Metabolic Testing and Energy Systems for Cyclists and Athletes


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How effective is metabolic testing and how should athletes use it? The most important benefit of true interval training = An increase in the metabolism - overload. “The Truth About Fat Burning” is not how much you burn during your workout, but what your body is doing for the rest of the day.

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  • These are the common goals the industry talks about but do we really address them with steady state training. These are important benefits but the old 3x a week for 30 min. is just not enough
  • The biggest concern – how do we put the ESD in with everything else and not over train. This is why we use HR and power output to monitor clients.Stress overtraining is not just the amount of work but also nutrition and restTalk on Aging Athlete, Recovery, Fatigued athlete publication
  • Why we assess our clients is not a pass/fail but to see what part of their fitness program needs work.-VT/AT is to help determine personal HR zones- not age predicted formulasHR recovery is important for overtrainingPower output is also for over training and to be monitored during each workout through watts, speed, distance or timeVO2 #s just to give us a reference of where they should be at based on their sport and ageCan determine caloric burn to help with weight loss or weight gain. Work closely with Nutrition team…talk on my metabolic program
  • Again not doing a test just for numbers but to create personalized zones and a progression for each clientIn Mentor I we talk about the first two phases of ESD programming Base and Interval. The other 3 are discussed in Mentor II- Linear, Multi-directional and Sport Specific
  • When doing any assessment you must use that assessment or parts of it to re- assess throughout the program. We use HR recovery and power output daily and re assess when possible based on the client and the time they are with us.
  • Example of a hockey player pre-season and 4 months laterNotice the AT and peak went up which is good and well the HR drop a littleNot a big change because that is not the goal during the season but endurance did improve The concern is legs ( watts ) decreased Shows the assessment is more than just VO2 – cardio was OK but legs are the concernIf they stay on the current ice time and practice pace they will not have anything left for the payoffsThe importants of the test and retest to have them peak at the right timeHave u defined ur season? Race schedule? Peaking at right time, right race?
  • Everyone has seen these old HR charts
  • Did they know where they came fromThis is our industry no true science We need to create zones from VO2 testing or make adjustments using a formula
  • Looking at over 20 studies the conclusion was……
  • Example of 2 40 year olds and how the formula will give them the same zonesCan work or be off by 30 beatsThis is why we use the iMett
  • Some people like to use resting HR in their formula. Still has problems because all formulas use a %. In this case we would have someone with a good resting HR of 40 training at a lower at AT than someone with a poor RHR of 70. All formulas have an error
  • Reason for the errors is due age predicted- genetics plays a big partAT is not always 15% for peak- from imett we will see it being 5-30% different. This will help use determine what type of training they need
  • Just picture of the test in case they didn’t see one
  • Are zones are based off AT- can’t feel it we see it with the rise in VE
  • Four graphs to determine ATMain one is upper left- VE/t. looking for a sharp increase in VE. Beginning of test there is a build up of lactic acid, by-product of LT is CO2. To get rid of the CO2 you must increase your VE. That is how we pick AT- WassermanUpper Right- VE/HR. On a lot of tests you will see the increase the same as VE/t graph. But some times the VE/T is hard to read so this graph might help.Lower Left- HR/t this graph is not used often because HR is not a good indictor of AT. It is a back up if something goes wrong with the VELower Right- watts/t this is used to confirm the top graphs. The sharp increase must be in the linear part of the green line- not at the beginning where the workloads increases too quickly ( during warm-up), may be a loose sign of failure
  • The other number we used to create the HR zones is the peak or end of the testThe goal is to find a number they can repeat and do intervals at. The peak is something they will repeat many times during there workoutMax HR is to failure and no help to us. I don’t next a max and guess at % below it for zones. I will us the peak and AT to determine the 3 HR zonesDuring the test you can determine the peak one of 3 ways1. the client says they can’t go on 2. the client’s form breaks down- no reason to training with bad form 3. the VE will flatten out on the testing graph- this is a good test and the client can handle high end intervals
  • Getting the HRs is only the first part of creating a planWe have to understand the energy systems to create interval training
  • Interval training is not just doing 1 min sprintsWe have to recover to be able to do intervalsA series of sprints/rest will make up an interval followed by recovery periods before next interval
  • These true intervals will take us through the 3 main energy systemsWe will break up the anaerobic more based on the time of the sprint
  • As we learn the energy system we also need to understand the fuel systems and the myths of the fat burning zoneThis chart is in any ex phys bookBased on the goal of most clients- weight loss- they would think the best intensity to train would be at an RER of .71, using a high % of their fuel coming from fat. But the problem it is %, at .71 you are at complete rest so it might be a high % coming from fat but very few calories are being used.Most people sitting in the room would be around .80 ( depending on what they eat and when and what activity they have done) but this is a good average for the room..85 is at a light jog or bike ride- burning ½ their calories coming from fat- but still not a lot of calories over all1.0 is around AT. Now a high % is carbs and you are starting to use more caloriesNext slide will give an example of how we use these fuels which energy systems to create our 3 training zones
  • Using an example of a 150 lb person we can show what fuel is being used to create energy ( ATP) and start creating our 3 zone system- at the same time create our 3 day rotationStaying at this low intensity ( easy bike ride or walking) the client will burn about 82 calories and if they are at a RER of.85 than 50% is fat and 50% is carbsGood zone to build a base aerobic system we will use as our recovery zone both between intervals and recovery days
  • The second zone is around ATBurns less fat so that is why they call the 1st zone “fat burning”- BUT we are burning more calories which is more important that just fat for true weight loss.Good for enduranceProblem with this zone or the 1st zone it clients will plateau- they need to overload- that is why we use the 3rd zone
  • This is the true intervals where we will have periods that we are working up to the peak HR and then coming back to the 3rd zone to recover be fore going back upThe red peak might be 5 minutes long- with different length sprints in them but between the sprints they don’t completely recover they might drop in the 2nd zone?After the 5 minutes then the drop back to the 1st zone for 2-5 minute to true recover before repeatingWe have now introduced 3 zones- now we have to rotate ( 3 day rotation) these zones during the week to prevent over training. We will have one day around the AT zone, the next day doing some high end intervals with recovery, follow by an easy recovery day
  • It is called ESD because we are working on the different energy systems.Energy systems are not based on HR but on time. We have zones to cover these timesThe Red zone- zone 3 – 1-4 sec Anaerobic ATP in muscle4-20 sec Anaerobic ATP + PC20-45 sec Anaerobic ATP+ PC+ muscle glycogen45-120 sec Anaer. & Lactic Muscle glycogenZone 2 is (Green)45-120 sec Anaer. & Lactic Muscle glycogen120-240 sec Aero. & Anaer.Muscle glycogen+ lactic acidZone 1 (yellow)120-240 sec Aero. & Anaer.Muscle glycogen+ lactic acid240+ Aerobic Muscle glycogen + fatty acids
  • Do the intervals with the recovery will allow us to improve on all of these
  • At this point, we need to talk about how you quantify the work you’re doing (or not doing) in order to determine whether you’re making gains. If you were an Olympic weightlifter, would you train “by feel” or would you keep track of the weights you were lifting and how many times you could lift it? The heart rate monitor measures the efficiency of your heart and cardiovascular system. The problem is when you have a short duration workload, the heart rate will lag by roughly 30 seconds. So what happens when the workload is only 20 seconds long? A power meter is near instantaneous so it will measure your work.
  • These are some newer power meters that measure power at the crank: the SRM, Quarq, and Stages.
  • Non-crank-based power meters: Cycleopsand Garmin Vector.
  • Every ESD workout should have a goal. Why did you get on the equipment that day?
  • The first thing we look at is HRR. If you can’t recover then that means a weak heart ( conditioning) so we have to strengthen it so we can do more activities- just taking a walk or playing a sport
  • Once you understand the zones and the rotations then we have to develop programs to get our improvements
  • Basic improve recovery which will introduce short overloads in the AT zone but still a lot of aerobic training
  • This is an example of an improve recovery program for more advance.Using the 1 minute recovery to check improvement Start with a warm-up then ----True interval- 5 minutes of work followed by 5 minutes yellow to recover. Repeat based on time
  • Trying to move AT up by overloadingBurns calories during the workout but more important increases metabolism to keep burning the rest of the day
  • Longer sprints up to 2 minutes in the red zone – the program might start you at :30 and slowly build up to the 2 minutesSame true interval- this is 8 min of work with 5 recovery before repeating
  • Crosstraining is important because too many people get stuck on one piece of equipment. Cross training will promote additional muscle recruitment.
  • Hill climbThe goal is to overload with workload ( watts, ft/min, incline) to burn out the legs before recovering and repeatingDon’s notes: Ok, this is good but really you need to do some 10-30 sec. all out sprints here, too. This is where the power meter shines as it measures how much grunt you have for the first sprint and will show how much power you lose for each successive sprint. This is the key to progression (to wit: the weightlifting analogy.)The beginning of the season should focus on full recovery between sprints to build ultimate (1-time) speed. As the season progresses and the cyclist becomes acclimated to sprint repeats from training and races, you can reduce the recovery time between intervals while monitoring the power output between intervals in training.
  • The first goal of endurance runs it to be able to complete the race. Use green and yellow zone training to build up time before working on improving speed. Once they can complete the distance then can use the other goals to improve time.
  • This is what a progression might look like- 3 day rotation with 3 zones.As they progress the workouts will get harder but always have recovery days inbetween
  • Metabolic Testing and Energy Systems for Cyclists and Athletes

    1. 1. Metabolic Testing: Energy Systems David Carfagno D.O., C.A.Q. Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute
    2. 2.     To improve performance in work, life and sports. To improve health by reducing cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. body composition, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, etc.). To reduce mental anxiety. Weight Management
    3. 3. Many of my clients don’t feel as if they are overtraining because they are not doing as much as they used to do. Over-training is training too hard or too often for the amount of rest and nutrition that your body has had. You might not be training as hard, but you also might not be eating as well and resting as much as you were in the past.
    4. 4.  Ventilatory/ Anaerobic Threshold Detection  Heart Rate Training Zones  Heart Rate Recovery  Power Output  Est.VO2 Measurement  Caloric Burn Rate
    5. 5. Cardiovascular Fitness + Cardio Exercise Programs Heart Rate Training Zones Individualized Programs
    6. 6. Re- Assess
    7. 7. Most Common Problem = Legs Example: Professional Hockey Player 1 Day Before Training Camp VO2 @ AT- 27ml/kg/min VO2 @ Peak- 43ml/kg/min 2 Min. Recovery 146 bpm Watts- 440 4 Months Into The Season VO2 @ AT- 38ml/kg/min VO2 @ Peak- 45ml/kg/min 2 Min. Recovery 143 bpm Watts-380 CARDIO IS GOOD, BUT HIS LEGS ARE STARTING TO DECREASE.
    8. 8. Misleading Information • 220 – age formula from Dr. Haskell (226 – age for females) Resting heart formulas
    9. 9. Where did it come from? “I’ve kind of laughed about it over the years,” Dr. William Haskell (developer of 220-age heart rate formula) said. “The formula,” he said, “was never supposed to be an absolute guide to rule people’s training. But,” he said, “it’s so typical of Americans to take an idea and extend it beyond what it was originally intended for.” - The New York Times 4/24/01
    10. 10. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Based on this review of research and application of HRmax prediction, the following recommendations can be made; Currently, there is no acceptable method to estimate HRmax.
    11. 11. 40 Yrs. Sedentary 40 Yrs. - 20 Yrs. Exercise 220 – Age = 180 220 – Age = 180 Fat Burning or 65% = 117 Fat Burning or 65% = 117 Cardio Training or 85% = 153 Cardio Training or 85% = 153 ARE THEY REALLY THE SAME??
    12. 12. 40 yr 40 RHR 40 yr 70 RHR 220 – Age = 180 220 – Age = 180 180-40 RHR= 140 180-70 RHR= 110 85% = 119 85% = 93.5 119+ 40 RHR = 159 93.5+70 RHR = 163.5 Do you really want to push them??
    13. 13. Age Predicted What about fitness level and genetics? Percentages No set percentage from Anaerobic Threshold to Peak.
    14. 14. VT/ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD The point at which the body metabolism changes from Aerobic to Anaerobic. During an exercise test, it usually is associated with sudden increase in breathing, increased fatigue, burning in the muscles and production of carbon dioxide greater than consumption of oxygen. 80-85% MHR Used for HR zones
    15. 15. ( OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) The amount of oxygen the body uses during exercise. This number is expressed in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per minute (ml/kg/min). The higher the number the greater the potential. Close to 95% MHR? Top of HR zones
    16. 16. TRUE INTERVAL TRAINING This is a training technique that alternates between short intense exercises effort with periods of ―TRUE‖ Recovery. This will take you from 65% of max heart rate to 95% and back to 65%.
    17. 17.    Aerobic System- Aerobic exercise is the ability of the body to take oxygen from the atmosphere, into the lungs, transfer it into the blood, and then pump it to the working muscles where it is utilized to oxidize carbohydrates and fats to produce energy. Anaerobic System-Anaerobic fitness is the ability of the body to produce energy by metabolizing carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic Threshold-Anaerobic threshold can be defined as the point where, as intensity increases, a person shifts from aerobic metabolism to anaerobic metabolism.
    18. 18. RER and Percent (%) Calories From Fats and Carbohydrates RER % Carbohydrates % Fats 0.71 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 0.0 15.6 33.4 50.7 67.5 84.0 100.0 100.0 84.4 66.6 49.3 32.5 16.0 0.0 RER=VCO2/VO2 Measured During Rest Or Steady State Exercise From: Physiology of Sport And Exercise, by Wilmore J.H. and Costill, D.L.,Human Kinetics, 1994, pp106
    19. 19. Most client stay in one of two zones: 65% MHR “old fat burning zone” which will burn:  Small amount of calories -82 in the average 150 lb. person  41 calories could be from fat  They are aerobic!  Great for a base  Energy- higher fat to carbs
    20. 20. Other zones clients stay in is around 85% of MHR or near AT:  Burn more calories -157  but maybe only 10 calories could be from fat   Close to AT Energy  Mainly carbs  Good for  Endurance
    21. 21. 150 lb person riding for 30 minutes during True Intervals at 65% to 92% and back to 65% of MHR will burn:  173 Calories  50 calories could be from fat  RER of .85- 1.1  Carbs  different intervals
    22. 22. 1-4 sec 4-20 sec 20-45 sec Anaerobic Anaerobic Anaerobic 45-120 sec 120-240 sec Anaer. & Lactic Aero. & Anaer. 240+ Aerobic ATP in muscle ATP + PC ATP+ PC+ muscle glycogen Muscle glycogen Muscle glycogen + lactic acid Muscle glycogen + fatty acids
    23. 23. 1. Develops all energy systems 1. Aerobic 2. Anaerobic 3. Peak- PC 2. 3. 4. 5. Burns Calories Increased Motivation Increased cardio strength Increased Metabolism
    24. 24.  Variables:     Work interval time Recovery interval time Cadence Change the variables according to the goals of the workout
    25. 25.  5-60 sec:   1-4 min:   Acceleration power, jumps, full-on sprints, leg strength Intensive intervals, anaerobic power 5-10 min:  Extensive intervals, aerobic power
    26. 26.  Full recovery   Use when maximum power output for each interval is desired Useful for developing leg strength and maximum speed
    27. 27.  Partial Recovery   Develops the body’s ability to tolerate lactic acid and lactate build-up Useful for raising anaerobic threshold and physical/mental tolerance to lactate
    28. 28.  Normal cadence (90 RPM):   Fast cadence (110+ RPM):    ―Normal‖ interval training Use faster cadence to develop leg speed Short duration—60 sec or less Slower cadence (50-60 RPM):   Develop leg strength Usually done on slight uphill
    29. 29. How do you quantify your work? Heart rate monitor Power meter
    30. 30. Workout Goals  What is the Goal of the workout?       Improve Heart Rate Recovery Increase Cardio Strength Increase Leg Strength Increase Endurance Or just recover
    31. 31.  Workout Goals  Improve Heart Rate Recovery  Better recovery- stronger heart  Can do more work more often  As fitness improves, shorten recovery times
    32. 32.  Workout Goals Increase Cardio Strength      Improve AT Can do more activities- longer Increase metabolism- burns calories Go faster (do more wattage) at the same heart rate (effort level)
    33. 33.  Workout Goals Increase Leg Strength      Burns more calories Cross training Increase metabolism More strength = more power = faster sprints
    34. 34.  Workout Goals  Increase Endurance  10k- 5k runs  ½ or full marathon  Tri-athletes  Mainly green and yellow zone for time first  Use other goals to improve weakness
    35. 35.  Progressions Work toward a goal, 4-8 weeks  Start slow and build the base, or recovery start  Great for all levels  Base off Quick Reference and test scores 
    36. 36.    The most important benefit of true interval training = An increase in the metabolism - overload. ―The Truth About Fat Burning‖ is not how much you burn during your workout, but what your body is doing for the rest of the day. Cardio goal: Today? Long term?