February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 1
Commercializing a next-generation source of gre...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 2
“I have learned to use the word ‘impossible’
wi...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 3
Energy densities of fuels for LENR power source...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 4
Enormous increases in product performance with ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 5
U.S. Congressional committee concerned about LE...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 6
Screenshot: U.S. Congressional request for LENR...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 7
Screenshot: cover page of Armed Services Commit...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 8
2014 document revealed they are studying possib...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 9
http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/at...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 10
http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/S...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 11
New Energy Times reported in 2012 about NASA’s...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 12
http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2014-053...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 13
Acquired manufacturer of high attitude, long e...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 14
Complements the passive balloon technology in ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 15
“The only thing that we can be sure of the fut...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 16
Contents
LENRs are a paradigm-shifting green e...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 17February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 18February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 19
Production with weak e + p reaction creates sa...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 20
LENRs are green: no energetic radiation or rad...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 21
Electroweak reaction in Widom-Larsen theory is...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 22
Reaction Type Typical “Average” Energy Release...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 23
Nuclear energy density surpasses any chemical ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 24
Nuclear energy density is major competitive ad...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 25
Nuclear energy density is major competitive ad...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 26
Nuclear energy density is major competitive ad...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 27
 Advanced batteries are just beginning to app...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 28
Nuclear energy density is major competitive ad...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 29
LENRs may enable vast increases in system perf...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 30
Ultralow energy neutron reactions; alternative...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 31
Specifics of previously cited recent NASA docu...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 32
Information is located on the final page A-11 ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 33
Found on page i of report document
“Following ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 34
Found on page 82 of report document
NASA/CR-20...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 35
Found on page 83 of report document
NASA/CR-20...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 36
Table 7.1 found on page 120 of report document...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 37
Found on page 120 of report document
“LENR tec...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 38
Figure 5.19 found on page 39 of report documen...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 39
Megawatts are required to provide propulsion f...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 40
EP 2,730,501 A2: acoustic stealth propulsion f...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 41
EP 2,730,501 A2: acoustic stealth propulsion f...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 42
Energy density of LENR fuels is revolutionary ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 43
GreenWing e430 carries two adult passengers in...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 44
Schematic drawing showing various views of Gre...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 45
Product GreenWing (Yuneec) e430 fixed-wing air...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 46
New Airbus E-Fan 2.0 carries two adult passeng...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 47
Airbus E-Fan 2.0 carries two adult passengers ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 48
Airbus E-Fan 2.0 carries two adult passengers ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 49
e-volo VC200 helicopter design carries two adu...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 50
e-volo VC200 helicopter design carries two adu...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 51
LENRs could enable all-electric drones like mi...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 52
LENRs could enable all-electric drones like Pr...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 53
LENRs could enable all-electric drones like Pr...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 54
Product
Predator MQ-1 UAV armed military drone...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 55
New Super Heron UAV unveiled at 2014 Singapore...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 56
http://www.trekaero.com/Springtail/Trek_Spring...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 57
Product Springtail exoskeletal personal flying...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 58
Do-it-yourself mail order kits for nano-drones...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 59
Product Crazyflie nano quadcopter - Bitcraze A...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 60
LENRs could also power small drones like Insta...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 61
LENRs could also power new soft autonomous rob...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 62
LENR power could revolutionize drone/UAV techn...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 63
All-electric luxury family vehicles are upon u...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 64
Product Tesla Motors 4-door sedan luxury autom...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 65
Urban electrical grids could be improved with ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 66
Product Average single-family suburban residen...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 67
http://blog.opower.com/2013/03/americas-energy...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 68
http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/average-househo...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 69
LENRs could also power single-family homes
Dis...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 70
LENRs could also power single-family homes
Dis...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 71
LENRs could power military or civilian exoskel...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 72
LENRs could power military or civilian exoskel...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 73
LENRs could power military or civilian exoskel...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 74
LENRs could power military or civilian exoskel...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 75
LENRs could power humanoid and other types of ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 76
LENRs could power humanoid and other types of ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 77
http://www.raytheon.com/newsroom/technology_to...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 78
LENRs could power high performance undersea UV...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 79
LENRs could power ultra high performance under...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 80
Supercavitation technology enables revolutiona...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 81
LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle en...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 82
LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle en...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 83
LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle en...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 84
LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle en...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 85
LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle en...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 86
 Google investigated development of Brayton c...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 87
AC
generator
Electrical
input power
Lithium LE...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 88
LENR thermal source
Adapted from Slide #31 in ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 89
Source: NASA
LENR-heated dusty plasma scramjet...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 90
“Envisioned as an unmanned aircraft, the
SR-72...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 91
Lockheed Martin SR-72 would be unmanned aircra...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 92
http://www.intechopen.com/books/aeronautics-an...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 93
Lattice's concept for LENR dusty plasma scramj...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 94
LENR scramjet’s average exhaust velocity prese...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 95
LENR dusty plasma scramjet could be revolution...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 96
LENRs could revolutionize the world as we know...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 97
Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than co...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 98
Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than co...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 99
Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than co...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 100
Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than c...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 101
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries granted European ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 102
Patent specification shows neutron production...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 103
Covers LENR devices involving neutron-catalyz...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 104
Nanotechnologists are making many amazing dis...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 105
Further information about LENR transmutation ...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 106
Partnering on commercialization and consultin...
February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 107
Commercializing a next-generation source of g...
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Lattice Energy LLC - Revolutionary LENRs Could Power Future Aircraft and Other Systems - Feb 16 2014

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Technologists at NASA, Boeing, and California Polytechnic have been investigating alluring possibility of using ‘green’ low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) to power future aircraft.
Large Japanese companies such as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Toyota, among others, have active R&D programs and patent filings in LENRs and are publishing some of their experimental results in peer-reviewed science and engineering journals. It appears likely that their ultimate goal is to replace the internal combustion engine.
After decades of inaction and benign neglect, incredibly cautious and conservative U.S. Dept. of Energy has belatedly recognized LENRs; it is now willing to entertain proposals for modest amounts of funding through its transformational technology breakthrough arm, ARPA-E.
LENRs could revolutionize the world as we know it today if the technology is successfully commercialized and scales-up to several hundred kWh from just Watts today in laboratory devices; megawatt power outputs are only required for a small percentage of applications
Widom-Larsen theory explains device physics behind LENRs; it is published and fully consistent with a large body of peer-reviewed, published experimental data. Altogether, this implies that commercialization of the technology is possible and in fact likely. That said, non-trivial engineering lies between small, unreliable milliwatt laboratory devices of today and scaled-up high performance multi-kilowatt commercial products of tomorrow. Somebody or somebodies, somewhere, will eventually succeed --- Lattice will play a role in this process.

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  • Went through entire document today and fixed several broken hyperlinks. As of this moment, all embedded hyperlinks to outside information sources are fully functional.
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  • Wednesday, October 29, 2014: added Slides #44 - 45 (total # now = 101) re German e-volo VC200 18-rotor super-easy to fly, very innovative two-seat electric helicopter
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  • Added Slides #71 - 73 that discuss how LENRs could potentially power air-augmented waterjet and revolutionary supercavitation propulsion systems that enable very high-speed, long range unmanned undersea vehicles (UVs). Perhaps even manned versions of such high performance UVs can someday be developed if better, safer control over rapid changes in such vehicles' direction of motion can be achieved. Also updated Slide #82 chart which illustrates potential performance enhancements with regard to range and endurance extrapolated for various types of present-day products equipped with future commercial LENR-based power sources.
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  • Wednesday, Sept. 3, 2014: added one slide #69: discusses Prof. Ishikawa’s R&D group at Univ. of Tokyo that has just developed a tethered bipedal robotic torso that can run with a natural, fluid human-like locomotion at speeds that can now reach 4.2 km/hr; can also do somersault and recover with grace. There is a hyperlink to a YouTube video of their amazing invention running like a person on a treadmill.
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  • Monday, August 18, 2014: added two slides #35 and #36 re recently published Boeing patent application EP 2,730,501 A2 concerning acoustic stealth propulsion from subsonic to low-supersonic speeds for small UAVs up through large passenger aircraft in which LENRs are claimed as one of several alternative energy sources for powering electric motors that drive fan blades that are completely enshrouded by a tightly integrated acoustic-dampening nacelle structure.
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Lattice Energy LLC - Revolutionary LENRs Could Power Future Aircraft and Other Systems - Feb 16 2014

  1. 1. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 1 Commercializing a next-generation source of green nuclear energy Revolutionary green LENRs could potentially power future subsonic g hypersonic manned aircraft and UAVs What happens to aircraft, vehicles, and homes if LENRs achieve >10x chemical? Lattice Energy LLC February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 1 Image credit: NASA Contact: 1-312-861-0115 Chicago, Illinois USA lewisglarsen@gmail.com Document updated, reformatted, re-verified live hyperlinks, and re-uploaded on May 27, 2016 Lewis Larsen President and CEO, Lattice Energy LLC February 16, 2014
  2. 2. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 2 “I have learned to use the word ‘impossible’ with the greatest of caution.” Werner von Braun Lattice Energy LLC Technology of ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs) could enable future development of revolutionary MeV radiation-free, ‘green’ nuclear power sources that would be suitable for aircraft and vehicular propulsion as well as for stationary and portable power generation applications. Benign, low-cost nanoparticulate LENR fuels could be used in a huge array of different types of LENR-based power sources. These fuels would have effective energy densities 5,000x larger than gasoline; enough onboard fuel for a manned aircraft or car to make a round-the-world trip would probably fit into just one or two large FedEx boxes. February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 2
  3. 3. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 3 Energy densities of fuels for LENR power sources > 5,000x chemical Ultralow energy neutron reactions are a game-changer  Technologists at NASA, Boeing, Airbus, and California Polytechnic have been investigating alluring possibility of using green, hard-radiation-free ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs) to power future manned aircraft and UAVs  Large Japanese companies such as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Toyota, and Nissan, among others, have active R&D programs and patent filings in LENRs and are publishing some of their experimental results in peer-reviewed science and engineering journals. It appears likely that their ultimate goal is to replace the internal combustion engine; see: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice- energy-llc-toyota-confirms-mitsubishi-transmutation-of-cs-to-proct-31-2013  After decades of total inaction and benign neglect, the incredibly cautious and conservative U.S. Dept. of Energy has belatedly recognized LENRs; it is now apparently willing to entertain proposals for very modest amounts of funding through its transformational technology breakthrough arm, ARPA-E; see: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffmcmahon/2014/01/04/doe-mentions-technology-behind- the-home-nuclear-reactor-in-funding-opportunity/#4b3e6099342c  LENRs could revolutionize the world as we know it today if the technology is successfully commercialized and scales-up to several hundred kWh from only milliwatts in today’s primitive laboratory devices; megawatt power outputs are only required for relatively small percentage of customer market applications
  4. 4. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 4 Enormous increases in product performance with LENRs Enhancements in product range and endurance if LENR technology is commercialized Note: roughly 730 hours in a month - 8,760 hours in year; average U.S. car’s IC engine runs for ~5,000 hrs over lifetime Product Name Present capabilities with today’s power sources Range (endurance) Vastly enhanced capabilities with future LENR-based power sources 10x chemical 100x chemical GreenWing e430 180 miles (~3 hours @ 60 mph) 1,800 (30) 18,000 (300) Airbus E-Fan 2.0 99 miles (1 hour @ 99 mph) 990 (10) 9,900 (100) Predator MQ-1 1,800 miles (24 hours @ 75 mph) 18,000 (240) 180,000 (2,400) Super Heron est. ~ 4,000 miles (45 hours @ 89 mph?) 40,000 (450+) 400,000 (4,500) Springtail 184 miles (2.2+ hours @ 94 mph ) 1,840 (200+) 18,400 (2,000+) Crazyflie Speed not measured (3 - 10 minutes) ? (30 - 100 min.) ? (maybe 5 - 17 hrs.) InstantEye est. ~ 8 miles (18 - 20 min @ 25 mph) est. 80 (3.2 hrs.) 800 (32 hrs.) Tesla Model S car ~ 294 miles (4 - 5 hours @ 70 mph) 3,000 (40 - 50) 30,000 (400 - 500) Shkval torpedo 6.8 - 9.3 miles (1.8 - 2.4 min @230 mph) 68 - 93 (18 - 24 min) 680 - 930 (3 - 4 hrs) Exoskeletons and autonomous robots Require tether cables connected to some type of external power source Duration of autonomous activity might be extended up to weeks or even months Variousaircraft Paradigm-shifting new energy technology Commercial LENR systems could likely achieve 10x to 100x chemical
  5. 5. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 5 U.S. Congressional committee concerned about LENRs U.S. House Armed Services Committee requests briefing from the U.S. Department of Defense on national security implications of Ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs) Congressional request appears on page #87 of the 707 page National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 Report released on May 4, 2016 “The committee is aware of recent positive developments in developing low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR), which produce ultraclean, low-cost renewable energy that have strong national security implications. For example, according to the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), if LENR works it will be a ‘disruptive technology that could revolutionize energy production and storage’.’’
  6. 6. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 6 Screenshot: U.S. Congressional request for LENR briefing URL to pdf copy of Report is provided below http://www.congress.gov/114/crpt/hrpt537/CRPT-114hrpt537.pdf
  7. 7. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 7 Screenshot: cover page of Armed Services Committee report
  8. 8. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 8 2014 document revealed they are studying possible use of LENRs to power future advanced green subsonic aircraft http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/17WELLS_ABSTRACT.pdf Two screenshots of 1-page pdf Abstract (continues on next slide) NASA believes that LENRs are an “ideal energy solution”
  9. 9. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 9 http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/17WELLS_ABSTRACT.pdf Studying possible use of LENRs to power future green aircraft NASA believes that LENRs are an “ideal energy solution”
  10. 10. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 10 http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/SeedlingWELLS.pdf Feb. 25, 2014: LENR Aircraft - NARI Seedling Seminar (Doug Wells) NASA believes LENRs can potentially power large aircraft Conceptualization of very large Sky Train subsonic aircraft taking-off
  11. 11. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 11 New Energy Times reported in 2012 about NASA’s questionable shenanigans with Lattice: Feb. 25, 2014: LENR Aircraft - NARI Seedling Seminar (Doug Wells) NASA believes LENRs can potentially power large aircraft http://news.newenergytimes.net/2012/05/24/nasa-and-widom-larsen-theory-inside-story/
  12. 12. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 12 http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2014-0538 Prepared for 52nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting - January 2014 McDonald et al. explore impact of LENRs on aircraft design Rob A. McDonald, Associate Professor CalPoly, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering https://aero.calpoly.edu/faculty/robert-mcdonald/ HALE UAV “ … with multi-year endurance is conceptualized …”
  13. 13. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 13 Acquired manufacturer of high attitude, long endurance solar drones April 14, 2014: Google purchased Titan Aerospace (U.S.) “Google to buy Titan Aerospace as web giants battle for air superiority” “Internet giant to acquire startup that was courted by Facebook” Alistair Barr and Reed Albergotti of The Wall Street Journal updated on April 14, 2014 7:26 PM. EDT Image credit: Titan Aerospace/Associated Press http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304117904579501701702936522
  14. 14. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 14 Complements the passive balloon technology in Google’s Project Loon April 14, 2014: Google purchased Titan Aerospace (U.S.)  Google’s future goal is to provide universal, low-cost global access to the Internet from various types of aerial wireless transmitter/receiver platforms; Facebook is pursuing similar technology acquisition strategy to increase worldwide base of users  While passive solar balloons require no ongoing power for propulsion and can carry substantial payloads, they are subject to vagaries of prevailing winds at altitude and cannot maintain fixed positions in the sky; while solar-powered high altitude drone aircraft have onboard propulsion and can actively control their airborne positions, intrinsically low energy density of solar power cells on aircraft surfaces dictates very much smaller payloads and severely limits propulsive thrust and transmitter power  Development of LENR-based power and propulsion systems for high altitude drones a la work of McDonald et al. (2014) would leverage nuclear energy densities that are 106 times larger than chemical or solar power sources; enables revolutionary new UAV aircraft that could have multi-year endurance, large payload capacities, thrust, and transmitter power --- permits global coverage with much smaller aircraft numbers  If Google and Facebook aim to connect ~1+ billion people who are living in today’s world with no local electrical power other than batteries carried in from elsewhere, they need to have a system that can provide on-ground users with adequate electric power; stationary LENR-based distributed generation systems would be ideal for this
  15. 15. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 15 “The only thing that we can be sure of the future is that it will be absolutely fantastic. So, if what I say now seems to you to be very reasonable, then I will have failed completely. Only if what I tell you appears absolutely unbelievable have we any chance of visualizing the future as it really will happen.” Arthur C. Clarke (1964) Commercializing a next-generation source of green nuclear energy Lattice Energy LLC February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 15 Image: National Geographic 1964 BBC TV show: Arthur C. Clarke discussing future YouTube video clip extracted from BBC’s “Horizon” program (running time 3:12): http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=FxYgdX2PxyQ
  16. 16. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 16 Contents LENRs are a paradigm-shifting green energy technology……………….…………………………….………….. 17 - 30 NASA and Boeing investigate possibility of using LENRs to power aircraft …………..………………….….. 31 - 42 Examples of types of products that might benefit from development and integration of LENRs: GreenWing e430 general aviation aircraft ……………………………….……….….….. 43 - 45 Airbus E-Fan 2.0 and e-volo VC-200 helicopter ………………………………………….. 46 - 50 General Atomics Predator UAV …..…………………………………………………….…… 51 - 54 IAI Super Heron UAV ……………………………………………………………………….….. 55 Trek Aerospace Springtail personal flight system ………………………………………. 56 - 57 Bitcraze Crazyflie nano quadcopter UAV …………………………………...............….. 58 - 59 Physical Sciences, Inc. InstantEye quadcopter UAV ………………………………..…. 60 MIT scientists develop soft piscine robo-fish ………………………………………….…. 61 Insect-like micro UAVs ………………………………………………………………………… 62 Tesla Model S 4-door luxury family sedan ………………………………………………… 63 - 64 Homes …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65 - 70 Powered exoskeletons - Raytheon/SARCOS XOS 2 ………………………….…........... 71 - 74 Autonomous robots - Google/Boston Dynamics Atlas & Univ. Tokyo’s ACHIRES …. 75 - 76 Undersea UUVs - steam, air-augmented waterjet & supercavitation propulsion … 77 - 80 LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines …………………………………………....……….….. 81 - 88 Scale-up output to megawatts: LENR-heated dusty plasma scramjets for hypersonic aircraft ……….…. 89 - 95 LENRs could potentially revolutionize the world as we know it …………………………………………………. 96 Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than combusted ………..……………..………...............………….. 97 - 100 Number of patents involving LENR technology is growing: Mitsubishi and Lattice Energy ………………. 101 - 103 Two tantalizing technical teasers .………………..………………………………………………..…………………. 104 Additional information ……………......………….…………………………………..……………………………...…. 105 Working with Lattice …………………………………………….………….………….………………………………… 106 Final quote: John F. Kennedy (1962) ………….……………………………..………………..………………..……. 107
  17. 17. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 17February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 17 Image credit: co-author Domenico Pacifici From: “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing” J. Feng et al., Nano Letters pp. 602 - 609 (2012)Laura 13 Condensed matter ultralow energy neutron reactions LENRs
  18. 18. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 18February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 18 Large length scales Huge array of new technological possibilities and opportunities open-up at micron to nanometer length-scales Nuclear-strength electric fields in μ-sized LENR-active sites enable e + p reaction What was formerly thought impossible becomes possible by utilizing Widom-Larsen and applying nanotechnology Nanotechnology and LENRs are mutually joined at the hip
  19. 19. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 19 Production with weak e + p reaction creates safe low energy neutrons Ultralow energy LENR neutrons are captured locally and will not escape reactors Stars and physically gigantic reactors are unnecessary ITER: D+T fusion reactor LENR device Person Length-scale: millions of miles Length-scale: hundreds of feet Length-scale: inches All these nuclear fusion and LENR reactions below create neutrons (n): These are bio-safe Deadly energetic 14 MeV neutrons Fusion reactions in Red Giant star Temperatures: millions of degrees Temperatures: millions of degrees Temperatures: only thousands of degrees in microscopic regions
  20. 20. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 20 LENRs are green: no energetic radiation or radwastes Lack of hard radiation obviates need for shielding and containment Major opportunity to develop safe, battery-like portable LENR power sources Fission reactors need 1 foot of steel and 3 feet of concrete to protect humans from hard radiation and wastes emitted by reactor; makes systems intrinsically large and heavy LENRs enable devices something like this: small, portable battery-like power sources that are safe and disposable Much larger LENR devices based on dusty plasma embodiments can potentially scale-up to megawatts; akin to today’s power plants Fission and fusion processes both emit deadly MeV-energy neutron and gamma radiation Revolution in green nuclear technology
  21. 21. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 21 Electroweak reaction in Widom-Larsen theory is simple Protons or deuterons react directly with electrons to make neutrons W-L explains how e + p reactions occur at substantial rates in condensed matter EnergyE-field + e- sp g e-*sp + p+ g n0 + νe Collective many-body quantum effects: many electrons each transfer little bits of energy to a much smaller number of electrons also bathed in the very same extremely high local electric field Quantum electrodynamics (QED): smaller number of electrons that absorb energy directly from local electric field will increase their effective masses (m = E/c2) above key thresholds β0 where they can react directly with a proton (or deuteron) neutron and neutrino νe neutrinos: ghostly unreactive photons that fly-off into space; n0 neutrons capture on nearby atoms Neutrons + atomic nuclei heavier elements + decay products Induces safe hard-radiation-free nuclear transmutation Draw energy from electric fields > 1011 V/m Heavy-mass e-* electrons react directly with protons
  22. 22. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 22 Reaction Type Typical “Average” Energy Release Relative Index of Energy Release U-235 Conventional Fission H+H Fusion in Stars D+T Fusion Reactors Light and Heavy Water LENRs Blacklight Power’s “Hydrinos” Hydrogen Fuel Cells Combustion of Gasoline 220 MeV 1000 27 MeV 17. 6 MeV ~ 0.1 MeV (low side) ~ 22 MeV (high side) max 0.02 MeV 0.0001 MeV 0.0002 MeV 123 80 91 0.45 0.09 0.0001 0.00005 Nuclear: Strong Interaction Nuclear: Weak Interaction ? Chemical Less Energy Per Reaction (1938) (1939) (1950s) (1989) (1838) (1876) (1991) Fissionand fusion LENRsChemical Evolutionofnuclear LENR energy releases fall between fission and chemical power sources Nuclear energy density is major competitive advantage Certain LENRs can release even more energy than D + T nuclear fusion reactions
  23. 23. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 23 Nuclear energy density surpasses any chemical technology LENR-based power generation could have vast competitive advantage 57,500,000 (maximum theoretical energy density – only a fraction would be achievable in practice) LENRs (based on an assumption of an average of 0.5 MeV per nuclear reaction in an LENR system) 11,500100% Efficient Combustion of Pure Gasoline 5,930100% Efficient Combustion of Pure Methanol 2,300Gas Burning Microgenerator (20% efficient) 1,680Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (35% efficient) 460Zinc-Air Battery 329Lithium Battery 164Alkaline Battery Approximate Energy Density (Watt*hours/kg) Source of Energy LENRs Versus Chemical Energy Sources: Batteries, Fuel Cells, and Microgenerators 57,500,000 (maximum theoretical energy density – only a fraction would be achievable in practice) LENRs (based on an assumption of an average of 0.5 MeV per nuclear reaction in an LENR system) 11,500100% Efficient Combustion of Pure Gasoline 5,930100% Efficient Combustion of Pure Methanol 2,300Gas Burning Microgenerator (20% efficient) 1,680Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (35% efficient) 460Zinc-Air Battery 329Lithium Battery 164Alkaline Battery Approximate Energy Density (Watt*hours/kg) Source of Energy LENRs Versus Chemical Energy Sources: Batteries, Fuel Cells, and Microgenerators LENRsChemical ~2,000 Wh/kg someday might be practical with Lithium-air chemical battery Future possibility of converting Carbon aromatics to CO2-free LENR fuels
  24. 24. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 24 Nuclear energy density is major competitive advantage Lithium LENR target fuel cycle releases more energy than D+T fusion No dangerous radiation emitted by Li cycle; already demonstrated in laboratory 6 7Li + n Li 3 3 7 8Li + n Li 3 3 8 8 -Li Be + e e3 4 8 4 4Be He + He 4 2 2 4 5He + n He 2 2 5 6He + n He 2 2 6 6 -He Li + e e2 3                 He is a reactant in this region; captures neutrons ULM neutron captures on Lithium Qv~16 MeV Qv~92 keV Low energy α - decay Begin Returncycle 8Li β- decay is largest single energy release in LENR Li cycle End LENR neutron-catalyzed Lithium fuel cycle Lithium-6 + 2 ULE neutrons g 2 Helium-4 + beta particle + 2 neutrinos + Q-value of ~26.9 MeV This particular cyclical LENR pathway can release about the same amount of energy as the D-T fusion reaction without creating any MeV- energy energetic neutrons, hard gamma radiation, or radioactive isotopes. Although portion of 26.9 MeV in excess nuclear binding energy released is lost (“haircut”) with emitted neutrinos, much still remains in kinetic energy of two helium atoms (which are low-energy alpha particles), and very energetic beta particle In this case, local matter heated-up by scattering of low-energy alpha and much-higher-energy beta particles; heavy-mass electrons present in LENR-active sites will convert any locally produced hard gammas or X-rays (coming from whatever process) directly into infrared heat
  25. 25. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 25 Nuclear energy density is major competitive advantage  To simplify calculations, we will assume that conversion of input energy (in this case, an electric current) into energy available to produce LENR ULM neutrons is 100 percent efficient in order to estimate a theoretical upper bound on potential energy releases from a compact LENR heat source; will also assume that 100 percent of the ULM neutrons produced in the hypothetical device are absorbed locally (a pretty safe bet that is supported by 20+ years of experiments) and that they are only absorbed by a target fuel comprising isotopically pure Lithium-6, resulting in a series of nuclear reactions beginning with Lithium-6 and ending with Helium-4. Lastly, we will assume that the base fuel used to produce LENR ULM neutrons in our hypothetical device is deuterium and that it has an LENR-active working surface area of 1 cm2  Input energy required to produce 1 neutron/cm2/sec from deuterium base fuel to react with the Lithium-6 target fuel is 0.39 MeV per neutron. However, we need two ULM neutrons to complete the entire series of reactions, so the required total input energy to the device is 0.78 MeV/cm2/sec. The net energy release from that particular series of LENR reactions starting with Lithium-6 is 26.9 MeV/cm2/sec = 4.28 x 10-12 J/cm2/sec (1 eV = 1.602 x 10-19 J); 26.9 MeV thus represents a theoretical maximum upper bound of ~ 34x total input power in case of Lithium fuel targets Calculations illustrate its potential for use in compact power sources LENR system thermal output can be up to 34x input energy using Lithium fuel
  26. 26. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 26 Nuclear energy density is major competitive advantage As there are ~ 1014 of these 26.9 MeV energy releases taking place per second on the 1 cm2 LENR device, the total energy release is 4.28 x 10-12 J/cm2/sec x 1014 = 428 J/cm2/sec. This represents 428 W/cm2, a large device- level power density. At a lesser ULM neutron production rate of 1 x 1012 cm2/sec, the overall energy production rate would drop down to 4.28 J/cm2/sec or 4.28 W/cm2. At a ULM neutron production rate of 1 x 1011 cm2/sec, the energy production rate would drop down to 0.428 J/cm2/sec or 0.428 W/cm2, which is close to levels of excess heat output that are often observed in the limited subset of electrolytic LENR experiments that researchers deem successful at making excess heat  In this particular example, a heat generating rate of 428 W/cm2 means 0.428 kWh/cm2 produced in an hour for a Lithium-6-fueled 1 cm2 LENR device, without releasing any CO2. In comparison to minuscule nanogram (10-9 g) quantities of LENR reactants consumed, the complete combustion of 1 US gallon of gasoline (weighing 2.7 kg) with O2 generates ~33.56 kWh of heat energy and releases ~8.8 kg of CO2 into the atmosphere. Scaling up surface area of the idealized LENR device 1,000 fold could generate 428 kWh, while a 1 m2 device would create a 4.28 Megawatt eco-green nuclear power source Calculations illustrate its potential for use in compact power sources Neutron flux of 1 x 1012 cm2/sec predicts heat output seen in some lab devices
  27. 27. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 27  Advanced batteries are just beginning to approach their technological limits in terms of achievable energy densities; >100x energy density increase is unlikely using chemical power  Lithium-based batteries could unknowingly be encountering LENRs already; subset of “field failure” thermal runaways could potentially be triggered by rare LENR hotspots inside batteries  Lithium-based batteries effectively store electrical energy in electrons in ions at only eV energies; a LENR Lithium fuel cycle releases ~27 MeV per nuclear reaction cycle (~27 million x more)  Since they are radiation-free and do not produce long-lived radioactive isotopes, battery-like LENR power generation devices would not require any radiation shielding or containment subsystems, dramatically reducing their weight, size, and cost; enable development of revolutionary portable, battery-like nuclear power systems for compact electronics  With energy densities >1 million x those of chemical systems, compact, portable LENR-based generators could eventually compete directly with batteries and fuel cells in key applications Nuclear energy density is major competitive advantage LENRs enable development of safe portable nuclear power sources
  28. 28. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 28 Nuclear energy density is major competitive advantage LENRs enable development of safe portable nuclear power sources Raytheon article “Power sources that last a century” pp. 12 - 15 Betavoltaic batteries: directly harvest energetic electrons produced by unstable β - decaying isotopes; radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs) utilize variety of isotopes that create heat; subsystems convert raw heat into electricity Unlike betavoltaics, LENRs require an external source of input energy and can turn on/off Battery-like LENRs akin to betavoltaics but have much higher energy densities http://www.raytheon.com/newsroom/technology_today/archive/2011_i1.pdf Total energy density of betavoltaics is 438x Lithium-ion batteries; LENRs would be vastly higher than that value
  29. 29. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 29 LENRs may enable vast increases in system performance Scale-up LENR system power outputs and integrate energy conversion  LENRs can presently reach temperatures of 4,000 - 6,000o K and boil refractory metals in relatively limited numbers of microscopic LENR-active hot spot sites on fabricated laboratory device surfaces.  Lattice plans to use its unique proprietary knowledge of LENR engineering physics and key operating parameters (e.g., achieving and maintaining very high local surface electric fields) to first get heat production working well microscopically. That is: reproducibly trigger LENRs on specific, purpose-designed nanoparticulate structures with dimensions ranging from nanometers to microns that are fabricated using existing, off-the-shelf nanotech processes and then emplaced at what will become LENR-active sites on Hydrogen-loaded substrate surfaces  In principle, output of such LENR heat sources could be readily scaled-up: either by fabricating larger area-densities of affixed nanostructures that facilitate formation of LENR hot spot sites on device surfaces, or by injecting larger quantities of specially designed fuel nanoparticles into volumetrically larger reaction chambers containing turbulent dusty plasmas, with or without spatially organized magnetic fields present  A variety of off-the-shelf energy conversion subsystems could potentially be integrated with commercial versions of LENR-based heat sources. These include: thermoelectrics or thermionics; steam engines; Rankine cycle steam turbines; Brayton cycle gas turbines, boilers, etc. Other more speculative possibilities involve new types of direct energy conversion technologies that are still under development
  30. 30. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 30 Ultralow energy neutron reactions; alternatively LENRs Very green nuclear process: no deadly radiation or long-lived wastes Hidden in plain sight for 100 years because emissions of hard radiation absent Device physics now sufficiently understood to begin commercialization for power sources Evolution of green nuclear technology 1945 Today Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs was developed and published in the European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields LENRs are safe and benign 2006 Nuclear weapons Green power sources Fission LENRs
  31. 31. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 31 Specifics of previously cited recent NASA document are uncertain Might be related to an earlier contract first revealed in May 2012 http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20120009038_2012008934.pdf NASA/CR-2012-217556 project report that is dated May 2012 Screen shot of portion of report’s cover page
  32. 32. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 32 Information is located on the final page A-11 of report document NASA/CR-2012-217556 project report that is dated May 2012 Document proves that NASA and Boeing are performing together on this particular contract Boeing’s contract team works for the Advanced Network & Space Systems Group which operates out of a large 50 year-old R&D facility located in Huntington Beach, CA Screen shot images of pages in report
  33. 33. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 33 Found on page i of report document “Following technologies were identified: … Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), …” NASA/CR-2012-217556 project report that is dated May 2012
  34. 34. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 34 Found on page 82 of report document NASA/CR-2012-217556 project report that is dated May 2012 http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice- energy-llc-report-reveals-boeing-and-nasa- investigating-lenrpowered-aircraftaug-3-2012 Quoting: “Initial LENR testing and theory have suggested that any radiation or radio-isotopes produced in the LENR reactions are very short lived and can be easily shielded. In addition, some prototypes that may be harnessing the LENR process can be controlled safely within designed operating parameters and the reaction can be shut down in acceptable time frames. This heat generating process should reduce radiological, shielding and hazardous materials barriers to entry of aviation LENR systems.” Copy of this contract report document annotated by Lattice to highlight key sections relevant to LENRs is available:
  35. 35. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 35 Found on page 83 of report document NASA/CR-2012-217556 project report that is dated May 2012 Quoting: “Widom-Larson theory appears to have the best current understanding.”
  36. 36. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 36 Table 7.1 found on page 120 of report document NASA/CR-2012-217556 project report that is dated May 2012
  37. 37. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 37 Found on page 120 of report document “LENR technology is potentially game-changing” NASA/CR-2012-217556 project report that is dated May 2012
  38. 38. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 38 Figure 5.19 found on page 39 of report document Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Volt future aircraft design NASA/CR-2012-217556 project report that is dated May 2012
  39. 39. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 39 Megawatts are required to provide propulsion for large civilian aircraft LENRs are world changing if systems just scale-up to several hundred kilowatts Future aircraft could potentially be powered by LENRs Image credit: NASA/The Boeing Company Contract NASA/CR-2012-217556  Power required to propel large future subsonic aircraft as shown in NASA/Boeing image to right amounts to 10s of megawatts (MW)  Modern General Electric GE90 fanjet system that powers large Boeing 777s (two such engines per plane) puts out ~160,000 horsepower or ~117MW; by comparison: a smallish coal-fired power plant has a peak electrical output of ~500 - 600 MW  NASA and Boeing clearly believe that LENRs can potentially scale-up total system power outputs into 50 - 100 MW range which is sufficient output to be able to power large advanced green aircraft  Interestingly, scale-up to megawatts is not really mandatory to radically change the world as it exists today. If it turned out that LENR systems could only be scaled-up to several hundred kilowatts (kWh) the impact on society would still be revolutionary via distributed power generation
  40. 40. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 40 EP 2,730,501 A2: acoustic stealth propulsion from sonic to supersonic Invention claims scalability from small 20 kg UAVs up to large passenger aircraft Boeing filed patent claiming LENRs as an energy source Contra-rotating fan blades Fan blades enshrouded with nacelle  "Rotational annular airscrew with integrated acoustic arrester"  EP 2,730,501 A2 (English)  Inventors: Matthew D. Moore and Kelly L. Boren (both from Everett, WA) Original USPTO filing date as US 201213674377 was November 12, 2012  EPO application publication date: May 14, 2014 https://data.epo.org/gpi/EP2730501A2-Rotational-annular-airscrew-with-integrated-acoustic-arrester Well-written application and a clever new invention:
  41. 41. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 41 EP 2,730,501 A2: acoustic stealth propulsion from sonic to supersonic One embodiment uses separate electric motors to power each set of fan blades Boeing filed patent claiming LENRs as an energy source UAV embodiment Passenger aircraft embodiment "[0032] The contra-rotating forward coaxial electric motor 126 and the contra-rotating aft coaxial electric motor 128 are coupled to at least one energy source. The contra-rotating forward coaxial electric motor 126 and the contra- rotating aft coaxial electric motor 128 may be directly coupled to the at least one energy source, or through various control and/or power distribution circuits. The energy source may comprise, for example, a system to convert chemical, solar or nuclear energy into electricity within or coupled to a volume bearing structure. The energy source may comprise, for example but without limitation, a battery, a fuel cell, a solar cell, an energy harvesting device, low energy nuclear reactor (LENR), a hybrid propulsion system, or other energy source.” In this EP application please see page #7, column 11, paragraph 0032 as follows (quoting):
  42. 42. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 42 Energy density of LENR fuels is revolutionary for aircraft Roughly 5,000 times more energy-dense than any gasoline or jet fuels Fuel for Lockheed Martin SR-71 mission could likely fit in just two FedEx boxes SR-71 Blackbird carried ~12,000 gallons of JP-7 aviation fuel with full tanks; permitted unrefueled range of about 3,250 miles traveling at Mach 3.0 Revolution
  43. 43. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 43 GreenWing e430 carries two adult passengers in comfort (China) All-electric general aviation e-aircraft are already upon us
  44. 44. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 44 Schematic drawing showing various views of GreenWing e430 (China) All-electric general aviation e-aircraft are already upon us Plane looks very graceful and has an advanced aerodynamically efficient design Does not appear to have gone into production as Yuneec had planned
  45. 45. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 45 Product GreenWing (Yuneec) e430 fixed-wing aircraft (China) Approx. price (US$) Rumored to be ~90,000 No. of passengers 2 Battery type; motor Chinese Yuneec OEM Lithium-ion; 64 hp electric Battery capacity (kWh) 13.3 kWh Range Est. 180 miles at cruise speed of 60 mph Endurance ~3 hours Status Per GreenWing, supposedly going into production Other Not entirely clear if FAA certification is complete Company website http://www.yuneec.com/ Selected information about the GreenWing Intl. e430 (China) All-electric general aviation e-aircraft are already upon us Lithium-ion battery pack only stores ~13 kWh Does not appear to have gone into production as Yuneec had planned
  46. 46. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 46 New Airbus E-Fan 2.0 carries two adult passengers (Europe) All-electric general aviation e-aircraft are already upon us Images credit: Airbus and Getty
  47. 47. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 47 Airbus E-Fan 2.0 carries two adult passengers (Europe) All-electric general aviation e-aircraft are already upon us Image credit: Airbus Table: courtesy of Airbus Image credit: Airbus
  48. 48. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 48 Airbus E-Fan 2.0 carries two adult passengers (Europe) All-electric general aviation e-aircraft are already upon us Product Airbus E-Fan 2.0 prototype fixed-wing aircraft (Europe) Approx. price (US$) Not yet available No. of passengers 2 Battery type; motor Kokam 40Ah 4V Lithium-ion polymer; 40 hp electric (2) Battery capacity (kWh) ~19.2 kWh (120 cells) Range Est. 100 miles at cruise speed of ~99 mph Endurance Roughly 1 hour (with present battery packs) Status First public test flight: Bordeaux, FR on April 25, 2014 Other Planning to install higher-capacity batteries Company website http://www.airbus- group.com/airbusgroup/int/en/news/media.1dc1ec54-b7f0- 4bbb-90c1-b67c713894d5.-E-Fan.html http://www.france24.com/en/20140426-video-world-first-electric-plane-takes-off-france/ Lithium-ion battery pack only stores 19 kWh
  49. 49. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 49 e-volo VC200 helicopter design carries two adult passengers (Germany) All-electric general aviation e-aircraft are already upon us Image credit: e-volo
  50. 50. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 50 e-volo VC200 helicopter design carries two adult passengers (Germany) All-electric general aviation e-aircraft are already upon us Product e-volo VC200 prototype multi-rotor helicopter (Germany) Approx. price (Euros €) Company est. price 250,000 € and market debut in 2015 No. of passengers 2 (can be operated remotely) Battery type; motor Lithium-ion battery packs; total of 18 electric motors Battery capacity (kWh) Details of power system have not been disclosed Range Est. 13 - 15 miles at cruise speed of ~44 mph Endurance Roughly 20 minutes (with present battery packs) Status First public test flight: Karlsruhe, DE on Nov. 17, 2013 Other Considering possibility of using a hybrid engine Company website http://www.e-volo.com/ VC200 maiden flight occurred at indoor arena in Karlsruhe, Germany: Lithium-ion battery packs can only store enough electricity for a 20 minute flight http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tNulEa8LTHI
  51. 51. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 51 LENRs could enable all-electric drones like military Predator Some view this iconic UAV as an infamous weapon of war (USA) UAV drones also have many valuable peaceful civilian applications
  52. 52. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 52 LENRs could enable all-electric drones like Predator (USA) Schematic dimensional drawing of General Atomics MQ-1 Predator UAV aircraft carries communications, sensors, and onboard weapons
  53. 53. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 53 LENRs could enable all-electric drones like Predator (USA) Weaponized UAV powered by Rotax 914 gasoline engine (Germany) http://www.brp-powertrain.com/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-170/312_read-259/ Compact engine also used to power snowmobiles and aquatic jet skis
  54. 54. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 54 Product Predator MQ-1 UAV armed military drone General Atomics Aeronautical Systems (USA) Approx. price (US$) ~4.5 million No. of passengers Unmanned and remotely controlled - not applicable Engine and fuel Rotax 105 hp 4-cylinder gasoline (~77 kWh) Fuel capacity (gallons) Two tanks fore and aft: total ~100 Range 1,800 miles @ cruising speed of ~75 mph (max 135) Endurance Maximum 24 hours with full tanks of 100 octane Operating ceiling 25,000 feet Status Operational and deployed in battle zones Company website http://www.ga-asi.com/ LENRs could enable all-electric drones like Predator (USA) Internal combustion technology allows missions of up to 24 hours Note: a 3-kilowatt/hour (kWh) starter/alternator supplies the UAV's electronics with electrical power; supplemented with two 14 Ah Ni-Cad auxiliary batteries First military UAV broadly deployed and utilized in combat operations
  55. 55. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 55 New Super Heron UAV unveiled at 2014 Singapore air show Israel Aerospace Industries product features new 200 hp diesel engine http://www.iai.co.il/2013/18900-45847-en/BusinessAreas_UnmannedAirSystems_HeronFamily.aspx Power plant is manufactured by Diesel Jet (part of the Fiat group - Italy)
  56. 56. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 56 http://www.trekaero.com/Springtail/Trek_Springtail_Specifications.jpg R&D prototypes under development for military and civilian applications LENRs could power single-person flying vehicles
  57. 57. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 57 Product Springtail exoskeletal personal flying vehicle EFV-4B (USA) Approx. price (US$) Unavailable No. of passengers 1 Engine and fuel 118 hp (~ 87 kWh) rotary engine - gasoline Fuel capacity (gallons) 12.3 Range 184 miles at cruising speed of 94 mph Endurance 2.2+ hours Operating ceiling 11,400 feet Status Operational R&D vehicle but not yet sold commercially Company website http://www.trekaero.com/index.html LENRs could power single-person flying vehicles Ducted fan propulsion system can provide excellent lift capabilities Range of LENR powered versions of such craft only limited by human endurance https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UcdDvplWVf8 Video of vehicle in flight (2008):
  58. 58. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 58 Do-it-yourself mail order kits for nano-drones available on Internet Crazyflie nano quadcopter designed and built by Bitcraze AB (Sweden) https://www.bitcraze.io/crazyflie-2/ LENRs could also power nano drones like the Crazyflie 2.0 Quoting: “Crazyflie 2.0 is a versatile flying development platform that only weights 27 g and fits in the palm of your hand. It's advanced functionalities makes it ideal for developers and the Bluetooth LE capabilities makes it easy to fly from mobile devices. With it's small size and weight it's ideal for indoor use, but you can just as easily hover above your house as you can hover under your dining room table. Designed as a solderless kit, the Crazyflie 2.0 is quickly assembled by attaching the motors to the circuit board frame and it's ready to fly.”
  59. 59. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 59 Product Crazyflie nano quadcopter - Bitcraze AB (Sweden) Approx. price (US$) 180 - 230 (depending on options) No. of passengers Unmanned nano UAV - not applicable Battery type Commercial commodity Lithium-iron phosphate 3.7 V Battery capacity (kWh) 170 mAh (0.0006 kWh) Range Unclear: no one has accurately measured airspeed Endurance 3 - 10 minutes, depending on payload weight Status Operational; sold to public thru online distributors Weight 27 grams Company website https://www.bitcraze.io/ LENRs could also power nano drones like the Crazyflie 2.0 One of smallest quadcopter drones on market: ~ 9 cm and 27 grams Open source specs encourage creative hacking, mods, experimentation
  60. 60. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 60 LENRs could also power small drones like InstantEye (USA) Buffeting by winds can cause stability and course-holding problems http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22129524.300-moth-drone-stays-rock-steady-in-galeforce-winds.html “Moth drone stays rock steady in gale-force winds” David Hambling, New Scientist magazine Jan. 16, 2014 Quoting company: “InstantEye’s greatest advantage is its reflexive autopilot and sensors, which allow for autonomous hovering around a GPS point while combating winds and gusts. The tiny vehicle uses the world’s smallest autopilot, which was developed at PSI.” Physical Sciences, Inc. may have solved issue by imitating flight of moths Radiological detection https://www.psitactical.com/instanteye/
  61. 61. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 61 LENRs could also power new soft autonomous robots Soft-bodied robots safer - can execute more natural body movements “Autonomous soft robotic fish capable of escape maneuvers …” A. Marchese et al. in Soft Robotics 1 pp. 75 - 87 (2014) http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=BSA_zb1ajes Quoting from Marchese et al.’s paper: “We describe an autonomous soft-bodied robot that is both self-contained and capable of rapid, continuum-body motion. We detail the design, modeling, fabrication, and control of the soft fish, focusing on enabling the robot to perform rapid escape responses.” Refereed journal called Soft Robotics was launched in 2014 to cover this topic http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/soro.2013.0009
  62. 62. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 62 LENR power could revolutionize drone/UAV technologies Image: Reuters LENR power sources could revolutionize airborne drones Speed, payload, and ranges of UAVs could be dramatically increased February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 62 Enables autonomous nano vehicles with capabilities similar to birds and insects
  63. 63. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 63 All-electric luxury family vehicles are upon us: Tesla Model S (USA) LENRs could power all-electric cars like a Tesla
  64. 64. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 64 Product Tesla Motors 4-door sedan luxury automobile (USA) Approx. price (US$) Model S P90 edition MSRP is 106,000 No. of passengers 4 - 5 Battery type Panasonic Lithium-ion Battery capacity (kWh) 90 (high-end optional battery pack) Range (miles) Tesla claims ~294 at highway speeds without mandatory recharging Status Now being sold in USA and other countries Other Current market leader in premium all-electric cars Company website https://www.teslamotors.com/models LENRs could power all-electric cars like a Tesla (USA) Car has become iconic with cult-like throng of enthusiastic owners Competitors from major car makers are emerging including hybrids like BMW i8
  65. 65. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 65 Urban electrical grids could be improved with distributed generation LENRs could also power single-family homes
  66. 66. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 66 Product Average single-family suburban residential home (USA) Approx. price (US$) National median existing single-family home price was recently estimated to be $196,900 (Q4 2013) No. of occupants Typically 2 - 5 Energy is supplied by two utility companies Grid electricity (appliances, AC, electronics, and/or heat) and commonly natural gas (heat for furnace and/or hot water) Electric power usage in kWh per day and year Average U.S. household consumes 11, 698 kWh/year (2010) Equates to avg. total daily use of ~ 32 kWh (costs ~US$ 100/mo.) Retail electricity cost ~US$ 0.10 kilowatt hour (average residential US - 2013) Heating furnace cost New 100,000 BTU 95.5% natural gas forced-air furnace US$1,400 Cost of natural gas Average price of gas delivered to residential consumers ~ US$10.00 per thousand cubic feet (EIA - 2013) Solar PV compatible? Yes, very synergistic; also - need batteries for LENR start-up Grid connection issues If home not entirely off-grid, may need synchronization of AC LENRs could also power single-family homes Average homes in the United States consume 32 kWh of energy LENRs could enable widespread residential distributed generation in future
  67. 67. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 67 http://blog.opower.com/2013/03/americas-energy-distribution-the-top-1-of-homes- consume-4-times-more-electricity-than-average-and-why-it-matters/ LENRs could also power single-family homes in USA Top 1% consume ~34,000 kwh/yr vs. 7,200 kwh/yr for bottom 90%  Average U.S. household consumes 11, 698 kWh/year (2010); equates to average hourly electrical usage = ~1.3 kWh of power continuously at 120V AC  Typical home in U.S. Upper Midwest has heating furnace that can produce rated maximum output of ~80,000 BTU/hr; equates to ~23.5 kW of heat If 30 kWh LENR thermal source were integrated with a heat-to-electricity energy conversion subsystem that was just 20% efficient, such a home power system would then produce ~6 kWh of electricity and ~24 kW of heat which would fully satisfy household demand LENRs could enable widespread residential distributed generation in future
  68. 68. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 68 http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/average-household-electricity-consumption Total demand ranges from ~12,000 kWh/yr down to 570 kWh/yr LENRs could power residential homes around the world USA = 11,698 Nigeria = 570
  69. 69. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 69 LENRs could also power single-family homes Distributed generation strategy helps stabilize existing urban grids http://www.greenturbine.eu/ Green TurbineTM steam generator 1.2 to 15 kWh  While steam-powered cars may have disappeared from our highways, most of the electricity for wide-area power grids worldwide is presently generated by large steam turbines  Recently, small steam turbines have been designed and built that would be suitable for use in homes; they could be integrated with boilers heated by LENRs to supply enough heat and electricity to fully power a household located anywhere in the world; enough nanoparticulate LENR fuel for a year of operation could probably be shipped in a large FedEx box overnight or carried on somebody’s back  In areas with smart grids, deployment of distributed power generation with LENR-based home systems could improve robustness and stability of grid service  In rural areas with no electricity, LENRs could finally bring power to the powerless. Over a billion people presently have no electricity; to see size of this global problem, see: Also enables cost-effective global rural electrification for people now powerless http://vimeo.com/77599467
  70. 70. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 70 LENRs could also power single-family homes Distributed generation strategy helps stabilize existing urban grids “The rise of distributed power” pp. 39 - Brandon Owens, General Electric - Ecomagination (2014) Brandon Owens of GE concluded that distributed generation is wave of the future Also enables cost-effective global rural electrification for people now powerless http://www.eenews.net/assets/2014/02/25/document_gw_02.pdf
  71. 71. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 71 LENRs could power military or civilian exoskeletons Sometimes life imitates art: yesterday's science fiction becomes reality Science fiction novel 55 years ago “Starship Troopers” Robert A. Heinlein G.P. Putnam (1959) origin of term “power suits” http://breakingdefense.com/2013/10/socom-wants-you-to-help-build-high-tech-iron-man-armor/ U.S. Army TALOS ca. 2013 U.S. Army 2014 and beyond Technological dream is to develop Starship Troopers autonomous “power suits”
  72. 72. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 72 LENRs could power military or civilian exoskeletons February 25, 2014: President Obama announces U.S. Army’s Iron Man http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77pnVFLkUjM/ Also see: "Obama says US Army is building a real Iron Man and no, he is not joking" Jesus Diaz, SPLOID (gizmodo.com) February 27, 2014 Prototypes are early versions of Starship Troopers autonomous “power suits” See CNN video clip on YouTube - running time = 49 seconds http://sploid.gizmodo.com/obama-says-us-army-is-building-real-iron-man-and-no-he-1532582334
  73. 73. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 73 LENRs could power military or civilian exoskeletons Raytheon/SARCOS XOS 2 ca. 2013 being developed for US military http://www.army-technology.com/projects/raytheon-xos-2-exoskeleton-us/ Power cable tether Cargo loader exoskeleton from 1986 U.S. sci-fi movie “Aliens” Raytheon-SARCOS exoskeleton Close-up: Raytheon-SARCOS exoskeleton Prototypes of full exoskeletons are presently tethered to external power sources
  74. 74. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 74 LENRs could power military or civilian exoskeletons With enough onboard power exoskeletons morph into humanoid robots Iconic “Terminator” robot “The Terminator” was cult-classic 1984 American science fiction action film starring Arnold Schwarzenegger  Full exoskeletons suitable for military ground combat operations require onboard portable power sources that can provide a soldier’s “power suit” with kilowatts of electricity roughly continuously for duration of a mission, which is minimally 3 - 4 days  Electric power requirements of full exoskeletons can thus range from ~1 - 3 kWh for low-end, bare bones systems up to 5 - 10 kWh for high-end systems capable of carrying heavy loads and moving very rapidly over rough terrain. Bare minimum mission duration of serious interest for US Army SOCOM applications is 72 hours, so one needs to have a portable power source that can deliver 72 - 720 kWh over that time period without mandatory resupply  Tesla Model S Lithium-ion battery pack stores ~90 kWh but unfortunately weighs ~1,300 pounds, so even advanced Lithium-ion batteries are ruled-out. Only LENRs can realistically generate such power Today’s batteries have insufficient energy density to fulfill all of military’s dreams
  75. 75. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 75 LENRs could power humanoid and other types of robots Power source energy density is key enabler for autonomous robotics Image credit: Boston Dynamics See power cable tether  Today, large autonomous robotic systems must either be tethered to external power sources or use chemical batteries that cannot store enough energy for commercially or militarily significant mission durations. Battery energy densities are inadequate  Robotics slowly moving into commercial mainstream: Google acquired Boston Dynamics in December 2013 for undisclosed sum; business logic behind purchase was not disclosed publicly by Google. Somewhat mysteriously, Google put it up for sale in March 2016  LENR-based portable power sources would be a key enabling, paradigm-shifting game changer for larger autonomous robotic systems such as the humanoid “Atlas,” canine “Big Dog,” and soft-bodied robo-fish  LENRs could someday enable, “Look ma, no tether!” Boston Dynamics “Atlas” robot Large robots like six foot tall Atlas presently tethered to external power sources
  76. 76. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 76 LENRs could power humanoid and other types of robots Untethered bipedal robots could probably move very much like humans Image credits: Univ. of Tokyo  Ishikawa’s R&D group at Univ. of Tokyo just developed a tethered bipedal robotic torso that can run with a natural, fluid human-like locomotion at speeds that can now reach 4.2 km/hr; can also do somersault and recover with amazing grace  Running humanoid robots would expend vastly more energy than locomotion at more leisurely paces; this application is yet another reason why LENRs would be enabling technology for robots See power cable tether Prof. Ishikawa’s group at Univ. of Tokyo has developed robotic torso that can run http://www.k2.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/fusion/BipedalRunning/index-e.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n0xRcFqwnCM
  77. 77. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 77 http://www.raytheon.com/newsroom/technology_today/archive/2011_i1.pdf LENRs could power high performance undersea UVs LENR energy density enables superior heat source for steam technology Steam engines for undersea power and propulsion for U.S. Navy Quoting from Raytheon’s website: "The U.S. Navy has called for increased stamina in unmanned undersea vehicles to enable missions that can last for weeks, not just one or two days; this exceeds the energy capability of traditional battery technologies. Raytheon engineers are addressing the need for an alternative power source through the use of external combustion engines and monopropellant fuels. The team investigated a number of engine types. Particularly promising technologies included a modified Rankine cycle engine developed by Cyclone Power Technologies, Inc. ... The U.S. Navy employs a number of large-diameter, large-payload undersea vehicles, and has plans to expand that fleet in the next decade. The Navy requires that these next-generation undersea vehicles have high speed and long endurance (as long as 120 days). Game-changing technologies like this are needed to address these undersea vehicle requirements.” Integration could enable new renaissance of 21st century mobile steam propulsion
  78. 78. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 78 LENRs could power high performance undersea UVs Water ramjet propulsion possibility for very fast underwater vehicles Quoted from Gany & Gofer’s abstract: http://www.sname.org/HigherLogic/Syst em/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?Docu mentFileKey=cf4f4d03-bc35-47db-8c45- e582a640db5f "Study of a novel air augmented waterjet boost concept“ A. Gany and A. Gofer, Journal of Ship Production and Design 30 pp. 1- 6 (2014) "This research presents analysis, experiment, and prediction of the performance of a unique marine propulsion concept, the air augmented waterjet, having a revolutionary potential for significant thrust augmentation and boost capability of waterjet systems. This concept has not been realized in any operational vessel. The air augmented waterjet propulsion concept is similar to an after burner in the aeronautical turbojet engine. The thrust augmentation results from the injection of air bubbles into the water flow, converting their expansion work ∫pdV into additional kinetic energy of the exhaust jet, without affecting the pump operation …The addition of air increased the thrust by 20% to 50% depending on the airflow rate and engine rpm. Air expansion … increased the exhaust jet kinetic energy at an efficiency of 70% approximately …” LENRs could provide long-endurance power for air-augmented waterjet systems
  79. 79. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 79 LENRs could power ultra high performance undersea UVs Supercavitation propulsion creates bubble around UV to decrease drag Comparison of conventional submarine with future supercavitating UV Concept for a 230 mph supercavitating UV Russian Shkval: first-deployed supercavitating military torpedo Cavitator on nose LENR energy density enables high-speed, long endurance supercavitating UUVs
  80. 80. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 80 Supercavitation technology enables revolutionary UUVs Huge LENR energy densities can enable long-range supercav systems “Shanghai to San Francisco in 100 minutes by Chinese supersonic submarine” “Chinese eye 'supercavitation' technology as future of underwater travel” Stephen Chen, August 24, 2014 http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1580226/shanghai-san-francisco-100-minutes-chinese-supersonic-submarine?page=all “China has moved a step closer to creating a supersonic submarine that could travel from Shanghai to San Francisco in less than two hours. New technology developed by a team of scientists at Harbin Institute of Technology's Complex Flow and Heat Transfer Lab has made it easier for a submarine, or torpedo, to travel at extremely high speeds underwater. Li Fengchen, Professor of Fluid Machinery and Engineering, said the team's innovative approach meant they could now create the complicated air "bubble" required for rapid underwater travel. "We are very excited by its potential," he said. However, supercavitation technology has faced two major problems. First, the submerged vessel has needed to be launched at high speeds, approaching 100 km/h, to generate and maintain the air bubble. Second, it is extremely difficult - if not impossible - to steer the vessel using conventional mechanisms, such as a rudder, which are inside the bubble without any direct contact with water. As a result, its application has been limited to unmanned vessels, such as torpedoes, but nearly all of these torpedoes were fired in a straight line because they had limited ability to turn … Li said the team of Chinese scientists had found an innovative means of addressing both problems.” Story claims new advances
  81. 81. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 81 LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines By 1920 steam-powered vehicles had essentially disappeared in U.S.A. http://cyclonepower.com/ Modified Rankine cycle steam engine Cyclone Power TechnologiesIn 1900, U.S. auto industry produced 4,192 vehicles comprising 1,681 powered by steam; 1,575 by electric batteries; and only 938 by gasoline powered internal combustion engines (ICEs). By 1920 ICE triumphed; electric and steam cars subsequently disappeared from roads after ICE technology had worldwide lock-in Besides development of turn-key electric starters for ICE vehicles and lack of warm-up delays for gasoline ICEs, power-to-weight ratios for steam systems (where power system weight = powertrain + fuel tank + onboard fuel) were much lower than for ICE vehicles LENR steam systems could potentially erase long-held completive advantage of the ICE because, although modern steam turbines by themselves may be heavier than comparable gasoline or diesel powered ICE engines, LENR fuel’s weight would be minuscule vs. gasoline because LENRs’ energy density 5,000x larger LENR heat sources could unleash revolutionary change in vehicular applications
  82. 82. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 82 LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines Many of them are based on Rankine cycle using superheated steam Small system developed by Green Turbine would be ideal for integration with LENR-based heat sources Credit: Green Turbine While efficiencies lower than large systems can be good for CHP applications http://www.greenturbine.eu/ 15 kWh generator unit
  83. 83. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 83 LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines Fréchette et al. (2003) --- tiny but now vastly less efficient than large systems https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228611393_Preliminary_Design_of_a_MEMS_Steam_Turbine_Power_Plant-on-a-chip Efforts underway to develop micro steam devices for Watt-scale power Paper title: "Preliminary design of a MEMS steam turbine power plant-on-a-chip"
  84. 84. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 84 LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines Utilize new thermal-to-electric systems developed for CSP applications  Earlier in presentation we discussed how commercial versions of LENR thermal sources could likely produce neutron fluxes of 1 x 1014 cm2/sec that can create thermal power fluxes of ~ 428 W/cm2 using a Lithium target fuel  Thermal fluxes created at focus receivers of concentrated solar power (CSP) systems can reach values on the order of roughly 200 - 400 W/cm2 ; approximately matches LENR neutron fluxes above  Google, Abengoa Solar, Brayton Energy, and others have investigated and/or developed Brayton cycle thermal-to- electric conversion systems for use in CSP applications  Minimizing technology development risks, similarity in sizes of thermal fluxes creates potential opportunities to adapt and integrate such Brayton cycle CSP systems for use in modular LENR-based power generation systems Dish CSP system Tower CSP system Ivanpah - California, USA Receiver Engineer efficient thermal interface between LENR heat source and CSP receiver Receiver
  85. 85. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 85 LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines Utilize new thermal-to-electric systems developed for CSP applications LENRs generate extremely high temperatures ideally suited for the Brayton cycle  Per Widom-Larsen theory LENRs occur in localized micron- scale LENR-active sites on ~planar surfaces: at certain types of interfaces; or curved surfaces of various shaped nanoparticles  Tiny LENR-active sites live for less than ~300 - 400 nanoseconds before being destroyed by intense heat; local peak temps range from 4,000 - 6,000o C; LENR-active sites spontaneously reform under right conditions in well-engineered LENR thermal devices  Microscopic 100-micron LENR hotspot can release as much as several Watts of heat in < 400 nanoseconds; create crater-like features on surfaces that are visible in SEM images and show evidence for flash-boiling of both precious & refractory metals  Peak local LENR power density in microscopic LENR-active sites can hit > 1.0 x 1021 Joules/sec.m3 during brief lifetimes  Control macroscopic-scale temperatures in LENR systems by tightly regulating total input energy and/or total area/volumetric densities of LENR-active sites present in the reaction chambers Infrared video of LENR hotspots http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=OUVmOQXBS68 LENR hotspots on Pd cathode Credit: P. Boss, U.S. Navy 100 μ LENR crater in Pd cathode LENR electrochemical cell Credit: P. Boss, U.S. Navy
  86. 86. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 86  Google investigated development of Brayton cycle for CSP system because Brayton does not require any water to produce power or for cooling (air in, air out) and design could scale up to 1 Megawatt. They estimated Brayton engine efficiency by itself at 37% and integrated system efficiency at ~30%; abandoned the project for many reasons  As we have shown, LENRs get extremely hot; limitations on macroscopic working temperatures in LENR systems would mostly be determined by thermal tolerances of materials used in system. If its components can reliably withstand extremely high temperatures over long periods of time, LENRs could provide whatever temperatures are necessary, well-tailored to specific application requirements. This opens-up a possibility to maybe develop combined cycle LENR-based power systems that scale from a few kilowatts up to megawatts; then might achieve 50 - 60% overall efficiencies  Since there is no internal chemical combustion, external venting of exhaust gases is unnecessary; thus LENR-based Brayton-cycle-only power systems could safely be used indoors for combined heat and power (CHP); effective application efficiencies could then approach 80 - 90% LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines Utilize new thermal-to-electric systems developed for CSP applications Brayton cycle LENR-based CHP power generation systems might be 30% efficient
  87. 87. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 87 AC generator Electrical input power Lithium LENR target fuel has maximum theoretical electrical input vs. thermal output energy gain-ratio of ~34x; at least ~10x to 15x gain should be achievable in practice. Breakeven gain ratio is ~3x with 33% thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency LENR thermal source DC current AC current Rectify and recirculate just a modest % of AC generator’s output to maintain LENR heat production LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines Utilize new thermal-to-electric systems developed for CSP applications Schematic system block diagram: LENR-based Brayton cycle AC power generator Adapted from Slide #31 in W. le Roux et al. (2013) Thermal transfer interface AC current Chemical battery used for start-up of LENR thermal source Recharge battery from AC generator output Start-up battery
  88. 88. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 88 LENR thermal source Adapted from Slide #31 in W. le Roux et al. (2013) DC Electrical input power Thermal transfer interface Small AC generator Rectify LENRs could power Rankine and Brayton cycle engines LENR-based Brayton cycle system can be used for direct propulsion Turboprop: gearbox is used to drive a rotating propeller for aircraft propulsion AC current Start-up battery Recirculate and rectify from AC g DC modest % of small AC generator’s output to maintain LENR heat production in source Most jet aircraft engines use the Brayton cycle for propulsion Chemical battery used for start-up of LENR thermal source - recharge battery from AC generator output
  89. 89. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 89 Source: NASA LENR-heated dusty plasma scramjets for hypersonic aircraft Fast reaction rates of LENRs and E-M triggering ideal for such engines
  90. 90. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 90 “Envisioned as an unmanned aircraft, the SR-72 would fly at speeds up to Mach 6, or six times the speed of sound.” “SR-72’s design incorporates lessons learned from the HTV-2, which flew to a top speed of Mach 20, or 13,000 mph, with a surface temperature of 3500°F.” “ ‘Hypersonic aircraft, coupled with hypersonic missiles, could penetrate denied airspace and strike at nearly any location across a continent in less than an hour,’ said Brad Leland, Lockheed Martin program manager, Hypersonics.” “A hypersonic aircraft will be a game changer.” Source: Lockheed Martin website Lockheed Martin SR-72 would be unmanned aircraft Earlier manned SR-71 Blackbird cruised at an airspeed of ~ Mach 3.0 SR-72’s present concept integrates a low-speed turbine engine with a scramjet Source: Lockheed Martin http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/news/features/2015/sr-72.html
  91. 91. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 91 Lockheed Martin SR-72 would be unmanned aircraft Present “combined cycle” concept integrates turbine and a scramjet Credit: Lockheed Martin
  92. 92. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 92 http://www.intechopen.com/books/aeronautics-and-astronautics/plasma-assisted-ignition-and-combustion “Plasma-Assisted Ignition and Combustion A. Starikovskiy and N. Aleksandrov Chapter 12 in “Aeronautics and Astronautics” M. Mulder, ed., ISBN 978-953-307-473-3 (2011) under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license Airflow through scramjet engine is at supersonic speeds Concept of engine operation is explained in graphic by Bowcutt (2009) Key goal: release as much energy as is possible prior to exhaust exiting engine FIG. 3 - Air-breathing supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) Image credit: Bowcutt (2009)
  93. 93. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 93 Lattice's concept for LENR dusty plasma scramjet engine Plasma kept away from walls and confined with an axial magnetic field Thrust produced by LENRs, metallic phase/Coulomb explosions, and chemical reactions LENRs triggered with E-M fields so tiny propagation delays in reaction chamber http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-radiationfree-nuclear-propulsion-for-advanced-hypersonic-aircraft-june-13-2014
  94. 94. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 94 LENR scramjet’s average exhaust velocity presently unclear Exhaust contains many materials traveling at very different velocities e.g. O+ O++ ions likely moving at speeds of 30,000 to 150,000 meters/second  Enormous flexibility in designing and engineering LENR nanoparticle target fuels - huge selection of many different elements and materials (fuel- wise, ULM neutrons quite omnivorous as to captures)  Design LENR fuel nanoparticles so LENR-sites triggered thereon will release just exactly enough energy to totally vaporize the entire nanoparticle  Some charged particles in exhaust stream would be moving at extremely high average velocities  Combination of metallic phase explosions and Coulomb explosions will cause extreme volume expansions and heating; suggests good thrust  Need experimentation to determine likely average exhaust velocity and thrust of an LENR-powered scramjet engine for specific types of target fuels
  95. 95. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 95 LENR dusty plasma scramjet could be revolutionary Simultaneously use nuclear and chemical reactions to produce thrust  Unlike SR-72, Lattice would integrate LENR dusty plasma scramjet engine with LENR- powered 50+% efficient Brayton combined cycle turbine to generate DC electricity for aircraft; direct waste heat from turbine into scramjet or air bypass flow if feasible  DC power from turbine generator injected into dusty plasma to trigger LENRs on fuel; thrust control achieved by regulating input of DC current and target fuel injection rates  LENR scramjet reaction chamber walls irradiated with IR/UV radiation will get extremely hot and likely need cooling even with containment of plasma by axial magnetic fields. If hypersonic aerodynamics permit, should investigate possibility of creating air bypass flow surrounding scramjet engine walls to cool them. If this were feasible, might be able to create scramjet analogue of high-bypass turbofan engines  Incredibly high energy densities and minimal mass of LENR nanoparticulate target fuels might allow an LENR dusty plasma scramjet luxury of carrying multiple fuel types that are optimized for different flight envelopes. Target fuel containing much Oxygen could be used to operate like a rocket for take-off and then switched to a hypersonic fuel type when proper airspeed is reached --- could utilize optimized combinations of nuclear and very energetic chemical reactions simultaneously inside same engine  While radioactivity and radiation are not issues, given complexity of processes inside LENR scramjet reaction chambers, must evaluate environmental impact of exhaust
  96. 96. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 96 LENRs could revolutionize the world as we know it  Successful commercialization and integration of LENR-based power sources would create dramatic increases in performance capabilities of a vast array of products that span consumer electronics, homes, motor vehicles, robots, and small aircraft; outputs of up to a few hundred kWh are all that is needed to catalyze this revolution  Lattice has discovered how it may be technologically possible to process aromatic fractions found naturally in petroleum and coal to transform them into LENR fuels where Carbon is transmuted with safe low energy neutrons to release thermal energy rather than combusting Carbon with Oxygen as is the case today in most of mankind’s power generation activities. This would release 5 million times more thermal energy than oxidative chemical processes and without production of CO2. LENR technology could help create equivalent of a Moore’s Law for energy  With the advent of broad global deployment LENR power generation technologies, the world’s economies would not be flirting with ‘running on empty’ for energy in the foreseeable future, as might be the case if we continue profligate combustion of carbonaceous fossil fuels. Our beleaguered Mother Earth might also get a semi- permanent reprieve from further acceleration of present global warming trends and other types of deleterious climate change that could affect yields of food crops  Last but not least, LENRs would democratize universal access to affordable clean, green energy for billions of people who presently live with little or no electricity Fossil Carbon can potentially be transmuted rather than combusted
  97. 97. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 97 Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than combusted Heavy oil and coal could be processed to produce CO2-free LENR fuels Carbon atoms found on aromatic rings good fuel for radiation-free transmutation Neutrons + target fuel atoms heavier elements + decay products + + Catalytic neutron ‘match’ Neutrons are readily absorbed by LENR fuels such as inexpensive Nickel, Titanium, Lithium, or Carbon atoms Direct conversion of neutron capture and decay-related gammas to IR and beta/alpha particles create heat n0 Carbon Hard radiation-free LENR transmutation Process does not emit any deadly radiation or produce troublesome radwastes capture on target fuel atoms produces heat BTUs Absorbed by fuel atoms
  98. 98. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 98 Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than combusted In this example a Carbon atom is transmuted into a Nitrogen with LENR process LENR neutron capture catalyzed Process does not emit any deadly radiation or produce troublesome radwastes heat Neutrons are captured by ring Carbon atoms that are then transmuted
  99. 99. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 99 Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than combusted BTU values of fossil energy sources could increase by factor of ~5,000 x $$$ economic values of derived LENR fuels could increase to > 500x combustion Credit: Frank Boenigk (2009) 1x $ > 500x $ Today: barrel of crude oil priced at ~US$ 50 Tomorrow: LENR products from same barrel could be worth US$ 25,000 Adoption of LENR technology Combustion Transmutation
  100. 100. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 100 Fossil Carbon can be transmuted rather than combusted Variety of simple and complex aromatic molecules Examples: Green CO2-free LENR fuels 5,000x greater energy density Process into Heavy oils and natural bitumen Coal Contain aromatic molecules Examples: CH4 natural gas Lignin from renewable biomass Extract Extract Digest Mo catalyst Chemical process Chemical processing plus nanotech Benzene Phenanthrene CO2 C nanofibers Enormous gain in energy density makes processing conversions $$$ economic Bottom line: just about any Carbon-based moiety can be converted into aromatic ring-structure molecules using a chemical process Processing LENR fuels can be created from many different types of Carbon sources Nanoparticulate fuelsBase feedstock Aromatic molecules LNG
  101. 101. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 101 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries granted European patent on transmutation Number of patents involving LENR technology is growing EP 1202290 B1: “Nuclide transmutation device and nuclide transmutation method” Data shows transmutation of Cesium (Cs) into Praseodymium (Pr) over a time period of ~120 hours Inventors: Y. Iwamura and T. Itoh, Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., PCT filing date: October 30, 2001 Issuance date: December 4, 2013 Abstract: "The present invention produces nuclide transmutation using a relatively small-scale device. The device that produces nuclide transmutation comprises a structure body that is substantially plate shaped and made of palladium (Pd) or palladium alloy, or another metal that absorbs hydrogen (for example, Ti) or an alloy thereof, and a material that undergoes nuclide transmutation laminated on one surface among the two surfaces of this structure body. The one surface side of the structure body, for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is high due to pressure or electrolysis and the like, and the other surface side, for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is low due to vacuum exhausting and the like, and thereby, a flow of deuterium in the structure body is produced, and nuclide transmutation is carried out by a reaction between the deuterium and the material that undergoes nuclide transmutation.” https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=patentimages.storage.googleapis. com/pdfs/1dc36049b9109cb93bf1/EP1202290B1.pdf
  102. 102. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 102 Patent specification shows neutron production and capture on targets Mitsubishi EP 1202290 B1 implicitly involves Widom-Larsen Neutron captures make MeV gammas; heavy electrons convert γ into infrared Mitsubishi's patent specification clearly describes LENR transmutation process as starting with creation of neutrons from protons or deuterons via weak interaction followed by successive neutron captures on targets and then decays which follow rows in Periodic Table to create stable nuclear transmutation products, i.e., other elements. This is what is explained rigorously by physics of the Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs; conversion of MeV gammas (invariably created as result of neutron captures) directly into benign infrared is taught in Lattice's US 7,893,414 B2. For example, see following items in EP 1202290 B1:  Page #9; lines #30 - 39: shows weak interaction that produces neutrons followed by neutron captures and products starting with a stable Cesium target (Cs)  Page #10; lines #35 - 40: shows longer reaction sequence with LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation of Carbon (C) targets into stable Sulfur (S)  Page #12; lines #5 - 8: shows LENR neutron capture on Strontium (Sr) target which then gets transmuted into stable Molybdenum (Mo)  Page #14; lines #52 - 55: shows LENR neutron capture on Sodium (Na) target to make end-product of stable Aluminum (Al)
  103. 103. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 103 Covers LENR devices involving neutron-catalyzed nuclide transmutation Lattice has fundamental US patent on gamma suppression US 7,893,414 B2: “Apparatus and Method for Absorption of Incident Gamma Radiation and its Conversion to Outgoing Radiation at Less Penetrating, Lower Energies and Frequencies” Inventors: L. Larsen and A. Widom Assignee: Lattice Energy LLC Issuance date: February 22, 2011 Abstract: “Gamma radiation is shielded by producing a region of heavy electrons and receiving incident gamma radiation in such region. The heavy electrons absorb energy from the gamma radiation and re-radiate it as photons at a lower energy and frequency. The heavy electrons may be produced in surface plasmon polaritons. Multiple regions (6) of collectively oscillating protons or deuterons with associated heavy electrons may be provided. Nanoparticles of a target material on a metallic surface capable of supporting surface plasmons may be provided. The region of heavy electrons is associated with that metallic surface. The method induces a breakdown in a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Apparatus and method are described.” Deadly gamma photons are converted directly into benign infrared heat http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/us-patent-7893414-b2
  104. 104. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 104 Nanotechnologists are making many amazing discoveries LENRs + nanotech perhaps vault steam technology into 21st century Microscopic LENR-active surface sites beg for application of new nanotech "Evolution of light-induced vapor generation at a liquid-immersed metallic nanoparticle" Z. Fang et al. Nano Letters 13 pp. 1736 - 1742 (2013) “Nanoscale heat engine beyond the Carnot Limit" J. Roßnagel et al. Physical Review Letters 112 pp. 030602 - 030607 (2014) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl4003238 http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v112/i3/e030602 Technical teasers: more efficient steam generation and maybe even breaking the Carnot limit
  105. 105. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 105 Further information about LENR transmutation technology Opportunity to develop biosafe, radiation-free, green nuclear power LENR fuels derived from biomass: inexhaustible renewable energy source “Index and user guide to the Widom-Larsen theory and ultralow energy neutron reactions (LENRs)” http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-hyperlinked-index-to-documents-re- widomlarsen-theory-and-lenrs-september-7-2015 http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-lenr-transmutation-of-carbon-better- energy-strategy-than-obama-clean-power-plan-aug-3-2015 “LENR transmutation of Carbon is superior energy strategy - slashes CO2 emissions for vehicles as well as electric power generation” http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-scalability-of-lenr-power-generation- systems-nov-29-2015 “Scalability of LENR power generation systems” “LENRs dramatically expand financing opportunities for oil & gas industry” http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-lenrs-dramatically-expand-financing- opportunities-for-oil-and-gas-industry-october-8-2015
  106. 106. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 106 Partnering on commercialization and consulting on certain subjects Working with Lattice Commercializing a next-generation source of green CO2-free nuclear energy  Lattice welcomes inquiries from large, established organizations that have an interest in discussing the possibility of becoming Lattice’s strategic capital and/or technology development partner  Lewis Larsen also independently engages in fee-based consulting. This separate work covers subjects such as: micron-scale, many-body collective quantum effects in condensed matter; Lithium-ion battery safety engineering issues including minimizing risks for occurrence of thermal runaways; and development of ultra-high-temperature superconductors. Additional areas of expertise include: long-term strategic implications of LENRs for high cap- ex long term investments in power generation technology; energy storage technologies; and LENR impact on petroleum-related assets. Will consult on these subjects as long as it does not involve disclosing Lattice proprietary engineering details relating to developing LENR power generation systems 1-312-861-0115 lewisglarsen@gmail.com L. Larsen c.v.: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lewis-g-larsen-cv-june-2013
  107. 107. February 16, 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 107 Commercializing a next-generation source of green nuclear energy February 16. 2014 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2014 All rights reserved 107 Lattice Energy LLC “We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy - but because they are hard. Because that challenge is one we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone - and one we intend to win.” U.S. President John F. Kennedy Speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas (1962) Empire of the Sun - “Walking on a Dream” 3 min. 20 sec. video http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=eimgRedLkkU

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