Image taken from: http://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/articles/diseases/clostridium-difficile-1/In Australia as graduate nurses, we are encouraged to give and attend in-service training on the ward. This training takes place during work hours and is often run by the graduate nurses and by the staff development nurses where they see a lacking in skill, knowledge base or want to incorporate a new skill or knowledge on the ward. Therefore if we go home and no one is interested in quality improvement projects, we could take the opportunity to give educational training on PPE compliance and correct hand washing technique through the use of the in-service.
Image taken from: http://stl327.wikispaces.com/LearningThryGroupEAdapted from: Big dog and little dog’s performance juxtaposition. (2011). Kolb's Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Model. Retrieved from:http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles/kolb.htmlKolb’s Experiential learning cycle is a good example to show how a learner learns, it includes the following steps:The first step is the actual concrete experience: Learning from specific experiences and relating this backto people.Step two is the reflective observation ( or watching): Observing before making a judgment by viewing the environment from different perspectives. Step three is the abstract conceptualization (or thinking step): Is the logical analysis of ideas and acting on intellectual understanding of a situation. Step four is active experimentation (or doing): which is the ability to get things done by influencing people and events through action.So in order to complete this cycle I would first need to find the best way to reach out to all the different types of learners and ensure that they are able to complete this cycle.
Table taken from: Murray, C. (2011). Use of Learning Styles to Enhance Graduate Education. Journal of Allied Health, 40(4). Retrieved from:http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/deliver/connect/asahp/00907421/v40n4/s14.pdf?expires=1326876362&id=66746331&titleid=6329&accname=Curtin+University+of+Technology+-+Perth&checksum=87877737CB4223A885F5395C7B474D21Adapted from: Big dog and little dog’s performance juxtaposition. (2010). Kolb’s Learning Styles. Retrieved from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/kolb.htmlKolb’s four primary learning styles include the coverger, the diverger, the assimilator and the accommodator.The converger– enjoys learning through the practical application of ideas and solving problems. They like to be involved in decision-making, problem-solving, and the practicable application of ideas.The diverger, views concrete situations from many perspectives and adapts by observation rather than by action. They work well in groups and enjoy brainstorming.The assimilatorlearns through the incorporation of different observations and thoughts into an integrated whole. They enjoy designing projects and experiments.
Adapted from: Fleming, N. (2011). The VARK categories. Retrieved from: http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p=categoriesAccording to Fleming’s VARK model – learners will utilise their preferred way of learning through the incorporation of these models. Visual:Includes need for the depiction of information in maps, charts, graphs, flow charts, labelled diagrams and other diagrams that people use to represent what could have been presented in words. The use of symbols to depict information rather than words is more efficient for this modal. Aural:Preferences describes the need for information that is "heard or spoken." They learn best from lectures, group discussion, email, speaking and talking things through. They have need to say it themselves and learn through saying it - their wayRead/Write: This preference is for information displayed as words. People who prefer this modality learn well through PowerPoint, the Internet, lists,quotations and words, words, words.Kinaesthetic:The key to this modality is aconnection to reality, through concrete personal experiences, examples, practice or simulation.It includes demonstrations, simulations, videos and movies of "real" things, as well as case studies, practice and applications. They learn from the experience of doing something and value their own background of experience.
Everett-Thomas, R., Fitzpatrick, M., NevoI, Shekhter I, Rosen LF, Scheinman SR, Arheart KL, Birnbach DJ. (2010). A novel educational programme to improve knowledge regarding health care-associated infection and hand hygiene. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 17,(1).A study that was conducted in a large tertiary hospital in Miami, found that after their study’s education was given there was a statistically significant improvement in the overall passing score rates between pre- and post-tests amongst their participants, and overall a better hand hygiene rate in the hospital. The study implemented a pre-test to measure baseline knowledge regarding hand hygiene and HAI, then a 10-min video that shows how suboptimal hand hygiene compliance increases the risk of HAI and kills patients, a PowerPoint presentation documenting how HAI occurs, the magnitude of the problem and prevention strategies was given and then the programme concluded with a post-test and programme evaluation.
So according to these learning models and the success of other studies incorporating such techniques the following are useful tools in education... The use of practical examples, where by you give an example of a situation and ask the participants to resolve it. Hands on experience, whereby you get the participants to show the action of correct hand washing technique, this can also be incorporated with the use of glow gel and black lighting – illustrating how clean someone’s hands really are. Keep it short, simple and to the point, otherwise you have more of a chance of losing participant’s interestsThe use of PowerPoint and YouTube to get them thinking and for the use of a visual or aural reminderHanding out a take home sheet or pamphlet, and the use of posters and other promotional equipment.
So if this was me as a graduate nurse in a hospital in Australia, I would request to give an in-service through the staff development nurse on the ward. I would incorporate most of the techniques that I previously mentioned – incorporate the use of power point and YouTube where possible, but keep the presentation short, get the staff on the ward to get involved and practice correct hand washing techniques and give them a take home reminder. I would also encourage the nurses to work in groups or take small groups for the in-service at a time, therefore ensuring that everyone is able to hear well and see the demonstrations in practice.
1. What if no one is interested inQI when we go home?? Education and teaching
2. In Australia as graduate nurses....• Encouraged to give in- services• Encouraged to attend in-services• Encouraged to run studies and take part in studies
3. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle
4. Learning styles
5. Fleming’s VARK model Visual Aural Read/Write Kinaesthetic
6. Example taken from a Miami Hospital• Pre-test to measure baseline knowledge• 10-min video• PowerPoint presentation• post-test and programme evaluation.
7. So according to these learningmodels... Practical Hands on Keep it examples experience shortPowerPoint Take home and Glow gel reminder YouTube
8. In my experience.... Use of Keep it YouTubePowerPoint simple Hands on Take home experience reminder
9. An example of one YouTube video...• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cu280dMm WBs