Lattice Energy LLC-Addendum to May 19 2012 Technical Overview-1927 Caltech Experiments-May 26 2012

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In a hypothetical Widom-Larsen LENR network, unstable isotopes of Lead and Bismuth created by neutron capture processes will spontaneously transmute via alpha-decays into unstable isotopes of Mercury …

In a hypothetical Widom-Larsen LENR network, unstable isotopes of Lead and Bismuth created by neutron capture processes will spontaneously transmute via alpha-decays into unstable isotopes of Mercury and Thallium, respectively, which could potentially be detected analytically. Such LENR network products were apparently observed by L. Thomassen in experimental work that he conducted for his PhD at Caltech in 1927. A summary of these results was subsequently published in peer-reviewed Physical Review in 1929.

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    Unbeknownst to all of these very likely competent researchers working in the early 1900s, they were actually struggling with very subtle, tricky nanoscale LENR processes that can occur in condensed matter. Given an utter lack of knowledge about LENRs back then (indeed, much of what is known about nuclear science today and all of nanotech had simply not been discovered yet), it is not at all surprising that experimentalists ca. the 1920s had major problems with spotty, inconclusive laboratory results and low levels of experimental reproducibility. Indeed, much of the acrimony about LENRs that has transpired in the world scientific community since Pons & Fleischmann in 1989 has involved the very same issue.

    So just like today, the subject of triggering nuclear transmutations under relatively ‘mild’ physical conditions was controversial during the late 1920s. Indeed, underlying tension about the possibility of extremely contentious results is almost palpable in Thomassen’s fascinating 1927 Caltech thesis. Interestingly and also perhaps not surprisingly, it appears that the whole line of inquiry involving electric-arc-triggered-transmutations appears to have more-or-less died out worldwide by the time Chadwick confirmed the existence of the neutron in 1932. It is tempting to speculate that problems with experimental reproducibility were a major factor in the premature demise of such work.

    All that said, today in 2012 things are different: (1) scientists can now benefit from the published Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs which successfully explains a huge array of earlier results (including the best 1920s electric arc experiments) and can help guide new, more productive experimentation; and (2) unlike 1989 – 1994 (after which the vast majority of ‘mainstream’ scientists ceased being interested in LENRs), as of 2012 the science of nanotechnology (e.g., plasmonics, techniques for fabrication of nanostructures, materials science, etc.) has finally advanced to the point where it can be usefully applied to substantially improve both experimental reproducibility and WLT neutron production rates, thus potentially enabling successful commercialization of LENRs for cost-effective production of energy and valuable transmutation products (e.g., Gold, Platinum, etc.) at some point in the not-too-distant future.

    Questions and inquiries are welcome.

    Lewis Larsen
    Lattice Energy LLC
    1-312-861-0115
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  • 1. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC Low Energy Neutron Reactions (LENRs) Addendum to May 19, 2012 Technical Overview regarding a WLT Tungsten 74 W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network: Pb → Hg ; Bi → Tlhttp://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-lenr-transmutation-networks-can-produce-goldmay-19-2012 Lewis Larsen President and CEO Lattice Energy LLC May 26, 2012 In above LENR network, unstable isotopes of Lead and Bismuth will spontaneously transmute into unstable isotopes of Mercury and Thallium, respectively, which could be detected Apparently observed by L. Thomassen in experimental work for his PhD at Caltech in 1927 Unstable 82Pb210 Transmutations Unstable 83Bi210 Half-life = ~22.2 years Half-life = ~5 days Lead Bismuth Alpha decay Alpha decay Mercury Thallium Unstable 80Hg206 Unstable 81Tl206 Half-life = ~8.2 minutes Half-life = ~4.2 minutes May 26, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved
  • 2. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC Low Energy Neutron Reactions (LENRs) Addendum to May 19, 2012 Technical Overviewhttp://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-lenr-transmutation-networks-can-produce-goldmay-19-2012 In hypothetical LEN R network, unstable isotopes of Lead and Bismuth will spontaneously transmute into unstable isotopes of Mercury and Thallium, respectively, which could be detected Apparently observed by L. Thomassen in experimental work for his PhD at Caltech in 1927 Documents: “Low Energy Neutron Reactions (LENRs): in theory, neutron-catalyzed LENR transmutations can produce Gold; already observed experimentally; may also occur naturally in the earth --- Might process be scalable and economic; if so, what are long-term implications for Gold price?” Lewis Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC [66 PowerPoint slides – not peer- reviewed] May 19, 2012 --- published on SlideShare.net http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-lenr-transmutation- networks-can-produce-goldmay-19-2012 “The Transmutation of Elements” Lars Thomassen PhD Thesis, Caltech August 1927 [totals 21 pages – copy is included within this document] http://thesis.library.caltech.edu/843/1/Thomassen_l_1927.pdf Somewhat shorter version of Thomassen’s PhD thesis was eventually published as a peer-reviewed journal paper: “Transmutation of Elements” L. Thomassen [acknowledged input from R. Millikan, Nobel Prize 1923] Physical Review 33 pp. 229 – 238 (1929) Unstable 81Tl206 http://authors.library.caltech.edu/2524/1/THOpr29.pdf Half-life = ~4.2 minutes May 26, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved
  • 3. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC Low Energy Neutron Reactions (LENRs) Addendum to May 19, 2012 Technical Overviewhttp://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-lenr-transmutation-networks-can-produce-goldmay-19-2012 Documents: “Discovery of the thallium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes” C. Fry and M. Thoennessen Cornell physics preprint archive January 21, 2012 [totals 50 pages] http://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.4474v1.pdf Fig. 3: Lead isotopes as a function of time when they were discovered. The different production methods are indicated. Unstable 81Tl206 Source of Figure is above-cited preprint = ~4.2 minutes Half-life May 26, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved
  • 4. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC Low Energy Neutron Reactions (LENRs) Addendum to May 19, 2012 Technical Overviewhttp://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-lenr-transmutation-networks-can-produce-goldmay-19-2012 In hypothetical LEN R network, unstable isotopes of Lead and Bismuth will spontaneously transmute into unstable isotopes of Mercury and Thallium, respectively, which could be detected Apparently observed by L. Thomassen in experimental work for his PhD at Caltech in 1927Brief comments on Thomassen’s ca. 1927 experiments:  Please note, existence of the neutron was not truly verified for another 5 years (Chadwick, 1932), so the concept of neutron-catalyzed nuclear transmutation reactions was unknown to researchers at that point in time. Although Rutherford had discovered beta-minus decay in 1899, it was not at all understood until Fermi published his seminal theory papers on subject of beta-decay in 1934  Although Pb210 had been discovered in 1900 and Bi210 in 1905, Tl206 was only first discovered in 1935 and Hg206 not until 1961 (for a history of Mercury isotopes see http://www.nscl.msu.edu/~thoennes/2009/mercury-adndt.pdf ); so Thomassen and other contemporary researchers of that era would have been unaware of possibility that some of the alpha-decay paths into unstable Mercury and Thallium isotopes that are known today, 85 years later  Please note Thomassen’s frequent comments about experimentalists having great difficulty in repeating experimental results in transmutation experiments; does that gnarly, contentious issue of adequate experimental reproducibility sound familiar? Plus ça change, plus cest la même chose!  Thomassen and his contemporaries had no idea or clue whatsoever that the Mercury and Thallium transmutation products they were attempting to observe and measure were in fact relatively short- lived isotopes (please see LENR network diagrams and isotope half-life data provided therein)  Spectroscopic analytical techniques can reveal the presence of reasonable quantities of new elements (and even short-lived unstable isotopes) fast enough before they can decay. By contrast, in case of the other type of time-laborious wet-chemical analytical technique described later in Thomassen’s thesis, it would have been a race against time to finish the analytical procedures before unstable isotopes of chemical elements of interest had decayed below the limits of detection  To create neutrons via the WLT e + p electroweak reaction, Hydrogen (protons) must be present in some chemical form, if only in trace amounts, somewhere inside experimental apparatus. In many of these 1920s experiments, quantity of hydrogen (protons) internally available to make neutrons may have been a limiting factor controlling quantities of transmutation products and contributed to variability of results; Nagaoka inadvertently solved this issue by arcing in transformer oil, CnH2n+2  Note that Thomassen cited Nagaoka but not Wendt & Irion; the credibility of their exploding wire work published 1922 had already been destroyed by Rutherford’s critique in Nature; we have since determined that Rutherford was wrong: http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0709/0709.1222v1.pdf  Conclusion: even given above comments and length of time since these early experiments were conducted (85 years), it appears that Thomassen’s reported results were consistent with operation of a WLT neutron-catalyzed LENR process May 26, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved
  • 5. Phys. Rev. 33, 229 (1929): Transmutation of Elements American Physical Society  Log in  |  Create Account (whats this?) RSS Feeds  |  Email Alerts Home   Browse   Search   Subscriptions   Whats New   Help Citation Search: Phys. Rev. Lett. Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. Page/Article PROLA » Phys. Rev. » Volume 33 » Issue 2 < Previous Article | Next Article > Phys. Rev. 33, 229–238 (1929) Transmutation of Elements Abstract References No Citing Articles Page Images Download: PDF (668 kB) Buy this article Export: BibTeX or EndNote (RIS) L. Thomassen Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute, Pasadena, California Received 25 September 1928; published in the issue dated February 1929 Physics - spotlighting exceptional Test for the transmutation in the tungsten target of an x-ray tube.—X- research ray spectrograms of the tungsten target of a deep-therapy x-ray tube were taken before and after operating it for about 80 hours at 2-3 ma and 207 kv peak voltage. No lines other than those due to tungsten were found before or after. Test for transmutation of lead in a lead arc.—The experiments of Smits and Karssen with the lead arc were duplicated as nearly as possible. Under no conditions of current density was there any spectroscopic evidence of a transmutation of the lead to Read the latest from Physics : mercury. Viewpoint: Quantum Dipolar Gases in Boson or Fermion Flavor Test for transmutation of lead in a high potential discharge between lead electrodes in Viewpoint: A Closer Connection Between CS 2 .—The experiments of Smits and Karssen were carefully repeated. Some evidence Entanglement and Nonlocality of Hg in the residue from the electrodes was found. The indications are however, that Focus: How to Make Soft, Wavy the mercury comes from the electrodes, the carbon bisulphide or dust particles rather Structures than from a transmutation of lead. © 1929 The American Physical Society URL: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRev.33.229 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.33.229   < Previous Article | Next Article > About  |  Terms and Conditions  |  Subscriptions  |  Search  |  Help Use of the American Physical Society websites andhttp://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v33/i2/p229_1[5/26/2012 1:31:18 PM]
  • 6. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC Low Energy Neutron Reactions (LENRs) In theory, neutron-catalyzed LENR transmutations can produce GoldAlready observed experimentally; may also occur naturally in the earthMight process be scalable and economic; if so, what are long-term implications for Gold price? Example 1 Example 2 Production of Gold: one possible path Making Gold: another possible path Stable 74W180-186seeds Technical Overview Stable 73Ta180-181seeds +n and decays Lewis Larsen +n and decays President and CEO Series of Series of Intermediate Lattice Energy LLC Intermediate Isotopes May 19, 2012 Isotopes 196 197 78Pt “Facts do not cease to exist 77Ir +n because they are ignored.” β- decay 197 Aldous Huxley in 197 78Pt 78Pt “Proper Studies” 1927 β- decay β- decay 197 Basic LENR transmutation reactions: e-* + p+ g n + νe 197 79Au n + (Z, A) g (Z, A+1)stable or (Z, A+1)unstable 79Au Neutron-catalyzed transmutations (Z, A+1)unstable g (Z+1, A+1)stable or unstable + e-β + νe Neutron-catalyzed transmutations May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 1
  • 7. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC74 W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Theoretical description of nucleosynthetic network for Gold  We will now examine a hypothetical LENR transmutation network that begins with neutron captures on Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W) ‘seeds’  Explanatory legend for network diagrams appears on the next slide  180-seednetwork produces Gold (Au) and Platinum (Pt); if sufficiently high 74W neutron fluxes are maintained for enough time, it can reach Bismuth (Bi)  While unstable intermediate network products undergo nuclear decays, their half-lives are generally short (especially those that are more neutron-rich); this network does not produce copious, dangerous long-lived radioactive isotopes  According to the WLT, in condensed matter systems LENRs occur in many tiny nm- to micron-scale surface sites or ‘patches’ that only ‘live’ for several hundred nanoseconds before they ‘die’; such sites can form and re-form spontaneously  Need input energy to make neutrons that ‘catalyze’ LENR transmutations  In following sections, we will discuss compelling experimental evidence that this nucleosynthetic network in fact occurs both in the laboratory and out in Nature May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 19
  • 8. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC74 W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Legend: Neutron capture and nuclear decay processes: ULM neutron captures proceed from left to right except for upper-left corner; Q-value of capture reaction (MeV) in green either above or below horizontal arrow. Beta- (β-) decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted with bright blue vertical arrow pointing down with Q-value (MeV) in blue either to left or right; beta+ (β+) decays are denoted with yellow arrow pointing upward to row above Alpha decays, indicated with orange arrows, proceed mostly from right to left at an angle with Q-value (MeV) shown in orange located on either side of the process arrow. Electron captures (e.c.) indicated by purple vertical arrow; Q-value (MeV) to left or right. Note: to reduce visual clutter in the network diagram, gamma emissions (converted to infrared photons by heavy e-* electrons) are not shown; similarly, except where specifically listed because a given branch cross-section is significant, beta-delayed decays also generally not shown; BR means “branching ratio” if >1 decay alternative Color coded half-lives: When known, half-lives shown as “HL = xx”. Stable and quasi-stable isotopes (i.e., those with half-lives > or equal to 107 years) indicated by green boxes; isotopes with half-lives < 107 but > than or equal to 103 years indicated by light blue; those with half-lives < than 103 years but > or equal to 1 day are denoted by purplish boxes; half-lives of < 1 day in yellow; with regard to half-life, notation “? nm” means isotope has been verified by HL has not been measured Measured natural terrestrial abundances for stable isotopes: Indicated with % symbol; note that 83Bi209 = 100% (essentially ~stable with half-life = 1.9 x 1019 yrs); 82Pb-205 ~stable with HL= 1.5 x107 yrs; May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 20
  • 9. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC74 W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Increasing values of A Network may potentially continue ‘upward’ to even higher values of A; Alternatively, one could This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec Start with stable start with 73Ta181 ‘seed’ Tungsten ‘seeds’ 73Ta-181 6.1 73Ta-182 6.9 73Ta-183 7.4 73Ta-184 5.6 73Ta-185 7.2 6.2 73Ta-186 Stable 99.9+% HL = 114 days HL = 5.1 days HL = 8.6 hrs HL = 49.3 min HL = 10.5 min of pure W metal ε 188 keV BR = 100% 1.8 1.1 2.9 2.0 3.9 6.7 8.1 6.2 7.4 5.8 7.2 5.5 74W-180 74W-181 74W-182 74W-183 74W-184 74W-185 74W-186 Tungsten Stable 0.12% HL = 121 days Stable 26.5% Stable 14.3 % Stable 30.6% HL = 75.1 days Stable 28.4% 433 keV ε 579 keV BR = 7.5% Please note: once created, the process of capturing an LENR ULM neutron on a nearby atom 6.2 7.4 75Re-185 75Re-186 occurs very quickly; on the order of picoseconds, i.e., 0.000000000001 sec., i.e., 10-12 sec, which Stable 37.4% HL = 3.7 days is much faster than any of the various nuclear decays found in this particular LENR network. Moreover, in case of condensed matter LENRs, while their neutron production rates are probably 1.1 BR 92.5% significantly lower than the r-process, LENR neutron capture cross-sections are vastly higher than 6.3 those in stellar environments; on balance it’s essentially ‘a wash’, so LENRs can effectively mimic 76Os-186 Stable 1.58% the r-process. Thus, isotopes in LENRs can potentially capture additional neutrons (i.e., become more neutron-rich isotopes of the same element) before beta decay transmutes them into other higher-Z elements found in the Periodic Table. This is why the ‘hot’ astrophysical r-process can make heavier elements than the s-process (i.e., go beyond Bismuth): with much higher producedIncreasing values of Z neutron fluxes, the r-process can successfully traverse and ‘bridge’ key regions of very short-lived isotopes that are found in ultra-neutron-rich, high-Z reaches of vast nuclear isotopic landscape It should also be noted that all of the many atoms located within a 3-D region of space that encompasses a given ULM 5.4 neutron’s spatially extended DeBroglie wave function (whose dimensions can range from 2 nm to 100 microns) will ‘compete’ with each other to capture such neutrons. ULM neutron capture is thus a decidedly many-body scattering process, not few- body scattering such as that which characterizes capture of neutrons at thermal energies in condensed matter in which the DeBroglie wave function of a thermal neutron is on the order of ~ 2 Angstroms. This explains why vast majority of produced neutrons are captured locally and are only rarely detected at any energies during course of LENR experiments; it also clearly explains why human-lethal MeV-energy neutron fluxes are characteristically not produced in condensed matter LENR systems. May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 21
  • 10. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC74 W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Increasing values of A Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products Network may potentially continue ‘upward’ to even higher values of A; coming from lower values of A This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 6.2 5.1 6.1 4.9 ULM Neutron 73Ta-187 73Ta-188 73Ta-189 73Ta-190 Capture HL = 1.7 min HL = 20 sec HL = 3 sec HL= 3 x 102 msec Ends on Ta 3.1 4.9 3.7 5.6 5.5 6.8 4.9 6.9 4.9 6.7 ULM Neutron ULM Neutron 74W-187 74W-188 74W-189 74W-190 74W-191 74W-192 HL = 23.7 hrs HL = 69.8 days Capture Capture HL = 11.6 min HL = 30 min HL = 20 sec HL = 10 sec Ends on W Ends on Re 1.3 349 keV 2.5 1.3 3.2 2.1 7.4 5.9 7.0 5.7 6.9 5.4 6.7 5.3 75Re-187 75Re-188 75Re-189 75Re-190 75Re-191 75Re-192 75Re-193 75Re-194 ~Stable 1010 yrs HL = 17 hrs HL = 1 day HL = 3.2 min HL = 9.8 min HL = 16 sec HL = 30 sec H L = 2 sec 2..1 1.0 3.1 2.1 4.2 3.1 4.9 6.3 76Os-187 8.0 5.9 7.8 5.8 76Os-191 7.6 76Os-192 5.6 76Os-193 7.1 76Os-194 5.3 76Os-188 76Os-189 76Os-190 Stable 1.6% Stable 13.3% Stable 16.1% Stable 26.4% HL = 15.4 days ~Stable 41.0% HL = 1.3 days HL = 6.0 yrs 1.8 313 keV BR 100% ε 1..1 BR = 4.9% 1.1 97 keVIncreasing values of Z As shown in these network charts, more neutron-rich, unstable 77Ir-191 6.2 77Ir-192 7.8 77Ir-193 6.1 77Ir-194 7.2 beta-decaying isotopes tend to have more energetic decays and Stable 37.3% HL = 73.8 days Stable 62.7% HL = 19.3 hrs shorter half-lives. Electric current-driven LENR ULM neutron ε 57 keV BR = 100% 1.6 1.5 BR 95.1% 2.2 production and capture processes can occur at much faster rates than decay rates of beta-/e.c.-unstable isotopes in this network. 6.3 8.4 6.1 78Pt-192 78Pt-193 78Pt-194 Stable 0.79% HL = 51 yrs Stable 32.9% Thus, if local ULM neutron production rates in a given ‘patch’ are high enough, large differences in rates of beta decay vs. neutron capture processes means that largish populations of unstable, very neutron-rich isotopes can accumulate locally during 300 nanosec lifetime of an LENR-active patch, prior to its being destroyed. Produce Platinum May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 22
  • 11. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC 74 W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Increasing values of A Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products Network may potentially continue ‘upward’ to even higher values of A; coming from lower values of A This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 5.3 6.7 ULM Neutron 76Os-195 76Os-196 HL = 6.5 min HL = 34.8 min Capture Ends on Os 1.3 2.0 1.2 ULM Neutron ULM Neutron 7.2 77Ir-195 5.8 77Ir-196 6.9 77Ir-197 5.6 77Ir-198 6.9 77Ir-199 Capture Capture HL = 2.5 hrs HL = 52 sec HL = 5.8 min HL = 8 sec HL = 20 sec Ends on Ir Ends on Pt 0.6 1.1 3.2 2.2 4.1 3.0 6.1 7.9 78Pt-196 5.9 78Pt-197 7.6 5.6 78Pt-199 7.3 78Pt-200 5.2 78Pt-201 6.9 78Pt-202 78Pt-195 78Pt-198 Stable 33.8% Stable 25.3% HL = 19.9 hrs Stable 7.2% HL = 30.8 min HL = 13 hrs HL = 2.5 min HL = 1.9 days 719 keV 1.7 666 keV 2.7 1.8 6.5 7.6 6.3 7.2 6.1 79Au-202 6.8 79Au-197 79Au-198 79Au-199 79Au-200 79Au-201 Produce Gold Stable 100% HL = 2.7 days HL = 3.1 days HL = 48 min HL = 27 min HL = 28.8 sec ε 600 keV BR = 100% 1.4 452 keV 2.2 1.3 3.0Increasing values of Z 6.8 8.5 6.7 8.0 6.2 7.8 6.0 80Hg-196 80Hg-197 80Hg-198 80Hg-199 80Hg-200 80Hg-201 80Hg-202 Stable 0.15% HL = 2.7 days Stable 9.8% Stable 16.9% Stable 23.1% Stable 13.2% Stable 29.9% Please note that: Q-value for neutron capture on a given beta-unstable isotope is often larger than the Q-value for the alternative β- decay pathway, so in addition to being a faster process than beta decay it can also be energetically more favorable. This can also contribute to creating fleeting yet substantial local populations of short-lived, neutron-rich isotopes. There is indirect experimental evidence that such neutron-rich isotopes can be produced in complex ULM neutron-catalyzed LENR nucleosynthetic (transmutation) networks that set-up and operate during brief lifetime of an LENR-active ‘patch’; see Carbon-seed network on Slides # 11 - 12 and esp. on Slide #55 in http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llctechnical-overviewcarbon-seed-lenr-networkssept-3-2009 May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 23
  • 12. Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Lattice Energy LLC 74 W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Increasing values of A Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products Network may potentially continue ‘upward’ to even higher values of A; coming from lower values of A This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 6.8 ULM Neutron 79Au-203 5.7 79Au-204 6.1 ULM Neutron 79Au-205 HL= 53 sec HL = 39.8 sec Capture HL = 31 sec Capture Ends on Au Ends on Hg 2.1 3.9 3.5 6.0 7.5 5.7 6.7 3.3 4.9 3.3 4.8 80Hg-203 80Hg-204 80Hg-205 80Hg-206 80Hg-207 80Hg-208 80Hg-209 80Hg-210 HL= 46.6 days Stable 6.9% HL = 5.2 min HL = 8.2 min HL = 2.8 min HL = 42 min HL = 37 sec HL = 10 min 1.3 492 keV ε 344 keV BR = 97.1% 1.5 1.3 4.8 3.7 5.3 4.1 81Tl-203 6.7 81Tl-204 7.6 81Tl-205 6.5 6.9 81Tl-207 3.8 81Tl-208 5.0 81Tl-209 3.7 81Tl-210 4.9 81Tl-206 Stable 29.5% HL=3.8 yrs Stable 70.5% HL = 4.2 min HL = 4.8 min HL = 3.1 min HL = 2.2 min HL = 1.3 min 344 keV BR 2.9% ε 51 keV BR = 100% 1.5 1.4 5.0 4.0 5.5 82Pb-204 6.7 82Pb-205 8.1 6.7 82Pb-207 7.4 82Pb-208 3.9 82Pb-209 5.2 82Pb-210 3.8 82Pb-206 Stable 1.4% HL= 1.5 x 107 yrs Stable 24.1% Stable 22.1% Stable 52.4% HL = 3.3 hrs HL= 22.2 yrs 63 keV BR 99.9% 644 keVIncreasing values of Z 5.1 83Bi-209 83Bi-210 ~Stable 100% HL= 5 days 4.6 Beginning with so-called ‘seed’ or ‘target’ starting nuclei upon which ULM neutron 1.2 BR 99.9% captures are initiated, complex, very dynamically changing LENR nucleosynthetic networks are established in tiny LENR-active ‘patches.’ These ULM neutron-catalyzed 84Po-210 LENR networks exist for lifetimes of the particular ‘patches’ in which they were HL= 138 days created; except for any still-decaying transmutation products that may linger, such networks typically ‘die’ along with the LENR-active ‘patch’ that originally gave birth to them. ‘Seed’ nuclei for such networks can comprise any atoms in a substrate underlying an LENR-active patch and/or include atoms located nearby in various types of surface nanoparticles or nanostructures electromagnetically connected to a ‘patch.’ May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 24