofroyal victims and the completion of the twenty year katun cycle, wererecorded on stone stelae and tablets.Without metal tools, beasts of burden, or even the wheel the Mayans wereable to construct vast cities across a huge jungle landscape with an amazingdegree of architectural perfection and variety.They were noted as well for elaborate and highly decorated ceremonialarchitecture, including temple-pyramids, palaces and observatories, all builtwithout metal tools.