Lattice Energy LLC- LENR Transmutation Networks can Produce Gold-May 19 2012

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Lattice Energy LLC’s modern nuclear alchemy: LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation of scrap Tungsten metal into stable Gold and Platinum isotopes

Lattice Energy LLC’s modern nuclear alchemy: LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation of scrap Tungsten metal into stable Gold and Platinum isotopes

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  • Dear Alain : I checked the link to Vortex-l that was included in your last comment and it was exactly the non-scientific Internet 'trash talk', polemics, and non-factual attacks that typify that particular list. Your comment has therefore been deleted; any further comments from you in that genre will be deleted upon posting without exception. My policy stands. Lew
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  • Dear Alain: as a matter of policy, I don't get involved in technical debates about the Widom-Larsen theory on any Internet lists or blog sites. The Vortex-l list you mention in your comment is a particularly bad one: it has been used by 'cold fusion' promoters (posting sometimes under their real names but more often under phony 'screen names') as a platform for launching public attacks on non-fusion LENR ideas for 15 years. I would hardly expect any balanced opinions to be uttered about WLT on such a site. Moreover, the vast majority of Vortex-l's list members are not even professional scientists, let alone competent theoreticians. So my answer to you with regard to any remarks made about our work on that particular forum is, no comment --- now or ever. Lew
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  • Dear Pierre:

    Although it is certainly theoretically possible and some published experimental data suggests the hypothesized process is really occurring (albeit perhaps at very low rates), commercialization of LENRs for neutron-catalyzed production of Gold from Tungsten 'seeds' would probably take at least 5 - 7 years to accomplish. Then, presuming that effort was successful and appeared to be a cost-effective production method vs. conventional mining at small-batch laboratory scales, the degree to which such a process could be technologically scaled-up quantity-wise would determine whether such a new LENR technology for producing Gold would have a significant impact on the global market price of Gold. In that regard, the history of chemical engineering technology has many examples of new chemical processes that worked well for producing small batches of a desired product in laboratory experiments and in somewhat larger pilot plants, but (for whatever reasons) it was impractical or impossible to produce the same end-product at a reasonable manufacturing cost in vastly larger, commercially significant/useful quantities. So, let's go back to the present global Gold market in which annual supply/demand amounts to roughly 2,600 – 2,700 metric tons (note that as of 2011, in principle ~78,000 metric tons of Tungsten are available annually for potential conversion into Gold). If LENR-based Gold production could only be increased up to a maximum of several hundred metric tons per year before that method became uneconomic vs. mining (i.e., loses its relative production cost advantage), then LENR technology would probably have little or no negative impact on the long-term market price of Gold. On the other hand, for the purposes of discussion let’s assume that LENR production-cost economics still remained favorable at vastly larger rates of annual production. In that scenario, let’s further speculate that suddenly 10% of annual Tungsten production (as of today, it would amount to ~7,800 metric tons/year) could be profitably converted into Gold via LENRs. This wildly optimistic scenario would more than triple the annual supply of Gold over a short period of time, which would undoubtedly result in a devastating immediate negative impact on the market price of Gold (i.e., it would rapidly collapse). That is the range of plausible price scenarios going out years into the future. In summary, do bullish ‘Gold bugs’ have anything to fear price-wise from LENRs over the next 5 years: the answer is no. What about 10 years? In my opinion, it starts to get much dicier over that time-horizon. Would I personally, today, sign a legally binding contract to buy-and-hold Gold bullion and store it in a secure vault for the next 20 years with the expectation that there would be substantial appreciation in the real constant$ Gold price from today’s lofty levels. No way. Gold’s huge $price multiple of Tungsten at today’s market prices (>2,000x), tells us that LENR conversion of Tungsten into Gold could potentially be enormously profitable if it is technically feasible to do so. That suggests to me that it is very likely that somebody, somewhere, by-hook-or-by-crook will find a way to do it economically sometime over the next 10 – 20 years. In my experience, betting against profit-motivated human ingenuity over long time-periods has never been a very smart idea.

    Lew
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  • Would LENR collapse the price of Gold? Talk about killing the golden goose... BTW, China is by far the largest world producer of Tungsten, and they do not hesitate to restrict exports when it suits them, Will Tungsten be the new Gold? The implications are mind bending...
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  • Comment to Readers:

    Unbeknownst to all of these very likely competent researchers working in the early 1900s, they were actually struggling with very subtle, tricky nanoscale LENR processes that can occur in condensed matter. Given an utter lack of knowledge about LENRs back then (indeed, much of what is known about nuclear science today and all of nanotech had simply not been discovered yet), it is not at all surprising that experimentalists ca. the 1920s had major problems with spotty, inconclusive laboratory results and low levels of experimental reproducibility. Indeed, much of the acrimony about LENRs that has transpired in the world scientific community since Pons & Fleischmann in 1989 has involved the very same issue.

    So just like today, the subject of triggering nuclear transmutations under relatively ‘mild’ physical conditions was controversial during the late 1920s. Indeed, underlying tension about the possibility of extremely contentious results is almost palpable in Thomassen’s fascinating 1927 Caltech thesis. Interestingly and also perhaps not surprisingly, it appears that the whole line of inquiry involving electric-arc-triggered-transmutations appears to have more-or-less died out worldwide by the time Chadwick confirmed the existence of the neutron in 1932. It is tempting to speculate that problems with experimental reproducibility were a major factor in the premature demise of such work.

    All that said, today in 2012 things are different: (1) scientists can now benefit from the published Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs which successfully explains a huge array of earlier results (including the best 1920s electric arc experiments) and can help guide new, more productive experimentation; and (2) unlike 1989 – 1994 (after which the vast majority of ‘mainstream’ scientists ceased being interested in LENRs), as of 2012 the science of nanotechnology (e.g., plasmonics, techniques for fabrication of nanostructures, materials science, etc.) has finally advanced to the point where it can be usefully applied to substantially improve both experimental reproducibility and WLT neutron production rates, thus potentially enabling successful commercialization of LENRs for cost-effective production of energy and valuable transmutation products (e.g., Gold, Platinum, etc.) at some point in the not-too-distant future.

    Questions and inquiries are welcome.

    Lewis Larsen
    Lattice Energy LLC
    1-312-861-0115
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  • 1. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 1 Low Energy Neutron Reactions (LENRs) In theory, neutron-catalyzed LENR transmutations can produce Gold Already observed experimentally; may also occur naturally in the earth Might process be scalable and economic; if so, what are long-term implications for Gold price? Technical Overview Lewis Larsen President and CEO Lattice Energy LLC May 19, 2012 Stable 74W180-186 seeds Series of Intermediate Isotopes 78Pt197 79Au197 +n and decays β- decay Example 1 Production of Gold: one possible path Neutron-catalyzed transmutations Stable 73Ta180-181 seeds 79Au197 +n Neutron-catalyzed transmutations Basic LENR transmutation reactions: e-* + p+ g n + νe n + (Z, A) g (Z, A+1)stable or (Z, A+1)unstable (Z, A+1)unstable g (Z+1, A+1)stable or unstable + e- β + νe “Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored.” Aldous Huxley in “Proper Studies” 1927 Example 2 Making Gold: another possible path +n and decays 78Pt196 Series of Intermediate Isotopes 77Ir197 78Pt197 β- decay β- decay
  • 2. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 2  For ~65 years prior to advent of Widom-Larsen theory (WLT) of LENRs in May 2005, physicists had universally assumed that neutron-catalyzed nuclear transmutation reactions were only possible in the extreme environments of fission reactors, nuclear weapon detonations, and stars. Published in peer-reviewed journals and using only known physics, WLT integrates many-body collective quantum effects with electroweak theory to explain how energetic nuclear processes can occur under much milder macroscopic physical conditions; e.g., in some electric-current driven, aqueous electrolytic chemical cells that are akin to ordinary batteries being charged  Unaware of WLT, vast majority of astrophysicists presently believe that all elements heavier than Iron (Fe at ~58 amu) were produced via nuclear transmutation of Fe into successively heavier elements by two types of neutron production, capture, and nuclear decay processes known as the s- (for slow) and r- (rapid) process, respectively. Differing primarily in rates of neutron production (in r-process it is much higher), the s-process is thought to occur in hot plasmas of mature red giant stars and r-process in the hearts of exploding, violently dying stars known as supernovae. These well-accepted types of astrophysical nucleosynthetic phenomena are really just a form of natural stellar alchemy that creates heavier elements from lighter ones Background on WLT and main objectives of presentation LENRs are like astrophysical processes with key differences
  • 3. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 3  W.R.T. neutron production rates, LENRs in condensed matter systems often fall somewhere between the s- and r-process. Per WLT, they differ from astrophysical s- and r-processes in that LENRs do not produce: (1) energetic keV - MeV neutrons (rather, ultra low momentum <<< sub- thermal); (2) emit energetic gamma radiation (it is instead converted to infrared heat by heavy e-* electrons involved in neutron production); or long-lived radioactive isotopes (neutron-rich intermediates decay rapidly via β- decay chains into stable isotopes). Unlike the s-/r-processes, LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation processes operate from neutron capture on lightest element, Hydrogen, all the way up to and beyond vastly heavier high-Z elements, e.g., Plutonium  In various SlideShare documents, Lattice has also shown that LENRs are widespread in Nature --- hidden in plain sight due to absence of strong radiation signatures; only mass spectroscopy sees telltales; can occur at low rates in environs including catalytic converters, pyrolysis processes, benzene rings, lightning, and (very likely) metabolic processes of some bacteria  Objectives of this presentation: (1) discuss theoretical possibility of using LENR-based transmutation processes (effectively modern nuclear alchemy) to produce Gold from much less costly, lighter seed target elements such as Tungsten; (2) examine previously reported experimental data which suggests that production of gold via WLT LENR transmutations has already been observed experimentally; and (3) explore alternative methods for LENR-based gold production using abiotic vs. bacterial systems and whether they might be cost-competitive with mining someday Background on WLT and main objectives of presentation LENRs are like astrophysical processes with key differences
  • 4. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 4 Contents LENR physics and transmutations now understood and published .............. 6 Potential market applications for LENRs ....................................…................... 7 Historical perspective ...................................................................................…… 8 - 11 Periodic table of elements .................................................................................. 12 Astrophysical thinking about nucleosynthesis in Nature................................. 13 - 14 LENRs access vast areas of neutron-rich isotopic landscape ....................… 15 Neutron capture cross-sections: LENRs vs. stars ........................................... 16 - 18 LENR Gold production traverses 6th row of Periodic Table ............................. 19 74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network ..……................ 20 - 25 Experimental data support existence of 74W180-seed network ......................... 26 Electric arc transmutations reported from 1900s to 1922 ................................ 27 Electric arc transmutations widely discussed in 1922-23 ................................ 28 - 29 Production of Gold in electric arcs reported from 1924-26 .............................. 30 - 34 Cirillo & Iorio also produced Gold from Tungsten ca. 2004 ............................. 35 - 39 New 2010-11 experiments and reports by Cirillo et al. ..................................... 39
  • 5. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 5 LENR networks occur in variety of different environments ........................... 40 - 41 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? ........…................... 42 - 58 Speculative future economics of mining Gold via LENRs .............................. 59 - 64 Final thoughts and conclusions .......................………...................................... 65 - 66 Ending quotations: Michael Faraday, laboratory journal notes (1849) ........................................ 67 “Stairway to Heaven” lyrics by Led Zeppelin (1971) .................................... 68 Contents (continued)
  • 6. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 6 Technical papers on Widom-Larsen theory “Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces” Eur. Phys. J. C 46 pp. 107 - 112 (2006) Widom and Larsen – initially placed on arXiv in May 2005 at http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/cond-mat/pdf/0505/0505026v1.pdf; a copy of the final EPJC article can be found at: http://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/library/2006/2006Widom-UltraLowMomentumNeutronCatalyzed.pdf “Absorption of nuclear gamma radiation by heavy electrons on metallic hydride surfaces” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/cond-mat/pdf/0509/0509269v1.pdf (Sept 2005) Widom and Larsen “Nuclear abundances in metallic hydride electrodes of electrolytic chemical cells” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/cond-mat/pdf/0602/0602472v1.pdf (Feb 2006) Widom and Larsen “Theoretical Standard Model rates of proton to neutron conversions near metallic hydride surfaces” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/nucl-th/pdf/0608/0608059v2.pdf (v2. Sep 2007) Widom and Larsen “Energetic electrons and nuclear transmutations in exploding wires” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0709/0709.1222v1.pdf (Sept 2007) Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen “Errors in the quantum electrodynamic mass analysis of Hagelstein and Chaudhary” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0802/0802.0466v2.pdf (Feb 2008) Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen “High energy particles in the solar corona” http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0804/0804.2647v1.pdf (April 2008) Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen “A primer for electro-weak induced low energy nuclear reactions,” Srivastava, Widom, and Larsen Pramana - Journal of Physics 75 pp. 617 (2010) http://www.ias.ac.in/pramana/v75/p617/fulltext.pdf LENR physics are understood and published
  • 7. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 7 Potential market applications for LENRs Applications Description Target Markets LENRs enable safe, green carbon-free nuclear energy production and power generation at reasonable cost - Vastly greater energy densities and longevity at a lower price per kWh compared to chemical power sources Scale-up and integrate LENR heat sources w. different energy conversion technologies: e.g., develop portable battery-like devices using thermoelectrics that can convert raw heat directly to DC electricity; or, use heat to rotate a shaft for propulsion (e.g., Stirling or modern steam engines in motor vehicles) SAFE - no radiation shielding or nuclear waste issues; could also eventually enter portable power markets and compete directly against chemical batteries, small fuel cells, and microgenerators Bitumen extraction, heavy oil recovery, and/or oil shale processing According to Prof. K. Deffeyes of Princeton University, about 2/3 of oil remaining in the ground worldwide is classified as “heavy” Use well-hole LENR thermal sources to heat- up bitumen or heavy oil underground: reduce production costs, enhance recovery; could use LENR heaters for in-situ underground upgrading and downstream process heat Major benefit to large oil producers – can help increase long-term supplies of oil and reduce total production costs as well as CO2 footprint Develop much cleaner fission power generation technologies Use LENRs and ultra low momentum neutrons (ULMs) for triggering fission Design new types of LENR-based subcritical fission reactors that can burn existing fissionable fuels down to stable isotopes – little or no long-lived radioactive wastes Retrofit new ULM-neutron reactors into existing nuclear fission power systems; much better safety and lower costs Nuclear waste treatment Transmute dangerous radioactive nuclear waste using LENRs; generate additional power from waste burn-up Develop turnkey systems for on-site clean-up of existing worldwide inventories of fission wastes from nuclear power plants Nuclear waste remediation and clean-up – opportunities in many countries, e.g., US, France, Japan, China, etc. Transmutation of stable elements Produce almost any very valuable element or isotope in the periodic table at competitive costs compared to present mining and refining operations Use LENRs to transmute less expensive elements into much more valuable ones – first do it abiologically; later migrate to methods using various species of genetically engineered bacteria Mostly target precious and rare metals production, e.g., platinum, gold, rhodium, rare earth elements, etc FirstTargetsPotentialLong-termOpportunities
  • 8. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 8 Historical Perspective 1901 - Modern discovery of nuclear alchemy: “For Mike’s sake Soddy, don’t call it transmutation. They’ll have our heads off as alchemists.” Comment made by Ernest Rutherford to Frederic Soddy (1901) “In 1901, twenty-four year-old chemist Frederick Soddy and Ernest Rutherford were attempting to identify a mysterious gas that wafted from samples of radioactive thorium oxide. They suspected that this gas - they called it an ‘emanation’ - held a key to the recently discovered phenomenon of radioactivity. Soddy had passed the puzzling gas over a series of powerful chemical reagents, heated white-hot. When no reactions took place, he came to a startling realization. As he told his biographer many years later, ´I remember quite well standing there transfixed as though stunned by the colossal import of the thing and blurting out-or so it seemed at the time, ‘Rutherford, this is transmutation: the thorium is disintegrating and transmuting itself into argon gas.’ Rutherford‘s reply was typically aware of more practical implications.” J. Magill, “Decay Engine” at www.nucleonica.net "The Alchemist's Workshop" by Jan van der Straet (1570)4 "The Alchymist in Search of the Philosophers' Stone Discovers Phosphorous" by Joseph Wright of Derby (1771)
  • 9. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 9 Historical Perspective 1941: “God made the neutron” [to produce Gold] “The neutron plays a pivotal role in manmade transmutations. In the words of Bronowski, ‘At twilight on the sixth day of Creation, so say the Hebrew commentators to the Old Testament, God made for man a number of tools that gave him also the gift of creation. If the commentators were alive today, they would write, ‘God made the neutron.’ Is it far-fetched to consider the neutron to be the Stone of the Philosophers (and atom smashers to be athanors – the furnaces of the Philosophic Egg)? Frankly, yes. But, in 1941, fast neutrons were used to transmute mercury into a tiny quantity of gold1. Was the age old dream realized? Would a modern day version of the Roman Emperor Diocletian have to burn all the notebooks and journal articles and destroy the atom smashers in order to protect the world’s currency? Well, probably not. It is likely that an ounce of such gold would cost more than the net worth of the planet. Also, the gold so obtained is radioactive and lives for only a few days at most. But, we are not always logical when it comes to gold. In the words of Black Elk, a holy man of the Oglala Lakota-Sioux on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, ‘Our people knew there was yellow metal in little chunks up there, but they did not bother with it, because it was not good for anything’.” 1[Sherr et al., The Physical Review 60 pp. 473 - 479 1941] Arthur Greenberg, “From Alchemy to Chemistry in Picture and Story” pp. 571 2007
  • 10. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 10 Historical Perspective 1989: Pons & Fleischmann rediscover LENRs; mistake it for D-D fusion “Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet.” Rudyard Kipling, “The Battle of East and West” (1889) Since the inception of modern nuclear science ca. 1940s, it has been near-universally believed that the only man-controllable nuclear processes were strong interaction fission or potentially fusion; it was also widely held that nuclear transmutation reactions could only take place within certain environments, e.g., in fission reactors, nuclear weapons, or stars. Pons & Fleischmann’s 1989 discovery of what appeared to be nuclear transmutation processes operating inside what would otherwise be ordinary D2O electrolytic chemical cells thus challenged long-established conceptual paradigms about nuclear processes. Sadly, P&F rashly speculated that their observed radiation-free “excess heat” resulted from a D-D “cold fusion” process. As Ernest Rutherford would undoubtedly have predicted, such an erroneous claim (coupled with irreproducible experimental results) resulted in sustained attacks on such research by mainstream science that have continued to the present. However, starting with the release of our first arXiv preprint in May 2005, the Widom-Larsen theory (WLT) of LENRs has shown, using known physics, how energetic nuclear reactions can in fact take place in ordinary chemical cells. According to WLT, key aspects of LENRs involve weak interactions that can occur in a variety of different environments under relatively mild physical conditions. Our theory posits that in condensed matter systems, many-body collective effects allow the otherwise disparate chemical and nuclear energy realms to interconnect in special, micron-scale regions on surfaces, thus enabling neutron-catalyzed transmutation networks in condensed matter.
  • 11. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 11 “Alchemy, derived from the Arabic word ‘al-kimia’ is both a philosophy and an ancient practice focused on the attempt to change base metals into gold, investigating the preparation of the ‘elixir of longevity’, and achieving ultimate wisdom, involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of several substances described as possessing unusual properties. The practical aspect of alchemy generated the basics of modern inorganic chemistry, namely concerning procedures, equipment and the identification and use of many current substances. Alchemy has been practiced in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), India (modern Indian subcontinent), Persia (modern Iran), China, Japan, Korea, the classical Greco-Roman world, the medieval Islamic world, and then medieval Europe up to the 20th century, in a complex network of schools and philosophical systems spanning at least 2,500 years.” Source for above quote: Wikipedia article as of July 7, 2010 According to the WLT, LENRs and chemistry intersect on nm - μ length-scales in condensed matter systems under comparatively ‘mild’ conditions compared to interiors of stars, nuclear weapons, and fuel rods of operating fission reactors. Production of gold from lower-Z elements such as Tungsten (W) is not just some alchemist’s fevered delusion. It is an understandable result of ULM neutron-captures on W and subsequent beta decays, both of which are presently well-accepted in mainstream nuclear science Popular Science magazine, March 1948 Historical Perspective 2012 - WLT’s modern alchemy based on well-accepted nuclear science US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) produced Gold
  • 12. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 12
  • 13. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 13 Astrophysical thinking about nucleosynthesis in Nature Here is how astrophysicists now think the s-/r-processes work in stars Source: Fig. 2 in “Nuclear masses and the origin of the elements,” H. Schatz & K. Blaum in Europhysics News 5 pp. 16-21 (2006) http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/blaum/files/publications/precision-experiments/EurophysicsNews_num5_vol37_16-21.pdf Quoting: “The s-process: During the s-process neutron captures are in most cases much slower than beta decays. Radioactive isotopes formed after a neutron capture decay quickly into stable nuclei before the next neutron is captured. The s-process proceeds therefore along the so called valley of stability (Fig. 2) and crosses the N = 82 and N = 126 neutron shells at stable nuclei with mass numbers A = 138 (barium) and A = 208 (lead). The abundance maxima created by the s-process at these locations can be readily identified in Fig. 1. From the observation of technetium, which is an element without a stable isotope, on the surface of red giant stars the ongoing operation of the s-process has been demonstrated and the astrophysical site has been identified unambiguously. “ Quoting: “The r-process The r-process is responsible for the origin of about half of the heavy elements beyond iron. Elements such as europium, gold, platinum, or uranium are mainly produced in the r-process ... Obviously the neutron densities during the r- process are so large that neutron captures are much faster than beta decays so that extremely beta unstable nuclei can be formed. After their creation in the r- process these nuclei are converted into stable nuclei through a long chain of beta decays. In some cases these beta decays can emit neutrons, so the mass number of the final stable nucleus tends to be slightly lower than the mass number of the nucleus formed originally in the r-process, an effect which we neglected in our simple argument above.” For a nice animation see: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm ?id=gal-yam-how-large-stars-die
  • 14. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 14 Astrophysical thinking about Gold production in Nature Here is how one astrophysicist now thinks the process works in stars Source: Slide #20 in “How to make Gold,” Prof. Hendrik Schatz, Michigan State Univ. http://www.nscl.msu.edu/files/Schatz03.ppt
  • 15. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 15 Region of neutron-catalyzed transmutation pathways discussed herein Green nuclear process typically traverses rows of the Periodic Table LENRs access vast areas of isotopic landscape In this presentation, we will be discussing a theoretical LENR neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic network (yellow arrow) that begins in the region of Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W) seeds, produces stable Gold (79Au197) and can extend to higher-Z elements as far as Lead (Pb) and Bismuth (83Bi209) May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 15
  • 16. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 16 Neutron capture cross-sections: LENRs vs. stars Condensed matter LENR neutrons are at much lower energies vs. stars Measured neutron cross section of Boron (top curve is for 10B and bottom curve for 11B isotope) Example of ~1/v rule: neutron capture cross-section measured in barns vs. incident neutron energy in eV Quoting from Wikipedia article: “The absorption neutron cross- section of an isotope of a chemical element is the effective cross sectional area that an atom of that isotope presents to absorption, and is a measure of the probability of neutron capture. It is usually measured in barns (b).” “Absorption cross section is often highly dependent on neutron energy. Two of the most commonly specified measures are the cross-section for thermal neutron absorption, and resonance integral which considers the contribution of absorption peaks at certain neutron energies specific to a particular nuclide, usually above thermal range, but encountered as neutron moderation slows neutrons down from original high energies.” Comparative rates of neutron production fluxes:  Est. s-process ~105 to 1011 cm2/sec; r-process >1022 cm2/sec  Well-performing LENR systems range from ~109 to 1016 cm2/sec LENR neutrons at << lower energy so >> capture cross-sections: Neutrons produced by nuclear reactions in hot stellar plasmas usually have kinetic energies in the range of keVs to MeVs; neutrons made in condensed matter WLT collective many-body LENRs are typically produced at energies vastly below thermalized neutrons (which are themselves at energies of ~0.025 eV which corresponds to a temperature of ~290o Kelvin) Consequently, as a result of the so-called 1/v rule (see discussion and example at right) capture cross-sections for LENR neutrons in condensed matter systems will necessarily be much higher than what occurs in astrophysical s-/r-processes Unlike stars, photodissociation or photonuclear reactions by energetic gammas ranging from ~0.5 up to ~10.0 MeV that can knock-off loosely bound halo neutrons from unstable, extremely neutron-rich nuclei (thus hampering their quickly reaching higher values of A) are not much of an issue in condensed matter LENR transmutation networks, thanks to local gamma conversion a la WLT to infrared photons by heavy e-* electrons
  • 17. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 17 Neutron capture cross-sections: LENRs vs. stars Condensed matter LENR neutrons are at much lower energies vs. stars  Unlike energetic neutrons produced in most nuclear reactions, collectively produced LENR neutrons are effectively standing still at the moment of their creation in condensed matter. Since they are vastly below thermal energies (ultra low momentum), ULM neutrons have huge DeBroglie wavelengths (from nm to ~100 microns) and accordingly large capture cross-sections on nearby nuclei; most or all will be locally absorbed; few will be detectable as free neutrons traveling alone outside of nuclei  For the vast majority of stable and unstable isotopes, their neutron capture cross-section (relative to measurements of cross-sections at thermal energies where v = 2,200 m/sec and neutron DeBroglie wavelength is ~2 Angstroms) is proportional to ~1/v, where v is velocity of a neutron in m/sec. Since v is extraordinarily small for ULM neutrons, their capture cross- sections on atomic nuclei will therefore be correspondingly larger. After being collectively created, an enormous percentage of the ULMNs produced will be locally absorbed before scattering on nearby atoms can elevate them to thermal kinetic energies; per Prof. S. Lamoreaux (Yale) thermalization would require ~0.1 to 0.2 msec, i.e. 10-4 sec., a very long time on typical 10-12 - 10-19 sec. time-scale of many nuclear reactions Please note: ultra low momentum (ULM) neutrons have enormous absorption cross-sections on 1/v isotopes. For example, Lattice has estimated the ULMN fission capture cross-section on U-235 to be ~1 million barns (b) and on Pu-239 at 49,000 b, vs. ~586 b and ~752 b, respectively, for ‘typical’ neutrons at thermal energies A neutron capture expert recently estimated the ULMN capture cross- section on He-4 at ~20,000 b vs. a value of <1 b for thermal neutrons; this is a very large increase By comparison, the highest known thermal n capture cross section for any stable isotope is Gadolinium-157 at ~49,000 b The highest measured cross-section for any unstable isotope is Xenon-135 at ~2.7 million b Crucial technical point: ULMNs have many-body scattering, NOT 2-3 body scattering as, for example, in stellar plasmas or thermalized neutrons traveling through condensed matter
  • 18. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 18 Neutron capture cross-sections: LENRs vs. stars Isotopic landscape showing thermal neutron capture cross-sections Source: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/reColor.jsp?newColor=sigg Note: only small percentage of neutron capture cross-sections of the large array of possible isotopes have ever been measured in the laboratory at thermal energies In this presentation, we will be discussing a theoretical LENR neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic network that begins in the region of Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W) seeds, produces stable Gold (79Au197) and can extend to higher- Z elements as far as Lead (Pb) and Bismuth (83Bi209)
  • 19. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 19 LENR Gold production traverses 6th row of Periodic Table Begins w. stable W or Ta seeds and extends to Pb and Bismuth (83Bi209) Pathway of LENR network indicated by yellow arrow Platinum (Pt) and Gold (Au)
  • 20. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 20 74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Theoretical description of nucleosynthetic network for Gold  We will now examine a hypothetical LENR transmutation network that begins with neutron captures on Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W) seeds  Explanatory legend for network diagrams appears on the next PowerPoint slide  74W180-seed network produces Gold (Au) and Platinum (Pt); if sufficiently high neutron fluxes are maintained for enough time, it can reach Bismuth (Bi)  While unstable intermediate network products undergo nuclear decays, their half- lives are generally short (especially those that are much more neutron-rich); this LENR network does not produce copious, dangerous long-lived radioactive isotopes  According to the WLT, in condensed matter systems LENRs occur in many tiny nm- to micron-scale surface sites or patches that only survive for several hundred nanoseconds before they die; such tiny sites can form and re-form spontaneously  Must have enough input energy to make neutrons that catalyze LENR transmutations  In following sections, we will discuss compelling experimental evidence that this nucleosynthetic network in fact occurs both in the laboratory and out in Nature
  • 21. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 21 Neutron capture and nuclear decay processes: ULM neutron captures proceed from left to right except for upper-left corner; Q-value of capture reaction (MeV) in green either above or below horizontal arrow. Beta- (β-) decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted with bright blue vertical arrow pointing down with Q-value (MeV) in blue either to left or right; beta+ (β+) decays are denoted with yellow arrow pointing upward to row above Alpha decays, indicated with orange arrows, proceed mostly from right to left at an angle with Q-value (MeV) shown in orange located on either side of the process arrow. Electron captures (e.c.) indicated by purple vertical arrow; Q-value (MeV) to left or right. Note: to reduce visual clutter in the network diagram, gamma emissions (converted to infrared photons by heavy e-* electrons) are not shown; similarly, except where specifically listed because a given branch cross-section is significant, beta-delayed decays also generally not shown; BR means “branching ratio” if >1 decay alternative Color coded half-lives: When known, half-lives shown as “HL = xx”. Stable and quasi-stable isotopes (i.e., those with half-lives > or equal to 107 years) indicated by green boxes; isotopes with half-lives < 107 but > than or equal to 103 years indicated by light blue; those with half-lives < than 103 years but > or equal to 1 day are denoted by purplish boxes; half-lives of < 1 day in yellow; with regard to half-life, notation “? nm” means isotope has been verified by HL has not been measured Measured natural terrestrial abundances for stable isotopes: Indicated with % symbol; note that 83Bi209 = 100% (essentially ~stable with half-life = 1.9 x 1019 yrs); 82Pb-205 ~stable with HL= 1.5 x107 yrs; 74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Legend:
  • 22. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 22 Please note: once created, the process of capturing an LENR ULM neutron on a nearby atom occurs very quickly; on the order of picoseconds, i.e., 0.000000000001 sec., i.e., 10-12 sec, which is much faster than any of the various nuclear decays found in this particular LENR network. Moreover, in case of condensed matter LENRs, while their neutron production rates are probably significantly lower than the r-process, LENR neutron capture cross-sections are vastly higher than those in stellar environments; on balance it’s essentially ‘a wash’, so LENRs can effectively mimic the r-process. Thus, isotopes in LENRs can potentially capture additional neutrons (i.e., become more neutron-rich isotopes of the same element) before beta decay transmutes them into other higher-Z elements found in the Periodic Table. This is why the hot astrophysical r-process can make heavier elements than hot s-process (i.e., go beyond Bismuth): with much higher produced neutron fluxes, the r-process can successfully traverse and bridge key regions of very short-lived isotopes that are found in ultra-neutron-rich, high-Z reaches of vast nuclear isotopic landscape Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 75Re-185 Stable 37.4% 75Re-186 HL = 3.7 days 76Os-186 Stable 1.58% 6.2 6.3 IncreasingvaluesofZ 73Ta-181 Stable 99.9+% 73Ta-182 HL = 114 days 73Ta-184 HL = 8.6 hrs 73Ta-185 HL = 49.3 min 7.46.9 5.6 74W-180 Stable 0.12% 74W-182 Stable 26.5% 74W-183 Stable 14.3 % 74W-184 Stable 30.6% 74W-185 HL = 75.1 days 8.1 6.2 5.8 73Ta-183 HL = 5.1 days 74W-186 Stable 28.4% Increasing values of A 6.1 6.7 7.4 7.2 5.5 7.4 1.8 1.1 2.9 2.0 5.4 73Ta-186 HL = 10.5 min 3.9 6.2 433 keV 1.1 BR 92.5% 7.2 74W-181 HL = 121 days ε 188 keV BR = 100% ε 579 keV BR = 7.5% 74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network Alternatively, one could start with 73Ta181 seed Tungsten It should also be noted that all of the many atoms located within a 3-D region of space that encompasses a given ULM neutron’s spatially extended DeBroglie wave function (whose dimensions can range from 2 nm to 100 microns) will compete with each other to capture such neutrons. ULM neutron capture is thus a decidedly many-body scattering process, not few- body scattering such as that which characterizes capture of neutrons at thermal energies in condensed matter in which the DeBroglie wave function of a thermal neutron is on the order of ~ 2 Angstroms. This explains why vast majority of produced neutrons are captured locally and are only rarely detected at any energies during course of LENR experiments; it also clearly explains why human-lethal MeV-energy neutron fluxes are characteristically not produced in condensed matter LENR systems
  • 23. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 23 75Re-188 HL = 17 hrs 76Os-188 Stable 13.3% 6.8 5.9 74W-187 HL = 23.7 hrs 75Re-187 ~Stable 1010 yrs ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Ta Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products coming from lower values of A 75Re-190 HL = 3.2 min 75Re-189 HL = 1 day 76Os-189 Stable 16.1% 76Os-191 HL = 15.4 days 76Os-190 Stable 26.4% 76Os-192 ~Stable 41.0% 76Os-193 HL = 1.3 days 76Os-194 HL = 6.0 yrs 77Ir-191 Stable 37.3% 77Ir-193 Stable 62.7% 77Ir-194 HL = 19.3 hrs 78Pt-192 Stable 0.79% 78Pt-193 HL = 51 yrs 78Pt-194 Stable 32.9% 4.9 7.0 5.7 6.9 8.0 6.2 6.3 8.4 6.1 1.8 1.6 Increasing values of A IncreasingvaluesofZ Network may potentially continue ‘upward’ to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 73Ta-187 HL = 1.7 min 75Re-192 HL = 16 sec 75Re-193 HL = 30 sec 75Re-194 H L = 2 sec 74W-190 HL = 30 min 74W-191 HL = 20 sec 6.3 5.5 6.2 7.4 5.1 74W-189 HL = 11.6 min 74W-188 HL = 69.8 days 76Os-187 Stable 1.6% 75Re-191 HL = 9.8 min ULM Neutron Capture Ends on W ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Re 3.1 6.9 4.9 5.4 6.7 5.3 7.85.9 5.8 7.6 5.6 7.1 5.3 7.8 6.1 1.5 BR 95.1% 1.0 3.1 2.1 4.2 3.1 313 keV BR 100% 2..1 73Ta-189 HL = 3 sec 73Ta-190 HL= 3 x 102 msec 73Ta-188 HL = 20 sec 4.9 3.7 5.6 74W-192 HL = 10 sec ε 1..1 BR = 4.9% 77Ir-192 HL = 73.8 days 1.1 ε 57 keV BR = 100% 74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network 1.3 349 keV 2.5 1.3 3.2 2.1 4.9 97 keV 2.2 7.2 6.1 4.9 6.7 As shown in these network charts, more neutron-rich, unstable beta-decaying isotopes tend to have more energetic decays and shorter half-lives. Electric current-driven LENR ULM neutron production and capture processes can occur at much faster rates than decay rates of beta-/e.c.-unstable isotopes in this network. Thus, if local ULM neutron production rates in a patch are high enough, large differences in rates of beta decay vs. neutron capture processes allows largish populations of unstable, very neutron-rich isotopes to accumulate locally during ~300 nanosec lifetime of an LENR-active patch, prior to its being destroyed
  • 24. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 24 76Os-196 HL = 34.8 min 77Ir-196 HL = 52 sec 78Pt-196 Stable 25.3% 6.776Os-195 HL = 6.5 min 77Ir-195 HL = 2.5 hrs Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products coming from lower values of A 77Ir-199 HL = 20 sec 77Ir-198 HL = 8 sec 78Pt-197 HL = 19.9 hrs 78Pt-199 HL = 30.8 min 78Pt-198 Stable 7.2% 78Pt-200 HL = 13 hrs 79Au-197 Stable 100% 79Au-199 HL = 3.1 days 79Au-200 HL = 48 min 79Au-201 HL = 27 min 5.8 6.9 5.6 6.9 5.9 7.6 5.6 7.3 5.2 6.9 6.5 7.6 6.3 7.2 6.1 6.8 2.0 1.3 0.6 1.7 666 keV 2.7 1.8 Increasing values of A IncreasingvaluesofZ Network may potentially continue ‘upward’ to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 78Pt-195 Stable 33.8% ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Ir 5.3 7.2 6.1 78Pt-202 HL = 1.9 days 79Au-202 HL = 28.8 sec ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Os 80Hg-198 Stable 9.8% 80Hg-199 Stable 16.9% 80Hg-201 Stable 13.2% 80Hg-200 Stable 23.1% 80Hg-202 Stable 29.9% 79Au-198 HL = 2.7 days 78Pt-201 HL = 2.5 min 1.4 452 keV 719 keV 1.32.2 3.0 77Ir-197 HL = 5.8 min 2.2 4.1 3.0 1.2 1.1 3.2 6.7 8.0 6.2 7.8 6.0 7.9 ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Pt 74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network 80Hg-196 Stable 0.15% 80Hg-197 HL = 2.7 days ε 600 keV BR = 100% 6.8 8.5 Please note that: Q-value for neutron capture on a given beta-unstable isotope is often larger than the Q-value for the alternative β- decay pathway, so in addition to being a faster process than beta decay it can also be energetically more favorable. This can also contribute to creating fleeting yet substantial local populations of short-lived, neutron-rich isotopes. There is indirect experimental evidence that such neutron-rich isotopes can be produced in complex ULM neutron-catalyzed LENR nucleosynthetic (transmutation) networks that set-up and operate during brief lifetime of an LENR-active patch; see Carbon-seed network on Slides # 11 - 12 and esp. on Slide #55 in http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llctechnical-overviewcarbon-seed-lenr-networkssept-3-2009
  • 25. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 25 79Au-204 HL = 39.8 sec 80Hg-204 Stable 6.9% 81Tl-204 HL=3.8 yrs 82Pb-204 Stable 1.4% 5.7 7.5 81Tl-203 Stable 29.5% Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products coming from lower values of A 80Hg-206 HL = 8.2 min 80Hg-205 HL = 5.2 min 80Hg-207 HL = 2.8 min 81Tl-205 Stable 70.5% 81Tl-207 HL = 4.8 min 81Tl-206 HL = 4.2 min 81Tl-208 HL = 3.1 min 81Tl-209 HL = 2.2 min 81Tl-210 HL = 1.3 min 82Pb-205 HL= 1.5 x 107 yrs 82Pb-207 Stable 22.1% 82Pb-206 Stable 24.1% 82Pb-208 Stable 52.4% 83Bi-209 ~Stable 100% 2.1 5.7 6.7 3.3 6.7 7.6 6.5 6.9 3.8 5.0 3.7 6.7 8.1 6.7 7.4 3.9 5.2 3.8 4.6 5.1 1.3 644 keV Increasing values of A IncreasingvaluesofZ Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 80Hg-208 HL = 42 min ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Au ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Hg 6.8 6.0 80Hg-203 HL= 46.6 days 82Pb-209 HL = 3.3 hrs 82Pb-210 HL= 22.2 yrs 6.1 79Au-205 HL = 31 sec 80Hg-209 HL = 37 sec 80Hg-210 HL = 10 min 492 keV 344 keV BR 2.9% ε 344 keV BR = 97.1% 79Au-203 HL= 53 sec 4.9 ε 51 keV BR = 100% 63 keV BR 99.9% 1.41.5 5.0 4.0 5.5 3.9 3.5 84Po-210 HL= 138 days 83Bi-210 HL= 5 days 1.2 BR 99.9% 1.5 1.3 4.8 3.7 5.3 4.1 74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network 4.9 3.3 4.8 Beginning with so-called seed or target starting nuclei upon which ULM neutron captures are initiated, complex, very dynamically changing LENR nucleosynthetic networks are established in tiny LENR-active patches. These ULM neutron-catalyzed LENR networks exist for lifetimes of the particular patches in which they were created; except for any still-decaying transmutation products that may linger, such networks typically die along with the LENR-active patch that originally gave birth to them. Seed nuclei for such networks can comprise any atoms in a substrate underlying an LENR- active patch and/or include atoms located nearby in various types of surface nanoparticles or nanostructures that are electromagnetically connected to a patch
  • 26. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 26 Experimental data supports existence of 74W180-seed network  From early 1900s through the late 1920s there were significant numbers of credible reports that were published in preeminent, international peer-reviewed journals that claimed to have observed clear-cut transmutation of elements in a variety of different experimental systems  This body of experimental work and publications involved some of the most famous scientists of that era; was accompanied by a spirited professional debate in major scientific journals about what was then a new subject of transmutations; quantum mechanics and atomic physics were also aborning in wake of Einstein’s three seminal papers in 1905  No theory was then available that could explain these enigmatic results; huge worldwide controversy swirled around later experiments of Paneth & Peters (Germany), "The Transmutation of Hydrogen into Helium,” Nature 119 pp. 706 - 707 (1927 - which in hindsight and with benefit of WLT was probably correct work) and Miethe & Stammreich (Germany), “The reported transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” Nature 114 pp. 197 - 198 (1924 - their data was irreproducible and very likely wrong) which apparently cast doubt on all such work. Oddly, majority of this work appears to have died-out before Chadwick discovered neutron in 1932  After selectively reviewing some of these early reports, we will further discuss published data from modern era which also strongly indicates that 74W180-seed network occurs both in the laboratory and in Nature Reports of transmutations published episodically since early 1900s “Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer” Michael White Helix Books (Perseus Books Group), 1999 ISBN-10: 0738 0143X; ISBN-13: 978- 09738201436 (paperback) 402 pp. Newton: one of the last great alchemists
  • 27. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 27 Electric arc transmutations reported from 1900s - 1922 Famous British scientists in early 1900s; then Wendt & Irion (USA 1922)  Early 1900s: from about 1905 - 1927 some of the most famous people in British science (J.J. Thomson, Ramsay, etc.) published a number of experimental reports in premier refereed journals, e.g., Nature, Proceedings of the Royal Society that, when viewed through the lens of WLT clearly described LENR transmutation products that were observed spectroscopically during electrical discharge experiments, e.g., high-current arcs in various gases  1922: Wendt & Irion, two chemists at the University of Chicago, reported results of experiments consisting of exploding tungsten wires with a high-current electric arc under a vacuum inside of flexible sealed glass “bulbs”. Controversy erupted when they claimed to observe anomalous helium inside sealed bulbs after the tungsten wires were exploded, suggesting that transmutation of hydrogen into helium had somehow occurred during the "disintegration of tungsten." Their article in Amer. Chem. Soc. 44 (1922) triggered a response from the scientific establishment in the form of a negative critique of Wendt and Irion's work by Sir Ernest Rutherford that promptly published in Nature 109 pp. 418 (1922). We have since determined that Rutherford was wrong – see our preprint Please see: J. J. Thomson (who discovered the electron in 1897), “On the appearance of Helium and Neon in vacuum tubes,” where he says, “At the last meeting of the Chemical society, William Ramsay … describes some experiments which they regard as proving the transmutation of other elements into Helium and Neon …” Nature 90 pp. 645 - 647 1913 Quoting: "The energy produced by breaking down the atom is a very poor kind of thing. Anyone who expects a source of power from the transformations of these atoms is talking moonshine.“ --- Ernest Rutherford, 1933 More recently, see our 2007 arXiv preprint: “Energetic electrons and nuclear transmutations in exploding wires” in which we state that, “It is presently clear that nuclear transmutations can occur under a much wider range of physical conditions than was heretofore thought possible.” arXiv:nucl-th/0709.1222 Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen 2007
  • 28. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 28 Electric arc transmutations widely discussed in 1922-23 Wendt & Irion (U. of Chicago) and Millikan (U. of C. and Caltech - USA)  1922 - 1923: after reporting on their experiments at regional American Chemical Society meeting at Northwestern Univ. (Evanston, IL), widespread global media coverage quickly spread and erupted in the form of scores of breathless newspaper headlines about “transmutations of elements"  These sensational newspaper stories prompted a critical response from Rutherford that was promptly published in Nature. Being a giant of physics, Ernest Rutherford handily won the contemporary debate over their controversial experimental results: he was believed. Wendt & Irion, mere chemists and comparative nobodies from the University of Chicago, were not. After 1923, Wendt and Irion abandoned their exploding wire experiments and turned to other lines of research. Sadly, Wendt died a few years later; Irion left U. of C to teach chemistry at Iowa college; further work on exploding wires was more-or-less moribund in USA for 20 years thereafter Please see original publications from 1922 as follows: (1.) Wendt & Irion's seminal paper, "Experimental Attempts to Decompose Tungsten at High Temperatures," from the American Chemical Society 44 (1922) (2.) Rutherford's critical comments about their work in Nature 109 pp. 418 (1922) - also reprinted with permission in Science (3.) Wendt's subsequent response to Rutherford in Science 55 pp. 567 (1922) For readers’ convenience, all three original documents have been combined into a single Adobe Acrobat file that can be downloaded free from the following URL: http://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/ library/1900s/1922Wendt-Irion.pdf
  • 29. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 29 Electric arc transmutations widely discussed in 1922-23 Wendt & Irion (U. of Chicago) and Millikan (U. of C. and Caltech - USA)  1923: note that transmutations were not considered fringe science during the 1920s. Au contraire, there was a lively back-and-forth global debate on the subject involving the preeminent scientists of that era. For example, in a Scribner’s magazine article published in 1923, Prof. Robert Millikan (U. of Chicago, Nobel prize in physics, 1923) said, “As early as 1912, Dr. Winchester and I thought we had good evidence that we were knocking hydrogen out of aluminum and other metals by very powerful electric discharges in vacuo … How much farther can we go in this artificial transmutation of elements? This is one of the supremely interesting problems of modern physics upon which we are all assiduously working.” (at that point Millikan was setting- up a high voltage laboratory at Caltech to test those ideas)  Inexplicably, intense debate about triggering transmutations ended quietly without any resolution before the neutron's existence was verified experimentally by Chadwick (1932) 1927: see work by one of Millikan’s graduate students: “The Transmutation of Elements” Lars Thomassen Ph.D. Thesis, Caltech August 1927 [22 pages] http://thesis.library.caltech.edu/843 /1/Thomassen_l_1927.pdf Shorter version of Thomassen’s thesis was eventually published as a peer-reviewed journal paper: “Transmutation of Elements” L. Thomassen Physical Review 33 pp. 229 - 238 (1929)
  • 30. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 30 “The [high-current electric arc] experimental procedure here sketched cannot be looked upon as the only one for effecting transmutation [of other elements into Gold]; probably different processes will be developed and finally lead to industrial enterprises … Experiments with various elements may lead to different transmutations, which will be of significance to science and industry. Meagre as is the result, I wish to invite the attention of those interested in the subject so that they may repeat the experiment with more powerful means than are available in the Far East.” Prof. Hantaro Nagaoka in “Letters to the Editor,” Nature, July 18, 1925 Production of Gold in electric arcs reported from 1924-26 Prof. Hantaro Nagaoka, famous Japanese physicist (1865 - 1950) A brilliant, visionary man far ahead of his own time
  • 31. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 31 Production of Gold in electric arcs reported from 1924-26 Electric discharge with Hg in transformer oil: Nagaoka (Japan)  Unlike, the comparatively unknown Wendt & Irion team at Univ. of Chicago, Nagaoka was a world-renowned physicist and one of the most preeminent scientists in Japan when he began his high- current discharge transmutation experiments in September 1924 For a sense of Hantaro’s high scientific stature, please see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hantaro_Nagaoka  Nagaoka was contemporary competitor of Ernest Rutherford; Hantaro’s “Saturn model” of the atom was only competing model cited by Rutherford in his seminal 1911 paper on atomic nuclei  Given the very international character of science even at that time, it is reasonable to presume that Prof. Nagaoka was aware of worldwide controversy swirling around Wendt & Irion’s exploding wire experiments and of Rutherford's short but extremely devastating critical attack on them that was published in Nature  Very likely that Hantaro was well-aware of Robert Millikan’s very favorable opinions on subject of triggering transmutations with electric arcs (BTW Millikan had just won a Nobel prize in physics)  Nagaoka also probably knew about Miethe & Stammreich’s work in Germany; they claimed to have changed Mercury into Gold in a high-voltage Mercury vapor lamp, “The reported transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” Nature 114 pp. 197 - 198 (1924) Please see: “Preliminary note on the transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” H. Nagaoka, Nature 116 pp. 95 -96 (18 July 1925) Available for purchase on Nature archives at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v116/n2907/abs/1 16095a0.html Abstract: "The experiment on the transmutation of mercury was begun in September 1924, with the assistance of Messrs. Y. Sugiura, T. Asada and T. Machida. The main object was to ascertain if the view which we expressed in NATURE of March 29, 1924, can be realised by applying an intense electric field to mercury atoms. Another object was to find if the radio-active changes can be accelerated by artificial means. From the outset it was clear that a field of many million volts/cm. is necessary for the purpose. From our observation on the Stark effect in arcs of different metals (Jap. Journ. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 45–73) we found that with silver globules the field in a narrow space very near the metal was nearly 2 à -105 volts/cm. with terminal voltage of about 140. The presence of such an intense field indicated the possibility of obtaining the desired strength of the field for transmutation, if sufficient terminal voltage be applied. Though the above ratio of magnification would be diminished with high voltage, the experiment was thought worth trying, even if we could not effect the transmutation with the apparatus at hand."
  • 32. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 32 Production of Gold in electric arcs reported from 1924-26 Electric discharge with Hg in transformer oil: Nagaoka (Japan) Essence of Prof. Nagaoka’s brilliant experiments:  In simplest terms, Prof. Nagaoka created a powerful electric arc discharge between a spark gap comprising two metallic, Thorium-oxide-free Tungsten (W) electrodes (supplied by Tokyo Electric Company) bathed in a dielectric liquid “paraffin” (today referred to as “transformer oil” with general formula CnH2n+2) that was ‘laced’ with liquid Mercury (Hg)  Depending on experiment, arcing between Tungsten electrodes in oil was continued for 4 - 15 hours until, quoting, “ … the oil and mercury were mixed into a black pasty mass.” Please note that Mercury readily forms amalgams with many different metals, including Gold (Au) and Tungsten (W)  Small flecks of Gold were sometimes quite visible to the naked eye in “black masses” produced at the end of a given experiment. They also noted that, “The Gold obtained from Mercury seems to be mostly adsorbed to Carbon.”  Microscopic assays were conducted by “heating small pieces of glass with the Carbon,” to form a so-called “Ruby glass” that can be used to infer the presence of gold colloids from visual cues very apparent under a microscope  Critics complained about the possibility that the Gold observed was some sort of “contamination.” Responding to critics, Nagaoka et al. further purified literally everything they could think of and also made certain that the lab environs were squeaky clean; they still kept seeing anomalous Gold. In some experiments they also observed, “a minute quantity of white metal.” Two years later in 1926, Nagaoka reported to Scientific American that they had finally been able to identify the mystery “white metal” --- it was Platinum (Pt) Fig. 1 – Apparatus for the electric discharge H. Nagaoka, Nature July 18, 1925
  • 33. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 33 Production of Gold in electric arcs reported from 1924-26 Electric discharge with Hg in transformer oil: Nagaoka (Japan) Per WLT 74W180 LENR network , what sequence of nuclear reactions could have produced Platinum and Gold?  All of the ingredients for LENRs to occur were in fact present (please refer back to earlier Slides): hydride-forming metal found therein was Tungsten (sadly, Nagaoka was unaware that Mercury was more-or-less a “red herring”); which was in contact with abundant Hydrogen (protons) in transformer oil (CnH2n+2); the Born-Oppenheimer approximation broke-down on surfaces of electrodes; and finally, there were large non-equilibrium fluxes of charged particles --- electrons in the high- current arc discharges. Unbeknownst to Nagaoka, his high-current arcs probably also produced small amounts of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and perhaps even a little graphene. ULM neutron production rates via W-L weak interaction could have been quite substantial in his high-electric-current-driven experimental system because of large energy inputs  What could have happened in Nagaoka’s experiments was that Tungsten-seed, ULM neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic networks spontaneously formed. What follows is but one example of an energetically favorable network pathway that could produce detectable amounts of the only stable Gold isotope, 197Au, within ~4 hours (shortest arc discharge period after which Au was observed). Other alternative viable LENR pathways can produce unstable Gold isotopes, e.g., 198Au with half- life = 2.7 days and 199Au with HL = 3.1 days (both would be around for a time at end of a successful experiment)  One possible 74W180-seed LENR network pathway that could produce Pt/Au in as little elapsed time as 4-5 hrs is as follows: 74W-186 Stable 28.4% 76Os-192 Stable 41% 79Au-197 Stable 100% 74W-187 HL = 23.7 hrs 76Os-193 HL = 1.3 days 74W-188 HL = 69.8 days 76Os-194 HL = 6.0 yrs 74W-189 HL = 11.6 min 76Os-195 HL = 6.5 min 74W-190 HL = 30 min 77Ir-195 HL = 2.5 hrs 74W-191 HL = 20 sec 77Ir-196 HL = 52 sec 74W-192 HL = 10 sec 78Pt-196 Stable 25.3% 75Re-192 HL = 16 sec 78Pt-197 HL = 19.9 hrs 5.6 7.1 5.3 2.0 5.8 β- 4.2 4.2 0.7 0.7 5.5 6.8 4.9 6.9 4.9 6.6 2.1 3.2 5.9 End at Gold Note: stable elements (incl. % natural abundance) and half-lives of unstable isotopes are shown; green arrows connecting boxes denote capture of an LENR neutron; blue connecting arrows denote beta decays; energetic Q- values for neutron captures or beta decays are also provided; note that ALL Q-values are substantially positive, thus this particular nucleosynthetic pathway is very energetically favorable for producing Platinum and Gold 3.22.0 β- β-β- β- β- β- Begin
  • 34. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 34 Re other possibly anomalous sources of Gold: G. Dongarra, D. Varrica, and G. Sabatino, “Occurrence of Platinum, Palladium, and Gold in pine needles of Pinus pinea from the city of Palermo (Italy),” Applied Geochemistry 18 pp. 109-116 (2003) Quoting: “Preliminary data on the presence of Pt, Pd and Au in airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Palermo (Sicily, Italy) are presented. They were obtained by analysing 40 samples of pine needles (Pinus pinea L.) collected in and around the city. Observed concentrations range from 1 to 102 μg/kg for Pt, 1 to 45 μg/kg for Pd and 22 to 776 μg/kg for Au. Platinum and Pd concentrations in pine needles are up to two orders of magnitude higher than their crustal abundances. They exhibit a high statistical correlation (R2=0.74) which suggests a common origin.” “Precious metal concentrations measured within the city centre are much higher than those occurring outside the town. The distribution patterns of Pt and Pd in the study area are compared to the distributions of Au and Pb. Gold is enriched at the same sites where Pt and Pd are enriched, while Pb shows some discrepancies. The most probable local source of all of these elements is traffic. Average Pt and Pd emissions in the city area are estimated to be about 136 and 273 g/a, respectively.” Discussed in Lattice presentation found at URL: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy- llc-len-rs-in-catalytic-convertersjune-25-2010 Nagaoka’s reported results may have been right , i.e., Au and Pt were produced:  Plausible LENR nucleosynthetic pathway shown in the previous Slide suggests that Nagaoka et al.’s claimed observations of macroscopically visible particles of Gold in their ca. 1920s electric arc experiments in transformer oil could very well have been correct  Note that stable Gold can also be produced via neutron capture on stable 80Hg196 which creates unstable 80Hg197 that has a half-life of 2.7 days and decays via electron capture into stable 79Au197. However, natural abundance (0.15%) of 80Hg19 initially present in Nagaoka's 1920s experiments was so low that this alternative pathway cannot plausibly account for observed production of macroscopically visible quantities of Au and Pt flecks  It is puzzling why this seemingly fruitful line of inquiry appears to have died-out worldwide by the time Chadwick experimentally verified the neutron’s existence in 1932? Oddly, it does not appear that anyone else ever tried to exactly duplicate Nagaoka’s experiments. However, there were well-publicized failures to replicate Miethe & Stammreich’s Gold experiments that were extensively chronicled in Scientific American. Interestingly, Miethe’s experimental apparatus consisted of Mercury arc lamps with Tungsten electrodes inside evacuated quartz tubes; no transformer oil was present in those arcs. Perhaps Nagaoka’s decision to use oil was exceedingly fortuitous: by doing so, he inadvertently guaranteed that his apparatus contained enormous quantities of hydrogen for making ULM neutrons  Please take note of the quotation from Prof. Nagaoka reproduced on earlier Slide #28. In saying what he said, Hantaro clearly believed that some sort of commercial transmutation technology would eventually be developed at some point in the future. Thus, in our opinion not only was he a humble, brilliant scientist; he was also a rather bold visionary thinker --- truly a man far ahead of his own time  Interestingly, in the present era it is certainly possible that minute quantities of Gold are actually being produced in automobile catalytic converters via the transmutation of some Platinum present in the converters: at right, please see citation to a 2003 paper in Applied Geochemistry and URL to yet another Lattice SlideShare presentation dated June 25, 2010 Production of Gold in electric arcs reported from 1924-26 Final remarks re Nagaoka; today, Au is emitted from catalytic converters
  • 35. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 35 Cirillo & Iorio also produced Gold from Tungsten ca. 2004 Modern Italian work is ~theoretically equivalent to Nagaoka’s Electric discharge with 74W180-186 cathode in alkaline H2O instead of CnH2n+2 + Hg  Unaware of Nagaoka’s much earlier work, ca. 2003 - 2004 D. Cirillo and E. Iorio in Italy inadvertently designed and constructed an LENR experimental system involving electric discharges and Tungsten electrodes that, from a WLT perspective, was ~theoretically equivalent to Nagaoka’s 1920s experimental set-up; they subsequently observed and reported transmutation products that were consistent with Nagaoka's results reported in Nature and operation of the 74W180-seed transmutation network that is described herein  Cirillo & Iorio’s modern set-up utilized an “aqueous electrolyte plasma glow-discharge cell”  From an abstract broad-brush theoretical viewpoint, main differences between their new experimental system and Nagaoka’s set-up of 80 years earlier was that: (1) in Cirillo & Iorio’s experiments the protons needed to produce LENR neutrons came from hydrogen atoms in water (H2O) instead of in transformer oil (CnH2n+2); and (2) no Mercury (Hg) was initially present in their system, so 80Hg196 + n → 80Hg197 → 79Au197 electron-capture reaction can clearly be excluded as potential source of surface Gold they observed with SEM-EDX  In a section following this one, we will speculatively discuss intriguing experimental evidence that certain bacteria could be involved with 74W180-seed network out in Nature
  • 36. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 36 Cirillo & Iorio also produced Gold from Tungsten ca. 2004 Schematic overview of Cirillo & Iorio’s LENR experimental apparatus Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 Comment re their experimental data: Unbeknownst to the experimenters, they may have had either Barium (Ba) titanate and/or Dysprosium (Dy) as component(s) in the composition of the dielectric ceramic sleeve that was partially covering the cathode immersed in the electrolyte; Ba and/or Dy are commonly present in such ceramics. Under the stated experimental conditions, Ba and Dy could easily leach-out from the surface of the ceramic into the electrolyte, creating yet another target element that could migrate onto the surface of their Tungsten (W) cathode. Since none of the potential intermediate transmutation products such as Nd (Neodymium), Sm (Samarium), and Gd (Gadolinium) were observed, it is possible that there may have been LENR ULM neutron captures starting with Dy → Er (Erbium) → Tm (Thulium) → Yb (Ytterbium), LENR transmutation products that were also observed in these experiments Ceramic sleeve (bright blue) Ceramic sleeve (bright green) _ + Comment: this LENR experiment involves formation of a dense plasma in a double- layer confined to the surface of Tungsten (W) cathode (-) by a liquid electrolyte
  • 37. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 37 Cirillo & Iorio also produced Gold from Tungsten ca. 2004 Used SEM-EDX to detect intermediate products of 74W180-seed network  Quoting: “… electrodes are cylindrical rods with a diameter of 2.45 mm, and a length of 17.5 cm … both are made of pure Tungsten [W] …cathode is partially covered with a ceramic sleeve, which allows … control [of] the dimensions of … exposed cathode surface submerged in … solution.”  In their experiments, Rhenium (Re), Osmium (Os), and Gold (Au) were observed post-experimentally as nuclear transmutation products on the Tungsten (W) cathode surface; other LENR transmutation products were also observed (please see our Comment on previous Slide)  According to WLT, operation of the 74W180-seed LENR transmutation network could in theory produce a Gold nucleosynthetic pathway of W → Re → Os → Ir → Pt → Au  As predicted by WLT: Cirillo & Iorio observed production of Re, Os, and Au in a series of modern experiments  Theoretically similar to Nagaoka’s experiments in 1920s: LENR transmutation products that were observed can be explained with Widom-Larsen theory neutron captures and beta- decays beginning using Tungsten (W) as a seed Paper (conference presentation; not peer-reviewed): D. Cirillo and V. Iorio, “Transmutation of metal at low energy in a confined plasma in water" on pp. 492-504 in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science – Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion, J-P. Biberian, ed., World Scientific (2006) Free copy of paper available at: http://www.lenr- canr.org/acrobat/CirilloDtransmutat.pdf Abstract: "Energetic emissions have been observed from an electrolytic cell when tungsten [W] electrodes are used to generate a confined plasma close to the cathode immersed an alkaline solution. In addition, energy generation has been observed, always close to the cathode, along with the appearance of new chemical elements in the experimental apparatus. These elements were not present in the cell before the experiment. This observation is proof of nuclear transmutations occurring within the cell. The results of this research and a theoretical model of the phenomenon were shown for the first time on April 18, 2004 during the second Grottammare (Ap) ONNE meeting in Italy.”
  • 38. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 38 Cirillo & Iorio also produced Gold from Tungsten ca. 2004 Used SEM-EDX to detect intermediate products of 74W180-seed network Rhenium (Re) Osmium (Os) Gold (Au) and Thulium (Tm) See comment on earlier Slide re Thulium Osmium detected - Fig. 13. Analysis conducted with an SEM-EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. of plasma discharge - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Rhenium detected - Fig. 12. Analysis conducted with an SEM –EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. of plasma - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Gold and Thulium detected - Fig. 14. Analysis conducted with an SEM-EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. plasma discharge - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Fig. 10 - Tungsten thermionic emission (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Fig. 11 – View of the plasma heat transfer mechanism (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Fig. 9 – Tungsten fusion area [after 4,000 sec.] (Cirillo &Iorio, 2006)
  • 39. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 39 New 2010-11 experiments and reports by Cirillo et al. Same experimental set-up: first-ever indirect detection of ULM neutrons “Experimental evidence of a neutron flux generation in a plasma discharge electrolytic cell” D. Cirillo, R. Germano, V. Tontodonato, A. Widom, Y.N. Srivastava, E. Del Giudice, and G. Vitiello Key Engineering Materials 495 pp. 104 - 107 (2012) doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.495.104 ($US28 if purchased online) http://www.scientific.net/KEM.495.104 Abstract: “A substantial neutron flux generated by plasma excitation at the tungsten cathode of an electrolytic cell with alkaline solution is reported. A method based on a CR-39 nuclear track detector coupled to a boron converter was used to detect the neutrons. This method is insensitive to the strong plasma-generated electromagnetic noise that made inconclusive all the previous attempts to identify neutrons in electrolytic plasma environment by means of electric detection techniques.” “Water plasma modes and nuclear transmutations on the metallic cathode of a plasma discharge electrolytic cell” D. Cirillo, E. Del Giudice, R. Germano, S. Sivasubrammanian, Y.N. Srivastava, V. Tontodonato, G. Vitiello and A. Widom Key Engineering Materials 495 pp. 124 - 128 (2012) doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.495.124 ($US28 if purchased online) http://www.scientific.net/KEM.495.124 Abstract: “In the conceptual framework of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) it has been proven that liquid water is made up of two phases: 1) a coherent phase where the electron cloud of water molecules oscillates in phase with a trapped electromagnetic field within extended regions, called Coherence Domains (CD); 2) a non coherent phase formed by a gas-like ensemble of molecules filling the interstices among the CD's. The constituent molecules of the coherent phase oscillate between their individual ground state and an excited state where one electron is so loosely bound to be considered quasi-free. Therefore the coherent phase contains a plasma of quasi-free electrons. In the bulk water, as in the case of superfluid liquid Helium, each molecule crosses over continuously between the two phases. On the contrary, close to the surface of a metallic cathode in a chemical cell , the attraction between molecules and wall stabilizes the coherent phases so that the layer of interfacial water is mainly coherent and capable of holding a negative electronic charge. When the chemical cell voltage exceeds a threshold, an interfacial water-cathode metal surface plasma mode is developed. From the collective energies continuously pumped into the plasma, the weak interaction e*- + p+ → n + νe may be induced which produces neutrons and neutrinos from Hydrogen atoms. The neutrons may then ultimately induce other nuclear transmutations on the cathode metal surface.”
  • 40. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 40 LENR networks occur in variety of different environments  Herein, in previous slides we have discussed an example of a 74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network that can start with Tungsten or Tantalum seeds and potentially produce stable or unstable Rhenium (Re), Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir), Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), Mercury (Hg), Thallium (Tl), Lead (Pb), and even Bismuth (Bi) isotopes as network products  Furthermore, in an array of different publications, Lattice has cited and discussed numerous examples of published experimental data that provides strong evidence that LENRs may be widespread in Nature, allowing dynamic nuclear transmutation processes to occur in many different types of macroscopically mild temp environments in addition to very hot cores of stars, nuclear weapons detonations, and fission reactors  Types of varied environments in which LENRs can potentially occur under exactly the right set of conditions include, among other things: electrolytic chemical cells; pyrolysis processes involving carbon-ring compounds; catalytic converters of cars and trucks; electric current-driven exploding wires; atmospheric lightning; in stellar atmospheres and magnetic flux tubes of stars; during catastrophic fracturing of crustal rocks containing piezoelectric minerals; and last but perhaps not least, maybe during the metabolic and biosynthetic activities of certain bacteria and some fungi Many isotopic anomalies have been reported; what is causing them?
  • 41. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 41 LENR networks occur in variety of different environments  Unlike fission and fusion reactions, naturally occurring LENR transmutation processes in condensed matter are biologically benign because they make extensive use of and are enabled by many-body collective effects, quantum phenomena, and the weak interaction. As a result, they typically do not emit dangerous hard MeV-energy gamma photon or neutron radiation, nor do they produce large amounts of long-lived radioactive isotopes. LENRs are clean, truly green, ubiquitous, and effectively hidden in plain sight; best way to detect results of such processes are various types of very sensitive mass spectroscopy  In a recent Lattice PowerPoint presentation (http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice- energy-llcnew-russian-data-supports-wlt-neutron-production-in-lightningapril-4-2012), on Slide #68 we stated that, “Recently, greatly increased use of various types of mass spectroscopy by geochemists, microbiologists, and environmental scientists has revealed that the longstanding assumption of effective natural uniformity of U238/U235 ratios across the earth is clearly erroneous; importantly, present-era abiological and/or biologically mediated processes appear to be responsible for such anomalous variances.” We concluded that key remaining questions were whether, “ ... anomalous variances in such isotopic ratios the result of purely “chemical fractionation” process(es) of some sort, and/or could they [alternatively] be caused by low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), either abiologically or somehow induced by the actions of bacteria through some yet to be clarified mechanism?” Additional research to answer such questions is obviously needed Absence of strong radiation signatures renders them unnoticeable
  • 42. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 42 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Large numbers of isotopic anomalies reported; what is causing them? Subset of effects now attributed to “chemical fractionation” might be LENRs Before proceeding further, let it be crystal clear to readers exactly what is and what is not being said herein:  We are not asserting that the longstanding chemical fractionation conceptual paradigm fails to adequately explain most reported isotope anomalies with respect to statistically significant deviations from so-called “natural” abundances --- indeed, it may well explain the vast majority of them correctly; we don’t claim otherwise  We are claiming that the presently available published literature does contain a significant subset comprising many cases in which the ‘pure’ chemical fractionation paradigm must be pushed very hard (which includes use of various ad hoc constructs) to explain reported isotopic data, i.e. it is being overly stretched to be able to comfortably accommodate certain anomalies  We are suggesting that in such instances, it may be fruitful for researchers to reexamine such data through the conceptual ‘lens’ of the WLT LENR paradigm to determine whether a new way of thinking about such data can help lead us to achieve a deeper, better understanding what may be causing it. In some cases, it may; in others it may not --- but we should try to do so anyway  In addition, our theoretical work and extensive review of a very large body of published, heretofore thought-to-be-disparate, experimental data suggest that profound changes in present thinking about nucleosynthetic processes may be necessary  In particular, it was recently established (PRL, 2012) that substantial fluxes of low-energy neutrons are produced in atmospheric lightning discharges; for a discussion see recent Lattice presentation at http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llcnew- russian-data-supports-wlt-neutron-production-in-lightningapril-4-2012 . This new experimental fact, in conjunction with some astronomers’ belief that lightning processes were probably occurring on a substantial scale in the presolar nebula (before accretion and condensation of planets), suggests that abiotic, neutron-catalyzed, non-stellar nucleosynthesis and transmutation of elements has been happening at unknown rates in the environs of the solar system for at least 3-4 billion years. Transmutations can thus occur abiotically in nebular and atmospheric gases, volcanic dust clouds, and on dust particles that are embedded in lightning channels  Preprint utilizing WLT was recently published (arXiv, 2011) that provides a rationale for abiotic production of LENR neutrons during catastrophic fracturing of mineral grains found in certain rocks; see A. Widom et al., “Neutron Production from the Fracture of Piezoelectric Rocks” at http://arxiv.org/pdf/1109.4911.pdf . Transmutations can thus occur at significant rates within the earth’s crust
  • 43. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 43 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Large numbers of isotopic anomalies reported; what is causing them? Subset of effects now attributed to “chemical fractionation” might be LENRs  Prior to publication of seminal work on bacterial transmutations in Russia (Vysotskii et al. 2003, 2008), prosaic explanations for many observed Fe and other isotope anomalies observed in many studies assumed that biological systems (mainly bacteria) are able to effectively “fractionate” heavier isotopes through various types of biochemical pathways that utilize purely chemical, non- nuclear mechanisms. Unfortunately, very specific, believable biophysical details of precisely how such processes are supposed to operate are lacking in our opinion, especially for significantly heavier elements, e.g., Iron (Fe) and beyond.  Lattice can readily accept that chemical kinetic processes in biological systems are able to discriminate between isotopes of comparatively light elements (e.g., hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and perhaps up to oxygen) and can somehow physically separate them from each other; that is, via purely chemical "fractionation." However, we have difficulty believing that ordinary, prosaic chemical processes alone are capable of easily and efficiently discriminating and significantly enriching various isotopes of substantially heavier elements, especially beyond the atomic masses of Fe isotopes and/or transition metals.  In particular, peer-reviewed papers have recently been published in which Geobacter sp. bacteria are seemingly observed to "fractionate" Uranium isotopes (Bopp et al., 2010). In such papers authors attempt to explain Uranium isotope changes with the so-called "nuclear field shift effect” and nuclear volume/shape effects (Bigeleisen, 1996). In our view, such explanations for isotopic data could potentially be erroneous in the case of Uranium and other heavy elements such as Mercury, for example.  Why? Because the reason giant high-speed gas centrifuges are used to "fractionate", i.e., enrich, uranium isotopes for use in nuclear weapons and fission reactor fuel is that unassisted wet chemical kinetic fractionation/separation processes by themselves have been found to be inadequate in terms of practical efficacy. The only other known-to-be practical method for sufficiently enriching Uranium isotopes employs powerful lasers and the same Uranium hexafluoride gas used in high-speed centrifuges. If the recently hypothesized chemical fractionation mechanisms truly worked as well on Uranium isotopes in non- gas-phase systems as their proponents claim, one would surely think that such effects would have been utilized long ago in one or more of the government nuclear weapons and/or commercial Uranium enrichment programs scattered around the world (e.g., Iran today). To our knowledge, during the past 60 years they have never been used for such a purpose anywhere. That well- established fact is the basis for our strong skepticism about “nuclear field” or “nuclear volume” shift effects being correct physical explanations for the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for creating observed changes in Uranium isotope ratios.
  • 44. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 44 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Large numbers of isotopic anomalies reported; what is causing them? Available evidence strongly suggests that abiotic LENRs occur on Earth Cannot assume all elements or isotopes in the Earth are nucleosynthetically pristine:  Clearly, when the earth accreted from materials present in the dusty, hydrogen-rich presolar nebula, it contained a complex mixture of elements/isotopes that had originally been created during much earlier episodes of stellar nucleosynthesis that had occurred well-before formation of the present solar system  We are asserting that non-stellar, abiotic WLT LENR transmutation processes have likely occurred in the solar system ever since its initial formation; products of later neutron- catalyzed LENR processes have thus been superimposed on what was initially present  Unfortunately, this inconvenient truth violates a longstanding assumption of astrophysicists, geophysicists, and geochemists that significant amounts of elemental nucleosynthesis have not occurred in earthly materials since planetary formation. This problem has caused serious issues with Uranium isotope data that are discussed here: “Terrestrial Uranium 238U/235U isotopic ratio is not invariant over time - Hiess et al. (Science, 2012) confirm failure of invariance assumption; propose corrected value for ratio” Lewis Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC, April12, 2012 [35 slides – not peer reviewed] http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llcnew-ata-on-terrestrial-uranium-238- u235u-ratios-confirm-not-invariantapril-12-2012
  • 45. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 45 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Large numbers of isotopic anomalies reported; what is causing them? Earthly abiotic LENRs likely occur; but what about biological LENRs? “Some bacteria appear capable of altering isotopic ratios of Uranium - Is it the result of prosaic chemical fractionation processes and/or LENRs?” L. Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC, December 7, 2010 [50-page 8.5 x 11 MS-Word document – not peer-reviewed] http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/bacteria-lenrsand-isotopic-shifts-in-uraniumlarsenlattice-energy- dec-7-2010-6177275 Summary: provides description of theoretical WLT LENR Actinide nucleosynthetic network and selected examples of published mainstream, peer-reviewed experimental data which report anomalous isotopic shifts clearly associated with the metabolic activities of bacteria --- some or all of the hypothesized network pathways are potentially present in soils, ocean sediments, dusty chemical explosions, volcanic eruptions, and extraterrestrial impact events Much more readable, uncompressed versions of Figs. 1 and 2 (found in the above-listed 2010 Document) that outline hypothesized LENR Actinide nucleosynthetic network are also available in a separate MS-PowerPoint presentation [4 slides] http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/thoriumseed-lenr-networkfigslattice-energydec-7-2010-6177745 Details of this exciting possibility are discussed in the following document:
  • 46. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 46 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Large numbers of isotopic anomalies reported; what is causing them? Speculation about the possibility of above LENR reactions  For the moment, let us set aside issue of deciding whether Tungsten → Gold → Mercury transmutation pathway occurs abiotically and/or biologically and simply ask a question: is there any data in the published literature which suggests that this particular LENR path is likely occurring somewhere out in Nature and, if so, how might one expect its effects to be physically manifested and detected analytically?  Potential types of such manifestations (list is meant to merely be illustrative, not exhaustive):  Close spatial association of any combinations of W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, and/or Pb in single deposit  W, Au, Os, Pt, Ir, or Hg-containing mineral deposits in which geochemical origin and/or mechanism for producing the observed degree of local enrichment of such metals are unclear or very anomalous  Mineral deposits exhibiting either unusual shifts in isotopes of above elements vs. recognized Standards or vs. “natural abundances,” and/or unusually high variability in measured isotopic ratios of W, Os, Pt or Hg on length scales of microns to tens of meters (vs. thousands of meters to >> kms)  Notable or unusual associations of bacteria with regard to being intimately involved with significant “enrichment” of esp. W, Au, and/or Hg metals or compounds and/or clear association of bacteria with shifted (“fractionated," especially so-called “mass-independent fractionation”) W or Hg isotopes  Many of these potential manifestations can be analyzed and measured with various types of mass spectroscopy; e.g., MC-ICP-MS, SIMS (incl. Cameca’s nanoSIMS), and neutron activation analysis
  • 47. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 47 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Large numbers of isotopic anomalies reported; what is causing them? Speculation about the possibility of above LENR reactions  Over the next several slides, we will provide a terse, sketchy outline of how land and undersea hydrothermal vent systems likely exhibit essentially all of the previously noted manifestations that one might expect if the speculative Tungsten → Gold → Mercury WLT LENR transmutation pathway were operating somewhere therein. Note that this presentation contains informed speculation that is intended to (and should) raise many more questions in readers’ minds than it answers  Not surprisingly, the goal of this section of the document is arouse the intellectual curiosity of subject matter experts in the possibility of utilizing our new WLT LENR conceptual paradigm to try to help answer some truly fascinating science questions  Please note that these speculations are not intended to be definitive but rather an initial exploratory foray into a little-known terra incognita; a roughly sketched explorers map intended to help stimulate technical discussion and spur new and deeper investigation into a myriad of isotopic measurements and very accurate measurements of mass balances; if elements aren’t rigorously conserved, then we are assuredly dealing with nuclear as well as chemical processes in such systems
  • 48. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 48 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Present-era and ancient fossil hydrothermal vent systems Temp/pressure regimes in such environments can support abiotic LENRs “Black smoker” undersea hydrothermal vent with chimney emitting clouds of material By some estimates, as much as one-third of the planet’s biomass - the sheer weight of all its living organisms - is buried beneath the ocean floor. Hydrothermal vent (source quoted is Wikipedia article): “A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots. Hydrothermal vents exist because the earth is both geologically active and has large amounts of water on its surface and within its crust. Common land types include hot springs, fumaroles and geysers. Under the sea, hydrothermal vents may form features called black smokers. Relative to the majority of the deep sea, the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents are biologically more productive, often hosting complex communities fueled by the chemicals dissolved in the vent fluids.” “Hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean typically form along the Mid-ocean ridges, such as the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These are locations where two tectonic plates are diverging and new crust is being formed ... In contrast to the approximately 2 °C ambient water temperature at these depths, water emerges from these vents at temperatures ranging from 60 °C up to as high as 464 °C. Due to the high hydrostatic pressure at these depths, water may exist in either its liquid form or as a supercritical fluid at such temperatures. At a pressure of 218 atmospheres, the critical point of (pure) water is 375 °C. At a depth of 3,000 meters, the hydrostatic pressure of sea water is more than 300 atmospheres (as salt water is denser than fresh water). At this depth and pressure, seawater becomes supercritical at a temperature of 407 °C. However the increase in salinity at this depth pushes the water closer to its critical point. Thus, water emerging from the hottest parts of some hydrothermal vents can be a supercritical fluid, possessing physical properties between those of a gas and those of a liquid. Besides being superheated, the water is also extremely acidic, often having a pH value as low as 2.8 - approx. … vinegar.”
  • 49. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 49 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Undersea hydrothermal vent systems - biogeochemical cycle diagram Temp/pressure regimes in such environments can support abiotic LENRs Credit: U.S. federal government work, public domain
  • 50. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 50 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Present-era and ancient fossil undersea hydrothermal vent systems Temps/pressures in such environments can support abiotic LENRs Detailed conceptual schematic of undersea hydrothermal vent with chimney By some estimates, as much as one-third of the planet’s biomass - the sheer weight of all its living organisms - is buried beneath the ocean floor. BTW (Wikipedia) – “A species of phototrophic bacterium has been found living near a black smoker off the coast of Mexico at a depth of 2500 m. No sunlight penetrates that far into the waters. Instead, the bacteria, part of the Chlorobiaceae family, use the faint glow from the black smoker [infrared IR photons ] for photosynthesis. This is the first organism discovered in Nature to exclusively use a light other than sunlight for photosynthesis.”  According to WLT and a very large body of experimental data accumulated for ~100 years, LENRs can occur at significant rates under macroscopically mild pressures and temperatures (don’t need to have hot stars or fission reactors)  For example, in published experiments Mizuno (2008) reported substantial LENR neutron capture products on Carbon seeds with Hydrogen and Pt catalyst at P/T of 37-60 atm @ 600-650o C; Curial et al. (Unocal, 1992) reported anomalous “disappearance” of Ni and V and isotopic shifts during aqueous pyrolysis of crude oil samples with Au catalyst at 104-111 atm @ 200-300o C; McKubre (1998) produced Helium-4 from Carbon seeds using Deuterium and Pd catalyst at 1-3 atm @ 170-250o C; lastly, over period of weeks Miley (1996) produced large array of LENR transmutation products from H2O and Nickel seeds in current-driven electrolytic chemical cell operated at 1 atm @ 20-30o C  Note that: in Nature, abiotic or biological LENR transmutation processes would most likely operate at significantly slower rates than what has been evident in reported data from laboratory experiments published to date  Importantly, many large deposits of Gold being mined profitably today were originally formed in land or undersea hydrothermal vent systems
  • 51. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 51 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Active present-era undersea hydrothermal vent systems are electric Abiotic electric currents can help provide input energy needed to drive LENRs Abstract: “Some like it hot: metal-like electrical conduction and electrocatalytic function of a black smoker chimney point to a possible new form of energy transfer from hot, reductive hydrothermal fluid to cold, oxygenated seawater by electrical current generation in the sulfide chimney wall.” Brief commentary re paper found on Sugar Project’s website at: http://www.jamstec.go.jp/biogeos/e/xbr/sugar/achievements.html Direct quote: “The SUGAR Program has worked in collaboration with Prof. Kazuhito Hashimoto group of Tokyo University, and carried out an electrochemical analysis with the sample collected from the chimney from the deep sea hydrothermal vent. From this experiment, it made clear of the chimney composed by Black Smoker, made of sulfide minerals possessing a high electrical conductivity. In addition, the presence of electrical current across the wall of the Chimneys was proved. This electrical current occurs due to the chemical reactions similar to the battery between inside and outside of the Chimney in natural environment. These experimental results are the world-first proof of the Earth’s internal energy being converted into electrical energy, when released at the seafloor. This Hydrothermal Chimney Battery phenomenon will surely explain more about the origin- of-life mechanisms, as well as deep sea biological activity and material circulation.” Figure extracted from paper cited to left: Nature can utilize such natural electric currents as an additional input energy source to help drive LENR transmutation reactions, either abiotically or biologically
  • 52. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 52 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Active present-era hydrothermal vent systems Abiotic electric currents can also help provide input energy for bacterial LENRs Now, fascinating new facts and speculation about “electric bacteria” - recent exciting discoveries by microbiologists have revealed that electric potentials, currents, and ‘nanowires’ are associated with the activities of a number of different species of bacteria; how might this relate to the possibility of LENRs in hydrothermal vent systems? First, let’s examine the concept of a LENR electrolytic chemical cell: Above are various conceptual schematics of a type of aqueous light-water electrolytic chemical cells used in many LENR experiments (typically would use DC power supply instead of a battery as a source of electrical current). Please note that using mass spectroscopy for post-experiment analyses, LENR researchers have carefully documented and reported production (via transmutation) of minute amounts of many different elements and isotopically shifted stable isotopes on the surfaces of cathodes found in such cells. In certain cases, array of transmutation products was huge
  • 53. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 53 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Active present-era hydrothermal vent systems Strong similarities between such vent environments and LENR chemical cells Present in electrolytic cells used in laboratory experiments that have clearly produced LENR transmutation products Similarly present somewhere inside vent bacteria or abiotic - found somewhere in active hydrothermal vent environments? Comments about similarity Aqueous electrolyte containing mobile ions as well as sources of protons, i.e., H2O in liquid form as seawater Yes – all required precursors for LENRs present in and around vents Very abundant in hydrothermal vent systems Local disequilibrium electrical (electron) current Yes – see earlier Slide See work of Prof. Hashimoto’s group at Tokyo University Conductive metallic anode and cathode structures that support redox reactions on surfaces; also can absorb hydrogen (form hydrides) which enters metallic lattices as p+ protons Yes – lots of chemical redox activity happens in active hydrothermal vents Various metals are commonly present inside bacteria; in some cases tightly integrated with macromolecules (e.g., enzyme cofactors); not yet clear exactly what vent systems’ nanoscale structural equivalents of metallic laboratory cathodes/anodes are really like; aromatic rings in macromolecules are one of many candidates Metallic wires or equivalents that can conduct nanoscale electric currents Yes – many such structures Many species of bacteria now known to have electrically conductive, mostly nonmetallic nanowires; electric currents have been measured in such structures Oxidation-reduction (Redox) chemical reactions occur at the effective anodes and cathodes immersed in electrolyte Yes – many types of redox bacteria Redox reactions occur in metal-reducing bacteria --- observed isotopic shifts are now known to be closely associated with bacterial reduction processes; e.g., Uranium, Sulfur isotopes as reported in many papers
  • 54. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 54 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Figure courtesy of Kesler, S.E., 1994, “Mineral Resources, Economics and the Environment,” Macmillan, New York, 394 p. Geologic environments in which hydrothermal gold deposits form Temp/pressure regimes in such environments can support abiotic LENRs Note: arrows show sources of water thought to have formed these deposits Bacteriamayinhabitthecrustasdeepas5kmbeneathsurface
  • 55. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 55 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Map shows present-era undersea hydrothermal vent systems Temp/pressure regimes in such environments can support abiotic LENRs Credits: S. Beaulieu, K. Joyce, and S.A. Soule (WHOI), 2010; funding from InterRidge and Morss Colloquium Program at WHOI
  • 56. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 56 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Present-era and ancient fossil undersea hydrothermal vent systems Ancient hyperthermophilic Archaea bacteria require Tungsten to live “Discovered in 1986 in deep sea vents off Italy. It is a hyperthermophilic Archaea bacterium that grows at an astonishing 100°C, with a range between 70°C and 103°C. Optimally its pH is at 7, but it can stand between a pH of 5 and 9. It is anaerobic and heterotrophic in nature and has a fermentative metabolism. It has enzymes that contain Tungsten, a very rare phenomena for biological organisms. Tungsten is believed to fuel the growth of the bacterium.” Pyrococcus furiosus (1986)  74W180-seed LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network discussed herein requires Tungsten ‘seed’ material to be locally present in order to, for example, produce Gold and Mercury as LENR network products  Q. Is elemental Tungsten in some chemical form present in the environments of active hydrothermal vents? A. Yes, it can sometimes be relatively abundant  Q. Are microorganisms living in undersea vent environments that are known to chemically manipulate elemental Tungsten and/or require it in their metabolism? A. Yes, please see the recently discovered hydrothermal vent bacterium to right  See: G. Fiala & K. Stetter, "Pyrococcus furiosus sp. nov. represents a novel genus of marine heterotrophic archaebacteria growing optimally at 100°C,” Archives of Microbiology 145 pp. 56 - 61 (1986) doi:10.1007/BF00413027 H. Sakuraba & T. Ohshima, “Novel energy metabolism in anaerobic hyperthermophilic Archaea: a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 93 pp. 441 - 448 (2002) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389172302800901 Comments and unanswered questions for geomicrobiologists: knowing that less than 1% of all living bacterial species have been well-characterized and grown in cultures and assuming that some bacteria can in fact utilize LENRs, is it possible that P. furiosus or some yet undiscovered microorganism(s) living somewhere in vent systems are creating LENR neutron captures on Tungsten and transmuting it into Gold via the 74W180-seed network or is it somehow occurring abiologically therein? Truly a fascinating possibility for subject matter experts to investigate
  • 57. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 57 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Present-era and ancient fossil undersea hydrothermal vent systems Pyrobaculum aerophilum bacteria require Tungsten for at least one key enzyme Figure from: “Adaptation to a high-Tungsten environment: Pyrobaculum aerophilum contains an active Tungsten nitrate reductase” S. De Vries et al., Biochemistry 49 pp. 9911 - 9921 (2010) DOI: 10.1021/bi100974v Quoting from abstract: “Nitrate reductases (Nars) belong to the DMSO reductase family of molybdoenzymes. The hyperthermophilic denitrifying archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum exhibits nitrate reductase (Nar) activity even at WO4 2− concentrations that are inhibitory to bacterial Nars. In this report, we establish that the enzyme purified from cells grown with 4.5 μM WO4 2− contains W as the metal cofactor but is otherwise identical to the Mo-Nar previously purified from P. aerophilum grown at low WO4 2− concentrations. W is coordinated by a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor ... This is the first description of an active W-containing Nar demonstrating the unique ability of hyperthermophiles to adapt to their high-WO4 2− environment.” Quote from Schroeder & de Vries in 2006: “Tungsten salts are poorly soluble and reach significant concentrations only at elevated temperatures. In deep sea hydrothermal vents and hot springs tungsten concentrations can easily exceed 5 µM. We have previously shown that the archaeal denitrifier Pyrobaculum aerophilum strictly requires Tungsten for growth. P. aerophilum grows optimally at 100ºC and incorporates either Molybdenum (Mo) or Tungsten (W) into its respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar). The metal cofactor for Nar is dependent on the external Tungsten concentration. While Tungsten has been shown to be detrimental to bacterial NARs, P. aerophilum contains an active WNar.” Lattice comment: In Figure, please note close coordination of Tungsten (W) with Sulfur (S). Interestingly, so- called “mass-independent fractionation” of Sulfur isotopes has been published and is well- documented for certain hyperthermophiles Q. Is it simply chemical fractionation or are some such isotopic shifts really LENR transmutations?
  • 58. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 58 Are bacteria transmuting Tungsten → Gold → Mercury? Present-era and ancient fossil undersea hydrothermal vent systems Bacteria are known that chemically manipulate and concentrate (enrich) Gold This image shows maps of pure Gold with other elements. By determining what elements there are, scientists can see where the Gold is located in relation to the cells. These maps are quantitative X-ray fluorescence maps showing the distribution of Gold, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Sulfur and Zinc in an individual cell after a minute exposure to Au(III) at pH 7.0 (the quantified area is marked in the image, and concentrations are in the image). Credit: Reith et al., PNAS 5-9 October 2009  Frank Reith (Univ. of Adelaide) et al. have done some excellent, truly fascinating work on the geomicrobiology of Gold; here are two references to some recent must-read papers on subject:  Interesting question for geomicrobiologists: why pray tell would any bacteria ever be fooling around with Gold? Is it simply some sort of chemical manipulation because Au happens to be present in their environment? Or are there perhaps some other species (presently unknown to science) of bacteria that are actually engaged in transmuting Gold from Tungsten found in their metallomes for some as of today unknown biological purpose?  “The geomicrobiology of Gold” F. Reith et al. The ISME Journal 1 pp. 567 - 584 (2007) http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v1/n7/pdf/ismej200775a.pdf  “Mechanisms of Gold biomineralization in the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans” F. Reith et al. PNAS 106 pp. 17757 - 17762 (2009) http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/10/06/0904583106.full.pdf+html N.B. - Cupriavidus metallidurans utilizes Tungsten-enzyme, formate dehydrogenase
  • 59. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 59 Speculative future economics of Gold mining with LENRs Commercial transmutation could potentially produce precious metals Lower-cost seed elements + energyinput  + nLENRs  higher-priced elements  LENR transmutation processes would be similar to conventional mining in that high-$ valuable precious metals would also be commercial end-products of business activity  Would differ from age-old mining practices in that LENRs would not necessarily require digging huge holes in the earth’s crust and then crushing many tons of ore-bearing rock (which uses lots of $ energy) before conventional, chemically-based extraction/ processing/refining technologies can be used to produce desired Au, Pt end-products  Since LENR transmutation factories would not necessarily require large amounts of energy-intensive digging and megatons of rock crushing to produce commercially valuable precious metal products, the labor, energy, and capital equipment costs associated with those traditional aspects of conventional mining operations would be absent from bill-of-materials production costs for Au and Pt made in LENR factories  Intermediate mixtures of isotopes created in LENR production processes would be ~benign and not radiologically hot, so there would not be any $ costly nuclear safety issues to be addressed (unlike fission plants); cost-effective existing bulk chemical processing/separation/refining techniques could be used to produce saleable products
  • 60. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 60 Speculative future economics of Gold mining with LENRs Commercial transmutation could potentially produce precious metals Transform lighter, lower-cost Tungsten into heavier, higher-priced Pt and Au  In Nagaoka et al.’s 1920s experiments involving high-current electric discharges with Tungsten electrodes in transformer oil laced with Mercury, they observed production of macroscopic flecks of Gold and Platinum particles that were readily visible to the naked eye after as little as four hours of electric arcing inside the apparatus (sensitive post-experiment chemical tests on produced materials revealed that many small colloidal particles of Gold were also present in samples)  If Nagaoka’s “black masses” of arcing products produced during experiments had instead been a solid rock sample showing scattered visible flakes of Au and Pt, a gold geologist examining it might likely have concluded that it represented a rich, very promising sample of ore (in many gold mines being worked profitably today, vast majority of commercially recoverable Gold is in form of innumerable tiny nanoparticles so well-disseminated inside the rock that they are invisible to the naked eye). This hypothetical gold geologist would then very likely have recommended investment in further exploration of the parent ore body to determine its average grade and spatial extent which determines estimates of total recoverable product tonnage in mining deposit  If early Japanese experiments as well as those of Cirillo et al. could be successfully repeated to demonstrate proof-of-concept with respect to producing quantities of stable Gold that are detectable with sensitive mass spectroscopy, then further investment in an engineering program would be warranted to assess whether W  Au conversion via LENR transmutation might developed into a commercially viable process having a competitive cost structure (vs. conventional mining) and % good-product yields that could be scaled-up to levels that would be attractive enough to pursue mining via transmutation as a profit-making business venture  Ratio of recent market price of Gold/troy ounce vs. market price of Tungsten/troy ounce places a maximum upper bound on potential economic profitability of W  Au LENR transmutation processes. In chart on the next Slide, it is apparent that based on today’s price relationships, price ratio of Au/W per troy ounce is a very attractive 2,278x. If such a relationship continued to be maintained, it suggests that even inefficient % yield W  Au processes might still be highly profitable if technically feasible. Also, at present all of the saleable stable intermediate products in W  Au pathway are also priced at significant multiples of W’s $  Interestingly, various alternative W → Re → Os → Ir → Pt → Au LENR transmutation pathways are all very exothermic and release substantially larger amounts of nuclear binding energy in form of clean heat compared to the energetic costs needed to create the neutrons that drive LENR reactions. This raises possibility, at least in theory, that someday electric power generation plants could potentially be designed and built to produce and sell low-cost electricity with pricy precious metals as valuable waste byproducts
  • 61. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 61 Speculative future economics of Gold mining with LENRs Gold-bearing Quartz veins Estwing rock hammer shows scale Blue Ribbon Mine, Alaska Photo credit: Dennis Garrett, 2001 Metallic Element Recent price US$ / measure of quantity Recent price in troy ounces Comment Price multiple versus Tungsten (W) Current annual global production in metric tons (metal equiv.) Gold (Au) 1,572 /troy same Product 2,278x ~2,600 Platinum (Pt) 1,454 /troy same Product 2,107x ~202 Iridium (Ir) 1,050 /troy ounce same Product 1,522x ~10 Osmium (Os) 400 /troy ounce same Product 580x ~0.6 Rhenium (Re) 2,000 /lb. (99%) ~US$ 137 Product 199x ~45 Tantalum (Ta) 82 /lb. 82% wt. of Ta2O5 ~US$ 5.62 Seed scrap metal 8x ~1,700 Tungsten (W) ~20,000 /short ton ~US$ 0.69 Seed scrap metal 1.0x ~78,000 Au, Pt large multiple of Tungsten $ suggests LENRs might be profitable New technologies can sometimes unique create price arbitrage opportunities
  • 62. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 62 Speculative future economics of Gold mining with LENRs In 2010 total annual demand for Gold dominated by India and China Global uncertainties and good GDP growth in India, China bolster Gold demand Note: during Q4 of 2011, China’s total quarterly demand (~191 tons) exceeded India’s (~173 tons); according to World Gold Council, in CY 2012 China total may surpass India’s annual demand for first time ever
  • 63. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 63 Speculative future economics of Gold mining with LENRs Recent £ increases reach real Gold prices not seen for nearly 500 years Global Gold production responding to sharply higher prices since early 1970s Lattice comment: in historical terms, real price of Gold has recently gotten relatively expensive again
  • 64. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 64 Speculative future economics of Gold mining with LENRs April 30, 2012: interview with Tom Fitzpatrick regarding the, a veteran Citigroup analyst, published in King World News Blog (direct quotes follow): “ ... We’ve already iterated a target in the more medium to long-term of $3,400 [per troy ounce], and over the next twelve months as high as $2,400 ... Also, in this dynamic where we are seeing a lot of paper printing, a lot of money printing and monetary experiments, gold is reverting to its true safe haven status, which is first and foremost as a hard currency.” Higher Gold prices improve economics of LENR transmutation
  • 65. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 65 Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable elements Lattice Energy LLC Less expensive, lighter stable elements More expensive, heavier stable elements+n LENR ‘green’ transmutation “An era can be said to end when its basic illusions are exhausted.” Arthur Miller, American playwright and essayist “When it came apart,” New York Magazine Dec. 30, 1974 - Jan. 6, 1975 May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 65
  • 66. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 66  Herein, we have outlined a hypothetical WLT LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network that produces stable Gold and Platinum end-products from Tungsten seed scrap metal  Published third-party data has been cited and discussed which strongly suggests that W  Au precious metals production by WLT LENR transmutations has truly been observed in laboratory experiments dating back to the mid-1920s and is also operating naturally on Earth out in Nature  Hydrothermal vent systems appear to be one example of a natural environment in which LENR W  Au networks could have operated in the distant past as well as today in the present era  Based on published data, it appears that natural W  Au LENR transmutations may occur out in Nature both abiotically and/or perhaps even biologically with certain species of bacteria  Speculative analysis of the potential economics of future W  Au transmutation factories for production of precious metals such as Gold and Platinum suggests that, if present relative price relationship of Tungsten vs. Gold and Platinum were to continue into the future, conversion of Tungsten into precious metals has the potential to become a highly profitable business activity. If such processes can be scaled-up volume-wise and production costs reduced further by riding the “experience curve,” LENRs might compete with conventional mining within <10 - 15 years  Lattice would be interested in strategic partnering with a large established company in the gold mining or metals business. We are also willing to engage in fee-based private consulting with such companies as well as with hedge fund operators and central banks wishing to assess the potential long-term impact of LENR transmutation technology on their present Gold-related investments, assuming LENR technology can be successfully commercialized over time
  • 67. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 67 “Nothing is too wonderful to be true, if it be consistent with the laws of nature; and in such things as these experiments is the best test of such consistency.” Michael Faraday Laboratory journal entry #10,040 March 19, 1849 Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements Native Gold on Quartz Eagle’s Nest Mine Placer County, California USA May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 67
  • 68. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a next-generation source of valuable stable elements May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserve d 68 "Stairway To Heaven“ Lyrics by Led Zeppelin, released November 8, 1971 “There's a lady who's sure, all that glitters is gold And she's buying a stairway to heaven. When she gets there she knows, if the stores are all closed With a word she can get what she came for. Ooh, ooh, and she's buying a stairway to heaven. There's a sign on the wall, but she wants to be sure 'Cause you know sometimes words have two meanings. In a tree by the brook, there's a songbird who sings, Sometimes all of our thoughts are misleading. Ooh, it makes me wonder, It makes me wonder. There's a feeling I get when I look to the west, And my spirit is crying for leaving. In my thoughts I have seen, rings of smoke through the trees, And the voices of those who stand looking. Ooh, it makes me wonder, Really makes me wonder. And it's whispered that soon, if we all call the tune Then the piper will lead us to reason. And a new day will dawn, for those who stand long And the forests will echo with laughter. If there's a bustle in your hedgerow, don't be alarmed now, It's just a spring clean for the May queen. Yes, there are two paths you can go by, but in the long run There's still time to change the road you're on. And it makes me wonder. Your head is humming and it won't go, in case you don't know, The piper's calling you to join him, Dear lady, can you hear the wind blow, and did you know Your stairway lies on the whispering wind. And as we wind on down the road Our shadows taller than our soul. There walks a lady we all know Who shines white light and wants to show How everything still turns to gold. And if you listen very hard The tune will come to you at last. When all is one and one is all To be a rock and not to roll. And she's buying a stairway ... to heaven.” Color-composite image of E0102-72.3 Supernova remnant located in Small Magellanic Cloud ATCA radio image by Shaun Amy X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO Optical: NASA/HST http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBPVlTibs0o May 19, 2012 Copyright 2012, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 68