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Lattice Energy LLC-High-temperature Superconductivity in Patches-Addendum-Sep 11 2012
 

Lattice Energy LLC-High-temperature Superconductivity in Patches-Addendum-Sep 11 2012

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On September 5, 2012, Shukla & Eliasson posted an excellent new preprint on the Cornell arXiv: “Clustering of ions at atomic dimensions in quantum plasmas” --- it supports our speculative ...

On September 5, 2012, Shukla & Eliasson posted an excellent new preprint on the Cornell arXiv: “Clustering of ions at atomic dimensions in quantum plasmas” --- it supports our speculative conjecture about Cooper pairing of protons in Widom-Larsen ‘patches’ as described in the 92-slide August 23, 2012, Lattice PowerPoint presentation.

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    Lattice Energy LLC-High-temperature Superconductivity in Patches-Addendum-Sep 11 2012 Lattice Energy LLC-High-temperature Superconductivity in Patches-Addendum-Sep 11 2012 Presentation Transcript

    • Lattice Energy LLC Low Energy Neutron Reactions (LENRs) Addendum to August 23, 2012 Lattice presentation re: Evanescent HT or RT superconductivity in heavy-electron patches? Lewis Larsen President and CEO September 11, 2012 lewisglarsen@gmail.com 1-312-861-0115 “I have learned to use the word ‘impossible’ with the greatest caution.” Wernher von Braun September 5, 2012: Shukla & Eliasson posted an excellent new paper on arXiv: “Clustering of ions at atomic dimensions in quantum plasmas” Supports our speculative conjecture about Cooper pairing of protons in Widom-Larsen patches Commercializing a next-generation source of safe CO2-free energy HTSC? RTSC? Strongly-correlated, Q-M entangled SP electron and proton subsystems in many-body patches Strongly-correlated, Q-M entangled SP electron and proton subsystems in many-body patches September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 1 Quantum critical point Quantum critical point Updated September 22, 2013
    • Lattice Energy LLC Neutron capture products correlate with surface structures Local melting and crater-like features suggest intense heat production Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 2 Image source: “Light induced Superconductivity in a Stripe-ordered Cuprate,” A. Dienst et al., Science 331 pp. 189-191 (2011) – “Side view of a layered copper-oxide insulator, exhibiting one-dimensional “stripes” of aligned spins and trapped charges within a buckled lattice. By irradiating one such striped compound with light it has transformed from an insulator to a superconductor within one millionth of a millionth of a second, freeing electrons from their traps and making it possible for them to tunnel in pairs between second neighboring planes” http://mpsd-cmd.cfel.de/publications/2011/2011_mpsd-cm_fausti-science-331.pdf
    • Lattice Energy LLC Shukla & Eliasson’s new mechanism provides an attractive force Background and objectives of this presentation Main Lattice reference to examine is a 92-slide August 23, 2012 PowerPoint presentation: “Speculation: evanescent exotic superconductivity (some form of HTSC) in heavy-electron patches?” http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-hightemperature-superconductivity-in-patchesaug-23-2012  For all the specific details, please see discussion on Slides #49 - 90 in above document  Briefly summarizing from that document: conceptually, once local nuclear strength E-fields form in a given μ-scale patch, we have two many-body, ~2-D disk-shaped, Q-M entangled, strongly-correlated subsystems of oppositely charged particles that are mutually coupled to each other via E-M fields and to underlying substrate subsystem; if Cooper pairs of electrons and protons were to form, these two particle subsystems could be viewed as mirror quantum condensates (see Slide #14 herein and Slide #81 in Aug. 23 document)  Attractive force between positively-charged ions would help facilitate formation of proton Cooper pairs: while it is not terribly difficult to imagine creation of Cooper pairs of entangled electrons in an SP electron patch subsystem, the issue of comparable pairing for protons is somewhat unfamiliar - more problematic. Like electrons, the problem with Coulomb repulsion between protons is obvious. That being the case, viewing the proton patch subsystem as a quantum plasma, is there an attractive force between protons (p+) that might plausibly facilitate the formation of bosonic Cooper pairs in a W-L patch? It turns-out that there may well be such a force; please see:  Cited on Slide #17 herein and on Slide #84 in August 23 document: “Novel attractive force between ions in quantum plasmas” P. Shukla and B. Eliasson Physical Review Letters 108 pp. 165007 - 165012 (2012) http://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.5556v7.pdf September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 3
    • Lattice Energy LLC Shukla & Eliasson’s conclusions support idea of p+ Cooper pairs Background and objectives of this presentation Please see preprint of their latest paper concerning a very novel “SE force” ion attraction mechanism:  “Clustering of ions at atomic dimensions in quantum plasmas” P. Shukla and B. Eliasson September 5, 2012 (version #2 --- revised preprint published on Sept. 7, 2012) http://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.0914v2  Directly quoting their abstract: "By means of particle simulations of the equations of motion for ions interacting with the newly discovered Shukla-Eliasson (SE) force in a dense quantum plasma, we demonstrate that the SE force is powerful to bring ions closer at atomic dimensions. Specifically, we present simulation results on the dynamics of an ensemble of ions in the presence of the SE force without and with confining external potentials and collisions between the ions and degenerate electrons. Our particle simulations reveal that under the SE force, ions attract each other, come closer and form ionic clusters in the bath of degenerate electrons that shield the ions. Furthermore, an external confining potential produces robust ion clusters that can have cigar-like and ball-like shapes. The binding between the ions on account of the SE force may provide possibility of non-Coulombic explosions of ionic clusters for inertial confined fusion (ICF) schemes when high- energy density plasmas (density exceeding 1023 per cubic centimeters) are produced by intense laser and relativistic electron beams. At such high plasma densities, the electrons will be degenerate and quantum forces due to the electron recoil effect caused by the overlapping of electron wave functions and electron tunneling through the Bohm potential, electron-exchange and electron correlations associated with electron-1/2 spin effect, and the quantum statistical pressure due to the Fermionic nature of degenerate electrons play a decisive role in producing the novel phenomena we describe in this paper.”  Quoting directly from their conclusions: “Specifically, we stress that the Cooper pairing of ions at atomic dimensions shall provide possibility of novel superconducting plasma based nanotechnology, since the electron transport in nanostructures would be rapid due to shortened distances between ions in the presence of the novel SE attractive force.”  Lattice comments: while further experimentation and calculations must certainly be undertaken, it appears that the newly discovered SE force between ions embedded in quantum plasmas, if correct, provides a mechanism that could potentially help facilitate the formation of Cooper pairs of protons in certain types of condensed matter systems as well as Widom-Larsen heavy electron patches as conjectured by this author September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 4
    • Lattice Energy LLC Neutron capture products correlate with surface structures Local melting and crater-like features suggest intense heat production Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 5
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 6 Overview of W-L theory in condensed matter systems Weak interaction is crucially important in neutron-catalyzed LENRs 1. Electromagnetic (E-M) radiation on a metallic hydride surface increases mass of surface plasmon (SP) electrons 2. Heavy-mass surface plasmon electrons react directly with (a) surface protons (p+) or (b) deuterons (d+) to produce ultra low momentum (ULM) neutrons (nulm or 2 nulm, respectively) and an electron neutrino (νe) 3. Ultra low momentum neutrons (nulm) are captured by nearby atomic nuclei (Z, A) representing some element with charge (Z) and atomic mass (A). ULM neutron absorption produces a heavier-mass isotope (Z, A+1) via transmutation. This new isotope (Z, A+1) may itself be a stable or unstable, which will perforce eventually decay 4. Many unstable isotopes β- decay, producing: transmuted element with increased charge (Z+1), ~same mass (A+1) as parent nucleus; β- particle (eβ -); and an antineutrino νe Weak interaction β- decays (shown just above), direct gamma conversion to infrared photons (not shown), and α decays (not shown) produce most of the excess heat that is calorimetrically observed in LENR systems No strong interaction fusion or heavy element fission occurring below; weak interaction e + p or e + d Unstable Isotope 1. 2a. 2b. 3. Unstable or stable new isotope 4. Ultra low momentum neutrons are almost all captured locally (very few have time to thermalize and be detected); any gammas produced get converted directly to infrared photons (heat) by heavy electrons + (High E-M field > 1011 V/m) + + + + + + + Mass-renormalized surface plasmon electron (E-M energy) + e- e-* hvfield e-* + p+ nulm + νe e-* + d+ 2 nulm + νe nulm + (Z, A) (Z, A+1) (Z, A+1) (Z+1, A+1) + eβ - + νe In condensed matter systems, Steps 1. through 4. occur in nm- to μ- sized patch regions on surfaces; these are called LENR-active sites Steps 1. thru 3. are very fast: can complete in 2 to 400 nanoseconds nuclear aikido
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 7 Does patch become evanescent HTSC just before going nuclear? Collective many-body QM effects important in patches LENR Nuclear Realm (MeVs) Occurs in tiny micron-scale patches Chemical Energy Realm (eVs) Everywhere else in LENR systems Transducer regions: many-body collective effects, ~eV energies are collected and summed to MeV energies in micron-scale, many-body surface patches by film of SP electrons and p+, d+, t+ ions in patches; all oscillate collectively and are quantum mechanically entangled Born-Oppenheimer Approximation breaks down in many- body patches of p+, d+, or t+ on loaded hydride surfaces Two-way, collective energy transfers occur back-and-forth via E-M fields coupling the chemical and nuclear realms Many-body, collectively oscillating surface patches of p+, d+, or t+ ions Micron-scale surface regions with very high local electromagnetic fields Mass- renormalized surface plasmon (SP) electrons – also convert gammas to IR Normal-mass surface plasmon (SP) or π electrons on surfaces of certain carbon ring structures LENR final products: primarily stable isotopes, energetic β-, α (He-4) particles, other charged particles, IR photons (with small tail in soft X-rays), and ghostly neutrinos Hot spots: reach 4,000 - 6,000+ o K Craters visible in post-experiment SEM images of LENR device surfaces Infrared (IR) photons eulm nde eulm npe     2~ ~ E-M field energy E-M energy E-M energy ++ )1,(),(  AZAZ ulm n + Either a stable isotope Or unstable isotope in an excited state - may emit gammas or X-rays Unstable isotope: Which then subsequently undergoes some type of nuclear decay process eeAZAZ  ),1(),( He4 2 )4,2(),(  AZAZ Input Output Output Gamma photons Heat Energy must be inputted to create high surface E-M radiation fields that are needed to produce ULM neutrons. Required input energy can be provided from one or a combination of: electron beams (electric currents); ion beams, i.e., fluxes of ions across the surface film of SP electrons (protons, deuterons, tritons, or other ions); and E-M photons, e.g., from lasers if nanoscale surface roughness coupling parameters are satisfied IR photons excite lattice phonons Energetic charged particles excite lattice phonons Neutrinos (ν) fly off into space at velocity c ULM neutron captures on target fuel elements and subsequent nuclear reactions all release nuclear binding energy – neutrons are the match that lights the fuel on fire In the case of typical beta- decay: In the case of typical alpha decay: + + + Extremely neutron-rich product isotopes may also deexcite via beta-delayed decays, which also emit small fluxes of neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, etc. End with: ν, γ, IR photons ν ν Surface film of SP electrons inherently oscillates collectively γ IRγ Aikido lurks herein and interconnects realms Ordinary chemistry Nuclear chemistry
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 8 Does patch become an evanescent HTSC just before going nuclear? Collective many-body Q-M effects important in patches A proton has just reacted with a SP electron, creating a ghostly ULM neutron via e* + p weak interaction; QM wavelength same size as patch Heavily hydrogen-loaded metallic hydride atomic lattice Conduction electrons in substrate lattice not shown Collectively oscillating many-body patch of protons or deuterons with nearby heavy mass- renormalized SP electrons bathed in very high local E-field > 2 x 1011 V/m Local region of very high (>1011 V/m) electric fields above micron-scale, many-body patches of protons or deuterons where Born- Oppenheimer Approximation breaks down Surface of metallic hydride substrate = Proton, deuteron, or triton = Surface target atom = Transmuted atom (nuclear product) = ULM neutron = SP electron = Heavy SP electron Q-M wave function of ultra low momentum (ULM) neutron = Unstable isotope Region of short-range, high strength E-M fields and entangled QM wave functions of hydrogenous ions and SP electrons Evanescent ultra-high-temperature superconductivity herein? Evanescent ultra-high-temperature superconductivity herein? Intense heating by neutron- catalyzed processes destroys patch Q-M coherence along with its evanescent HT superconductivity
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 9 Many-body collective effects: key to Widom-Larsen theory How might one conceptualize quantum systems found in patches?  Herein we have described how the Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs operates in nm- to μ-scale collectively oscillating many-body, ~homogenous patches of Q-M entangled protons, deuterons, or tritons (i.e., p+, d+, or t+) found on condensed matter surfaces (see Slides # 8 – 48). For the purpose of discussion, let us conceptually idealize such: (1) hydrogenous patches as being ~contiguous 2-D proton monolayers in an ~circular shape, i.e. a thin disk of strongly-correlated positive charges; and (2) surface plasmon electrons as being an essentially flat ~2-D layer of collectively oscillating, many-body Q-M entangled particles that intrinsically cover an entire substrate surface, i.e. a thin-film of strongly-correlated negative charges  Thanks to local breakdown of Born-Oppenheimer approximation in such patches, we have approximately circular surface regions with diameters ranging from several nm to ~100 microns in which electromagnetic coupling is established between ~2-D disks of hydrogenous ions and film of surface plasmon electrons covering a substrate. Once B-O breakdown and local proton-electron E-M coupling occur: (1) proton-coupled SP electrons situated in patches can be conceptualized as thin, ~2-D circular disks; and (2) nuclear-strength local electric fields that are created and established within spatial dimensions of disk-like patches will in turn create local populations of heavy mass-renormalized SP electrons that are also located within such patches  In case of hydride-forming metallic substrates (e.g., certain metals such as Pd, Ni, Ti, etc.), it is known that ~2-D, island-like surface structures comprised of hydrogenous ions can form spontaneously once interior, material-specific interstitial sites in bulk lattice have become fully saturated or loaded with ionized hydrogen isotopes. Conceptually, once local nuclear strength E-fields form in a given patch, we have two many-body, ~2-D disk-shaped, Q-M entangled, strongly-correlated subsystems of oppositely charged particles that are mutually coupled to each other via E-M fields and to underlying substrate subsystem  We will begin exploring some possible consequences of such conceptualization in the Slides to follow
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 10 Idealized conceptual elements of a Widom-Larsen patch Patch comprises two many-body subsystems of interacting particles (1) Surface plasmon electrons and (2) surface protons, i.e. hydrogenous ions p+, d+, or t+ Particles in subsystems oscillate collectively and are entangled so Q-M wave functions are delocalized Note: diagram components are not to scale; please ignore striping on substrate surface Dimensions randomly range from several nm up to perhaps ~100 microns + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Layer of positive charge + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Many surface protons (hydrogen) + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Thin-film of surface plasmon electrons - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Substrate: in this example, is hydride-forming metal, e.g. Palladium (Pd); however, could just as easily be an Oxide (in that case, SP electrons would be only be present at nanoparticle-oxide interface, not across entire substrate surface as shown above) SP electron subsystem Proton subsystem Substrate subsystem SP electron and proton subsystems form a many-body W-L patch; it can also reside on nanoparticles attached to surface - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Many surface plasmon electrons - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down in this region (1) (2)
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 11 Conceptual elements of W-L patch situated on substrate Patch is ready to go but needs input energy to create heavy electrons E-M fields couple surface plasmons to protons in patch and to SPs on substrate surface Substrate can be planar surface of bulk material or complex geometric surface of host nanoparticle Host nanoparticles can be fabricated and affixed on substrate surfaces to optimize and manage E-fields and/or LENR products - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Many surface plasmon electrons - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Dimensions randomly range from several nm up to perhaps ~100 microns - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Thin-film of surface plasmon electrons - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + Many surface protons (hydrogen) + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Layer of positive charge + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Substrate subsystem Sufficient input energy will create local nuclear-strength E-fields > 1011 V/m within the patch Nuclear-strength local electric fields created herein Substrate: in this example, is hydride-forming metal, e.g. Palladium (Pd); however, could just as easily be an Oxide (in that case, SP electrons would be only be present at nanoparticle-oxide interface, not across entire substrate surface as shown above) Note: diagram components are not to scale; please ignore striping on substrate surface
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 12 Collection of W-L patches situated on substrate surface Dimensions and locations vary randomly across surface Patches are very dynamic evanescent structures that are born and eventually die Unless local E-field strengths tightly controlled maximum patch lifetime may only be ~400 nanoseconds - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Thin-film of surface plasmon electrons - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Layer of positive charge + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Substrate subsystem Once a given W-L patch goes nuclear it can create a crater Substrate: in this example, is hydride-forming metal, e.g. Palladium (Pd); however, could just as easily be an Oxide (in that case, SP electrons would be only be present at nanoparticle-oxide interface, not across entire substrate surface as shown above) Note: diagram components are not to scale; please ignore striping on substrate surface
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 13 Summary of key Widom-Larsen patch characteristics Patch comprised of coupled SP electron and surface proton subsystems Some type of evanescent in-plane 2-D HTSC could potentially be occurring therein Type of particle in subsystem Are particles in subsystem charged? Dimensionality Do particles collectively oscillate? Are particles entangled? Comments Widom- Larsen surface patch Sizes vary randomly - diameters can range from several nm to perhaps up to ~100 microns Surface plasmon electrons (fermions) decidedly many-body Yes, - ~2-D reduced Yes Yes Q-M wave functions are very delocalized within a patch Under proper conditions might form a quantum condensate comprised of Cooper pairs quantum confinement in patch a la quantum dots Surface protons (hydrogen) (fermions) decidedly many-body Yes, + ~2-D reduced Yes Yes Q-M wave functions are very delocalized within a patch Under proper conditions might form a quantum condensate comprised of Cooper pairs quantum confinement in patch a la quantum dots Substrate material Mostly neutral atoms except for interstitial absorbed hydrogenous ions that occupy material-specific sites in substrate bulk lattice No charge-neutral for the most part Essentially 3-D i.e., bulk material No No Very high nuclear-strength electric fields > 1011 V/m present within an energized patch can potentially induce proximity E-M effects in substrate in close contact with that patch Further Lattice comments: if some type of evanescent HTSC superconductivity truly occurs during the brief lifetime of W-L patches prior to their going nuclear, since such patches are dimensionally ~2-D one can speculate that it would probably be in-plane, somewhat akin to Type-II layered superconductors such as Cuprates. Very high local E-fields within patches also suggest possibility that some sort of proximity effects might be induced locally in substrate material located beneath
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 14 Speculate: create Cooper pairs of protons and SP electrons? Do electromagnetically interacting 2-D mirror quantum condensates form in surface heavy-electron patches prior to their going nuclear? + + - - + + - - + + - - Substrate: in this example, it is a hydride-forming metal, e.g. Palladium (Pd); however, it could just as easily be an Oxide (in that case, SP electrons would be present at interface between patches and substrate, not across the entire substrate surface as would be the case if the underlying substrate was a metal) Nuclear-strength local electric fields herein Possible proximity effects in this region Conceptual overview of condensates within a given many-body patch What might be facilitating the formation of Cooper pairs in patch quantum condensates?
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 15 Quantum condensates and HTSC in W-L theory patches Speculative discussion of theoretical ideas Source: “Light induced Superconductivity in a Stripe-ordered Cuprate,” A. Dienst et al., Science 331 pp. 189-191 (2011) - “Structure of a LaEuSrCuO4 crystal (positions of La, Eu, Sr are not distinguishable). CuO4 builds connected tilted octahedral structures.”  If a type of evanescent HTSC truly occurs in PdHx W-L patches, it may be helpful to first discuss what it is not likely to be:  Type-I classic BCS - substrate lattice phonons would not appear to be involved in electron-pairing quantum condensate formation process that would necessarily have to occur in the SP electron subsystem, since those electrons are coupled more strongly to the dynamics of the intervening, locally dominant proton subsystem (thanks to breakdown of Born-Oppenheimer approximation in patches)  If not Type-I, the next potential alternative is that we could perhaps be dealing with some new variant of known Type-II superconductors. Well, there are both pluses and minuses with that particular conceptualization as follows:  Pluses - patch HT superconductivity, if present, would likely be an in-plane ~2-D phenomenon which would be broad-brush conceptually consistent with known Type-II behavior; if Tripodi et al.’s experimental measurements are ultimately shown to be correct, there would be little doubt that RTSC is physically possible, at least in some types of systems; Lipson’s ca. 2005 experimental observations are broadly consistent with low temperature Type-II behavior in PdHx; both Tripodi and Lipson et al. experimentally observed the Meissner effect  Minuses - a widely accepted, detailed theory of Type-II superconductivity is not yet available; except for Tripodi’s work and that of a handful of other researchers, there still isn’t any widely accepted experimental evidence for superconductivity occurring at anywhere close to room temperature (RTSC), let alone well above it; protons have not previously been known to participate in superconductivity (except in theoretical work involving cores of neutron stars); lastly, except for a hint in Lipson’s work, oxides do not appear to play a major direct role in W-L patches, which is decidedly unlike the vast majority of known oxide-based HTSCs
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 16 Quantum condensates and HTSC in W-L theory patches Speculative discussion of theoretical ideas Source: Wikipedia - YBa2Cu3O7: A hybrid ball and stick/polyhedral representation of the YBa2Cu3O7 structure http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:YB a2Cu3O7.png  Protons are fascinating entities - in the context of W-L patches, they can be viewed as simply being entangled hydrogen atoms or as entangled nucleons (p+). That being the case, there may be some utility in conceptualizing such patches as being akin to exotic, very large, pancake-shaped, short-lived quasi ‘atoms’ that, instead of being a many-body collection of nucleons confined and held together mainly by the strong force, are confined and held together mostly by a complex combination of chemical bonds, local electromagnetic fields, and many-body collective quantum effects; i.e., like a quantum dot on steroids; unclear exactly what this radical thinking might mean  Analogy exists between W-L patches and quantum dots - in patches, heavy-mass SP electrons can directly convert locally produced gamma radiation into infrared photons (with a poorly understood, variable emission tail in soft X-rays) at high efficiencies. This process is explained in a 2005 arXiv preprint, “Absorption of nuclear gamma radiation by heavy electrons on metallic hydride surfaces,” and fundamental US patent issued to Lattice in 2011, US 7,893,414 B2. Interestingly, it turns-out that there is a close analogue for this type of photon energy down-conversion that also occurs in quantum dots and is called, “luminescent downshifting”; please see:  “Performance of Hydrogenated a-Si:H solar cells with downshifting coating” B. Nemeth et al. (preprint) Conference Paper NREL/CP-5200-51824 (May 2011) http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/51824.pdf  Micron-scale delocalization of electron, proton, and neutron Q-M wave functions – apart from the seminal experimental work of Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann et al., the experimentally verified fact (Cirillo et al. 2012) that ultra low momentum (ultra-long Q-M wavelength) delocalized band-state neutrons are produced via collective electroweak reactions in W-L patches implies that the same degree of delocalization must be true for protons present in a patch and likely also for SP electrons. This argues in favor of idea that evanescent HTSC might be occurring in such patches
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 17 Quantum condensates and HTSC in W-L theory patches Speculative discussion of theoretical ideas Fig. 18. 2D (bottom) and 3D (top) plots of the spatial dependence of the differential conductance showing the microscopic inhomogeneity in magnitude of superconducting gap in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8−x in E. Plummer et al. Surface Science 500 pp. 1-27 (2002)  Formation of Cooper pairs in quantum condensates – while it is not terribly difficult to imagine creation of Cooper pairs of entangled electrons in an SP electron patch subsystem, the issue of comparable pairing for protons is somewhat unfamiliar - more problematic. Like electrons, the problem with Coulomb repulsion between protons is obvious. That being the case, viewing the proton patch subsystem as a quantum plasma, is there an attractive force between protons that might plausibly facilitate the formation of bosonic Cooper pairs in a W-L patch? It turns-out that there may well be such a force; please see:  “Novel attractive force between ions in quantum plasmas” P. Shukla and B. Eliasson Physical Review Letters 108 pp. 165007 - 165012 (2012) http://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.5556v7.pdf  Alternatively, could electron and/or proton spin density waves perhaps also help create quantum condensates in patches? – in a recent presentation, “Quantum phases of matter” (2012), Subir Sachdev (Harvard) described a theoretical mechanism for recently discovered group of Iron-based superconductors, e.g., BaFe2(As1-xPx)2, in which the attractive force between electrons (which enables formation of Cooper pairs) is presently thought to arise not from their interactions with lattice phonons, but rather from a so-called “spin density wave” (SDW) that spatially organizes up/down electron spin configurations at lattice sites. Interestingly, when the net antiferromagnetic moment (m) measured across the entire lattice vanishes as x = xc (i.e., at the quantum critical point), the electrons involved are all effectively entangled and must be treated as a many-body quantum subsystem Let us imagine a W-L patch proton subsystem as a dynamically organized ‘lattice’ of sorts, perhaps something akin to so-called “Coulomb crystals” that arise and are experimentally well-known in dusty, non-ideal plasmas. If that were the case, and since both electrons and protons assuredly possess spin, by analogy perhaps something like a SDW could also help enable the formation of electron and/or proton Cooper pairs in a W-L patch?
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 18 Quantum condensates and HTSC in W-L theory patches Speculative discussion of theoretical ideas  For this discussion please see following references:  “Absorption of nuclear gamma radiation by heavy electrons on metallic hydride surfaces” A. Widom and L. Larsen (2005) [see Slide #2 for full reference and hyperlink]  “Room temperature superconductivity” A. Mourachkine [author placed copy of entire 310-page book on arXiv] Cambridge International Science Publishing (2004) http://arxiv.org/ftp/cond-mat/papers/0606/0606187.pdf  In evanescent W-L patches, both the proton and SP electron subsystems are characterized by strongly correlated, entangled particles and long-range Q-M coherence up to the physical dimensions of a given patch, which can range from several nm up to perhaps as large as ~100 microns  Apart from having nuclear-strength local electric fields, what is extremely unusual about W-L patches are the energy- scales present therein. In typical condensed matter environments and superconductors at chemical energies, meVs and eVs are the norm. By contrast, in energized patches, intrinsic energy scales of particles therein can range from eVs to keVs --- up to MeVs, i.e., they can and do enter the nuclear energy realm, unlike everyday lattice environments  Quoting excerpts from our 2005 arXiv preprint: “In order to achieve heavy electron pair energies of several MeV … The energy differences between electron states in the heavy electron conduction states is sufficient to pick up the ‘particle-hole’ energies of the order of MeV. Such particle-hole pair production in conduction states of metals is in conventional condensed matter physics described by electrical conductivity … energy spread of heavy electron-hole pair excitations implies that a high conductivity near the surface can persist well into the MeV photon energy range, strongly absorbing prompt gamma radiation … energy spread of the excited particle hole pair will have a cutoff of about 10 MeV based on mass renormalization of … the electron”  While no direct experimental measurements of energy spreads in W-L patches have ever been made, one could speculate that they might well be much larger than those of presently well-known Types 1-2 superconductors. If mirror Cooper pairs of SP electrons and protons can form in a coherent W-L patch, perhaps it is not unreasonable to expect that pairing energies therein might exceed value of 150 meV Mourachkine (2004) calculated for a RTSC at 580 K
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 19 Summary:  Certain experimental data suggests that some form of HTSC may be occurring in W-L many-body patches found in LENR systems  While not widely known or accepted, controversial experimental data collected and published by Tripodi et al., if correct, suggests that >RTSC might be possible, at least in PdHx superconducting systems  If HTSC or RTSC truly does occur in W-L heavy-electron patches, although it shares some common characteristics with Type-2 superconductors, it differs significantly in many key ways  For example, normal lattice electron-phonon interactions seem unlikely to be involved in facilitating formation of Cooper pairing in a W-L patch’s SP electron subsystem. Instead, it seems like, during brief attoseconds of collective proton coherence, the many-body collective proton subsystem somehow functions as a local ‘lattice’ (a la a dynamic Coulomb crystal???). Viewed in that manner, a many-body proton subsystem’s electromagnetic and Q-M interactions with a patch’s many-body SP electron subsystem might then be able to provide a local environment conducive to SP electron pairing therein. Perhaps a patch’s two subsystems form dynamic, mutually reinforcing mirror quantum condensates as conceptualized on Slide #81 herein  Hopefully, subject matter experts will study these new theoretical ideas to see whether they might lead to additional fruitful insights Credit: Y. Liu (Penn State Univ.) p-wave superconductor Sr2RuO4
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 20  Apart from reading a large number of published papers, some of which are cited herein, two must- read references shown to the right were particularly helpful to the author, who is not an expert on HTSC  As noted earlier, if some form of HTSC or maybe even RTSC is truly occurring in W-L heavy SP electron patches, it may be providing us with some new and interesting theoretical twists on HT superconductivity along with daunting experimental challenges that must be surmounted to fully understand what might be happening in these nanoscale many-body quantum systems  As promised, this presentation raises many more questions than it answers. Hopefully, it will help provide impetus for additional theoretical and experimental work by other researchers “Room temperature superconductivity” A. Mourachkine Cambridge International Science Publishing (2004) http://arxiv.org/ftp/cond- mat/papers/0606/0606187.pdf “Strange and stringy” S. Sachdev, Harvard University Scientific American (October 2012) http://qpt.physics.harvard.edu/c63.pdf Abstract (quoted from an earlier preprint): “In many modern materials, 1023 electrons quantum-entangle with each other, and produce new phases of matter, such as high temperature superconductors. The challenge of describing the entanglement of such a large number of electrons may be met by ideas drawn from string theory.”
    • Lattice Energy LLC Neutron capture products correlate with surface structures Local melting and crater-like features suggest intense heat production September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 21
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 22 Summary: there is experimental evidence for SC in LENRs Effects appear in PdHx, PdDx and PdHx/PdO from cryo to above 273oK Superconductivity has been known in Palladium hydrides since early 1970s Slide #s Type of experiment Researcher(s) and year reported Material(s) range of temperatures(s) when effects are measured Material/isotope in which effects are observed Anomalous experimental effect(s) Comments 5 and 50 - 52 Ultrathin 50 μm metal wire in current-driven electrolytic cell with D2O (10-5 M CaSO4) Selvaggi: 2000 ICONE conference report Room temp or above (> 273 K) Pure Pd: PdDx Large, rapid resistivity fluctuations Correlated with calorimetric macro excess heat burst 6 and 53 - 61 Two alternative preferred system embodiments: metal cathode was loaded w. hydrogen isotope in electrolytic cell with H2O (10-5 M Hg2SO4); or, metal thin-film target hit with accelerated hydrogenous ions in pressure chamber Tripodi et al.: two papers published in Physica C in 2003 and 2004; US Patent issued in 2006 Removed from electrolytic cell; then measurements were made at low cryogenic temps up to room temp (Tc > 273 K) or above, e.g. 400K Pure Pd: PdHx Claimed alternative embodiments include PdDx Multiple measurements were consistent with SC including Meissner effect; please see 2006 US patent and associated papers for details Some measurements indicate possible RTSC observed; claimed some effects were supposedly observed for as long as 24 hours after removal from loading cell 62 - 65 12.5 μm thick metal foil; thermally grown oxide; loaded w. hydrogen isotope in electrolytic cell with H2O (1M Li2SO4) Lipson et al.: 2005 ICCF-12 conference report Removed from electrolytic cell; then measurements made at low cryogenic temps up to T < ~67 K Pure Pd: PdHx and PdHx:PdO heterostructures Multiple measurements were consistent with SC; see full presentation Conjectured Type II filamentary superconductor; observed Meissner effect 66 Macroscopic metal cathode in electrolytic cell with D2O (1M LiOD with 200 ppm Al) McKubre: 2009 ICCF-15 conference report Room temp or above (> 273 K) Pure Pd: PdDx Large, rapid resistivity fluctuations measured across cathode surface Correlated with large up/down macro fluctuations in calorimetric excess heat Summary comments: altogether, viewed through the conceptual lens of the Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs, these varied experimental observations suggest to the author that some form of evanescent high temperature superconductivity cold potentially be associated with heavy-SP electron patches that form on surfaces that can, under proper conditions, become LENR-active sites Slide#sinAugust23,2012document
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 23 Summary: possible experimental evidence for SC in LENRs Effects appear in PdHx, PdDx and PdHx /PdO from cryo to above 273oK Note that Tripodi’s amazing measurements have never been refuted Renewed interest in Tripodi’s earlier work became apparent in 2011 - 2012 APS March Meeting 2012, Volume 57, Number 1, Monday - Friday, February 27 - March 2 2012; Boston, MA. Session Q21: Novel Superconductivity in New and Low Dimensional Materials, 12:27 AM - 12:39 PM, Wednesday, February 29, 2012 Room: 254A Authors: C. Bersier et al. “Elementary excitations and elusive superconductivity in palladium hydride --- ab initio perspective. II. Phonons” “Motivated by a experimental reports on possible high temperature superconductivity in palladium hydride [Tripodi et al., Physica C 388-389, 571 (2003)], we present a first principle study of spin fluctuations, electron-phonon coupling and critical temperature (Tc) in PdHx , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Our results described in terms of (i) electronic structure, (ii) phonon density of states and (iii) Eliashberg function show that the hydrogenation of Pd clearly enhance the electron-phonon coupling in this material. Assuming phonons to be the driving force for superconductivity, fcc Pd features a vanishingly small Tc, while for the stoichiometric x = 1 PdH the resulting Tc is around 10 K in agreement with experiment. It is generally believed [Berk & Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 433 (1966)] that intense spin-&flip fluctuations of Pd are destructive for the conventional, i.e. s- wave, superconductivity. However, the H doping leads to a drastic reduction of spin-flip scattering. Please look for complementary presentation of Pawel Buczek.” Session Q21: Novel Superconductivity in New and Low Dimensional Materials, 12:15 AM - 12:27 PM, Wednesday, February 29, 2012 Room: 254A Authors: P. Buczek et al. “Elementary excitations and elusive superconductivity in palladium hydride --- ab initio perspective. I. Paramagnons “ “Motivated by a experimental reports on possible high temperature superconductivity in palladium hydride [Tripodi et al., Physica C 388- 389, 571 (2003)], we present a first principle study of spin fluctuations, electron-phonon coupling and critical temperature in PdHx, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. A prerequisite for any qualitative study of exchange-enhanced materials is the knowledge of spin flip fluctuation spectrum. It is generally believed [Berk & Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett., 17, 433 (1966)] that the ferromagnetic-like paramagnons of Pd are destructive for the conventional, i.e. s-wave, superconductivity. We describe them using linear response time dependent density functional theory, recently implemented to study complex metals [Buczek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 097205 (2010)]. We find that hydrogenation suppresses the intense spin fluctuations of pure Pd, driving it away from a magnetic critical point. Under the assumption of s-wave pairing, this could lead to the formation of the superconducting state. The ab initio estimated electron- phonon coupling is strong enough to support superconductivity. Please look for the complementary contribution of Christophe Bersier.” Please take special note: new work below is for case of PdHx where 0 ≤ x ≤ 1; Tripodi and Lipson both conjectured that superconductivity effects should become progressively stronger as x increases further and further above x = 1, i.e., local values of hydrogen loading >> 1
    • Lattice Energy LLC September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 24 Eight technical papers on Widom-Larsen theory (2005-2010) “Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces” Eur. Phys. J. C 46, pp. 107 (2006) Widom and Larsen – initially placed on arXiv in May 2005 at http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/cond-mat/pdf/0505/0505026v1.pdf; a copy of the final EPJC article can be found at: http://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/library/2006/2006Widom-UltraLowMomentumNeutronCatalyzed.pdf “Absorption of nuclear gamma radiation by heavy electrons on metallic hydride surfaces” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/cond-mat/pdf/0509/0509269v1.pdf (Sept 2005) Widom and Larsen “Nuclear abundances in metallic hydride electrodes of electrolytic chemical cells” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/cond-mat/pdf/0602/0602472v1.pdf (Feb 2006) Widom and Larsen “Theoretical Standard Model rates of proton to neutron conversions near metallic hydride surfaces” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/nucl-th/pdf/0608/0608059v2.pdf (v2. Sep 2007) Widom and Larsen “Energetic electrons and nuclear transmutations in exploding wires” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0709/0709.1222v1.pdf (Sept 2007) Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen “Errors in the quantum electrodynamic mass analysis of Hagelstein and Chaudhary” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0802/0802.0466v2.pdf (Feb 2008) Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen “High energy particles in the solar corona” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0804/0804.2647v1.pdf (April 2008) Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen “A primer for electro-weak induced low energy nuclear reactions” Srivastava, Widom, and Larsen Pramana – Journal of Physics 75 pp. 617 (2010) http://www.ias.ac.in/pramana/v75/p617/fulltext.pdf Physics of LENR experiments is understood and published pp. 2
    • Lattice Energy LLC “A scientist is supposed to have a complete and thorough knowledge, at first hand, of some subjects and, therefore, is usually expected not to write on any topic of which he is not a master. This is regarded as a matter of noblesse oblige. For the present purpose I beg to renounce the noblesse, if any, and to be freed of the ensuing obligation. My excuse is as follows: we have inherited from our forefathers the keen longing for unified, all-embracing knowledge. The very name given to the highest institutions of learning reminds us, that from antiquity and throughout many centuries the universal aspect has been the only one to be given full credit. But the spread, both in width and depth, of the multifarious branches of knowledge during the last hundred odd years has confronted us with a queer dilemma. We feel clearly that we are only now beginning to acquire reliable material for welding together the sum-total of all that is known into a whole; but, on the other hand, it has become next to impossible for a single mind fully to command more than a small specialized portion of it. I can see no other escape from this dilemma (lest our true aim be lost forever) than that some of us should venture to embark on a synthesis of facts and theories, albeit with second-hand and incomplete knowledge of some of them --- and at the risk of making fools of ourselves.” Erwin Schrödinger, What is life? (1944) SPASER device’s electric fields (2009): surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation http://opfocus.org/content/v7/s5/opfocus_v7_s5.pdf September 11, 2012 Copyright 2012 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 25