What is matter? Matter is everything, and can be either a pure substance, or a mixture. Matter Pure Substances MixtureElement Compound Homogenous Heterogenous
Pure SubstancesCan only be broken down chemicallyIn a ﬁxed ratioUnique set of properties, independent of amountCan be either a compound or elementCompound ex: H2OH2O is a compound because it is made up of two or more elements, represented bycapital letters, and because its smallest particle is a moleculeElement ex: Au (gold)Au is an element because its smallest particle is an atom, and has only one capital
MixturesUnlike pure substances, mixtures are not in any ﬁxed ratioDoes not have a unique set of propertiesCan be separated physicallyex: salt and pepperSalt and pepper is an example of a mixture because it is not in a ﬁxed ratio, can beseparated by physical means, and does not have unique properties.
Heterogeneous MixturesA heterogeneous mixture is a mixture that is not uniform throughout, and is madeup of substances that remain physically separate.ex: sandSand is heterogeneous because it has visibly diﬀerent substances in it, that vary insize, as well as properties
Homogeneous MixturesHomogenous mixtures are uniform throughoutHave particles that are the same sizeex: salt water
Suspensions, Colloids, and SolutionsA suspension, a heterogeneous mixture, is layeredex: oil and waterA colloid=homogenous and has larger particles that make it impossible to seethroughex: homogenized milkSolutions: a homogenous mixture with smaller particles that make it possible to seethroughex: gatorade
Physical PropertiesDensity, conductivity, hardness, viscosity, boiling point, melting point, andmalleability are all physical propertiesPhysical properties can be used to either to determine if the substance is pure, toseparate mixtures, or to simply determine what a substance is.
DistillationDistillation involves separating mixtures based on boiling point data.Equipment used: A distillation apparatus.
FiltrationFiltration involves using some sort of ﬁlter paper to separate a mixture. Left in thepaper remains the residue, while inside the test tube is the ﬁltrateEquipment: Test tube, ﬁlter paper, original mixture, and funnel.
ExamplesFiltration Example: Separation of sulfur and sodium chloride both substancesare mixed with water, the sulfur is ﬁltered out. Then, salty water is placed inevaporating dish and water is evaporated using evaporation.Distillation Example: Unknown liquid lab.
Evidence of a Chemical Change1. Change of colorex: oxidization of copper makes it turn green2. Production of a gasex: water electrolysis demo3. Formation of a precipitateex: cottage cheese
Chemical PropertiesFlammability: materials that burn can be used as fuel. When something is burned,it can never be brought back. Therefore, it is a chemical property.Reactivity: the property that describes how readily a substance combineschemically with other substances. When a substance reacts, it cannot be broughtback, again proving that it is a chemical property.