Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 1 
LENR transmutation as sou...
Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 2 
New studies reveal that d...
Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 3 
Periodic Table of the ele...
Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 4 
Photograph credit: Alamy
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Known elements with atomi...
Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 6 
Shows major groupings of ...
Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 7 
Periodic Table of Element...
Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 8 
“Nature's processes provi...
Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 9 
While differing from star...
Lattice Energy LLC 
December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 10
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Low energy nuclear reac...
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Neutrons --- especially...
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Basic science of Widom-...
Lattice Energy LLC 
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In an earlier 2012 pape...
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Can LENR transmutation p...
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Bold-outlined boxes indi...
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Performance of substitut...
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Over a dozen elements ha...
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Ge, Ag, In, and Te are c...
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Image source is Fig. 1 o...
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Source: Mitsubishi prese...
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Atomic Mass (A) 
Note: n...
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Lattice Energy LLC 
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Lattice Energy LLC 
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Lattice Energy LLC 
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2013: MHI summarized LEN...
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Confirm Mitsubishi’s exp...
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Confirm Mitsubishi’s exp...
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Confirm Mitsubishi’s exp...
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 In July 2002, Iwamura ...
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Concept behind method pr...
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Necessary energy inputs ...
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133 134 
55 55 thermal 
...
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88 89 
38 38 
89 89 
38 ...
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Neutron-catalyzed transm...
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Cesium-target LENR neutr...
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Legend: 
ULM neutron cap...
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56Ba-143 
HL= 14.5 sec 
...
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56Ba-150 
HL= 300 ms 
Qv...
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MHI reported on Tungsten...
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Green LENR transmutations
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Mitsubishi confirmed Nag...
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Black-outlined boxes ind...
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MHI reported Tungsten ta...
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MHI reported Tungsten ta...
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Source - Slide #28 in: h...
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Source - Slide #29 in: h...
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Modern Italian work is ~...
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Schematic overview of Ci...
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Used SEM-EDX to detect i...
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Used SEM-EDX to detect i...
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Mitsubishi & Italians co...
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Essence of Prof. Nagaoka...
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Widom-Larsen theory full...
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No one ever tried to rep...
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Widom-Larsen theory Tung...
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W-L explains Mitsubishi,...
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Widom-Larsen theory Tung...
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Widom-Larsen theory Tung...
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Widom-Larsen theory Tung...
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“Electrically conductive...
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Potentially occurring in...
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Scientists discovering t...
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“Such bacteria are showi...
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Present-era and ancient ...
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Present-era and ancient ...
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Present-era and ancient ...
Lattice Energy LLC 
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Metallic Element 
Recent...
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Commercialized processes...
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LENRs are a truly green...
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“On the materials basis ...
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Index to large collectio...
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“Ultra low momentum neut...
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Lattice welcomes inquir...
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Lattice Energy LLC - LENR Transmutation as Source of Key Scarce Elements - Dec 13 2013

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Recent studies, especially those by Graedel et al. (Yale University, Center for Industrial Ecology - 2013, 2012), warn that costly and disruptive supply shortages could potentially occur in the near-term future for an array of key elements that --- for one reason or another --- are critical for manufacturing and achieving superior levels of performance in vast numbers of high-tech processes and myriads of devices --- electronic and otherwise --- that modern society has come to depend upon in everyday life.

For example, many of Graedel et al.’s key elements are used as catalysts in commercially important petrochemical processes. They also comprise essential ingredients in microchips and play important roles in certain energy-critical technologies such as solar PV panels (Tellurium in Cadmium Telluride).

Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are a new type of truly green radiation- and radwaste-free nuclear technology that can be used for power generation and transmuting selected ‘target’ elements that are found in the Periodic Table. Production of most of the technologically critical elements noted in studies by Graedel et al. and others have already been reported by various researchers in different LENR experiments, albeit only in nanoscale microscopic quantities.

Importantly, proof-of-concept for LENR transmutation of various elements in such laboratory quantities has been reported by major Japanese companies and published in peer-reviewed journals; such companies include Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Toyota, among others.

If commercialized versions of LENRs could someday be developed and scaled-up both quantity- and % yield-wise, rough speculative analysis of the future economics of transmutation suggests that production of many scarce elements could potentially be a high-gross-margin business activity. Successful commercialization of industrial transmutation processes could thus potentially help lessen the likelihood and severity of economically disruptive shortages of critical elements going forward into the future.

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  • Sept. 3, 2014: Updated this document and also added 2 slides discussing latest exciting discoveries about 'electric bacteria' that can live on just electricity and appear to be ubiquitous; some primitive species of Archaea could potentially be producing presently indeterminate quantities of Gold from free Tungsten found in and around undersea hydrothermal vents.
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  • I agree Felix. I also understand the benefits and numerous peculiar qualities and characteristics if designer and meta materials as they are pursued currently. These open avenues in technology development that natueally occurring elements and consequently naturally occurring compounds cannot begin to offer. This is not to detract from Lews work; in the least. I believe he has done a superb job of correlatting LENR to known Elemental transitions along the periodic chart of elements as it is currently known to exist.
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  • After reading all the articles, it now appears LENR transmutation is peer reviewed and supported - this is good news. The key now is to compare the cost effectiveness of obtaining rare minerals and elements from the 'LENR transmutation process' versus extracting the elements-minerals from the earth via mining and other traditional methods; especially in the quantities needed for industrial manufacturing. Additionally, the environmental factors - (benefits or not) compared to traditional methods. Is this the right line of thinking?
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  • This is a method of producing Rare Earth Elements from lessser valued and more abundant elements. The work on Orbitally Rearranged Monotomic Elements is also quite interesting. Vast supplies of REs lurk in ubuquitous topsoil; and just under it. I do believe however that your work on LENR Transmutations, is in a more advanced advanced state of research and development as applies to the complete periodic chart of elements Lew. ORMES is a key word if you want to search for data on these elements.
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Lattice Energy LLC - LENR Transmutation as Source of Key Scarce Elements - Dec 13 2013

  1. 1. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 1 LENR transmutation as source of scarce elements Increases in future demand may strain supplies of metals Some key metals have no known technological substitutes © fzt.id/2010 Shutterstock.com Contact: 1-312-861-0115 lewisglarsen@gmail.com http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/presentations Green LENR transmutations September 3, 2014: added Slides #64 and #65 concerning latest experimental discoveries with electric bacteria Lewis Larsen President and CEO Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013
  2. 2. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 2 New studies reveal that disruptive shortages could occur in near future for certain technologically important elements LENRs are theoretically capable of creating all elements found in the Periodic Table If LENRs are commercialized it could help avert costly shortages of key materials
  3. 3. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 3 Periodic Table of the elements …………..……………………………………….……….…….. 4 - 9 Can LENRs help avert element shortages? …………………………………………………. 10 - 20 LENRs create elements here on earth ………………….………………………………….... 21 - 25 Examples of LENR transmutation data ………………………….…………………………… 26 - 41 LENR transmutation of Tungsten into Gold ………………………………………………..... 42 - 61 Can electric bacteria utilize LENRs? ……………………..……………….......................….. 62 - 68 Will LENRs be a source of scarce elements? ……………………………………..………... 69 Speculation: future economics of LENR transmutation …………………………..... 70 - 72 Key take-aways …….………………………………………………………………..……... 73 References ………………………..………………………………………………………… 74 - 75 Working with Lattice ………………………………………………..……………………... 76 Final quote: Prof. Hantaro Nagaoka, Nature (1925) …………………………………. 77 Note: all hyperlinks embedded in this presentation are live and were verified
  4. 4. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 4 Photograph credit: Alamy
  5. 5. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 5 Known elements with atomic number, chemical symbol/name, atomic weight
  6. 6. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 6 Shows major groupings of elements that appear in the Table LENRs create heavier elements along rows of Table via transmutation process Periodic Table of Elements
  7. 7. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 7 Periodic Table of Elements Examples of 15 selected metals ~300 stable isotopes of elements in Table
  8. 8. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 8 “Nature's processes provide us with a rich variety of elements, ranging from hydrogen with just one proton, to uranium with 92 protons. Almost 300 stable ‘nuclides’ - combinations of different numbers of protons and neutrons - are known.” “That is a small brood compared with the 3,000 or so unstable nuclides known (the full list is represented in the chart). These nuclides decay by a variety of radioactive processes, with half-lives ranging from fractions of a second to more than the age of the universe. Another 4,000 or so nuclides are predicted by theory, but are yet to be seen.” Phil Walker, “The atomic nucleus: nuclear stability” in New Scientist Sept. 28, 2011 3,000+ nuclides have been observed HYDROGEN
  9. 9. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 9 While differing from stars in key ways, experiments have indirectly shown that LENR systems can produce large fluxes of a variety of unstable, extremely neutron-rich isotopes (from low to very high values of A) that beta decay into stable elements that end-up in the valley of stability depicted in this chart of ~3,000+ known nuclides. Thus, LENRs could potentially be developed into a future commercial technology capable of producing any stable element in the periodic table at a competitive cost. “Valley of stability”: black squares indicate ~300 stable isotope nuclides of known elements in Periodic Table HYDROGEN
  10. 10. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 10
  11. 11. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 11 Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are a new and very different type of nuclear technology that does not emit deadly fluxes of hard MeV-energy gamma or neutron radiation and does not produce biologically significant quantities of environmentally dangerous, long-lived radiologically hot spent nuclear wastes LENRs, which also fortunately do not involve any appreciable amounts of fission or fusion processes, are the first truly clean, green nuclear energy technology Unlike fission and fusion which primarily depend on “strong interaction” two- body reactions to release nuclear binding energy, LENRs involve a multi-step process which starts with the creation of ultra low momentum (ULM = super-low energy) neutrons (n) via a collective, many-body “weak interaction” e + p g n + ν [neutrino photon]. Transmutations of elements occur when produced ULM neutrons are locally captured by nearby target atoms, which then increase in atomic mass and which can decay into other different elements in Periodic Table Nuclear binding energy is released when neutrons are captured by target atoms as well as during any subsequent nuclear decay processes. So LENRs provide a means to both generate power in the form of heat and transmute elements into each other; peer-reviewed Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs explains all of this
  12. 12. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 12 Neutrons --- especially ULM neutrons produced by LENR processes in condensed matter --- are promiscuous, uncharged nuclear particles that are readily captured (absorbed) by atoms of elements located in close physical proximity to micron-scale LENR-active surface sites that produce neutrons Unlike 20+ years ago, new types of nanotechnology fabrication techniques enable creation of vast numbers of purpose-engineered nanoparticles of target elements that can be emplaced on metallic surfaces adjacent to nascent LENR- active hot spot sites. After applying appropriate input power to trigger ULM neutron production, atoms in target nanoparticles can be positioned to capture ULM neutrons and be transmuted to other stable isotopes/elements In principle, star-like, neutron-catalyzed LENR transmutation processes are capable of producing any of the 3,000+ unstable neutron-rich isotopes allowed by nuclear physics and any stable element that is found in the Periodic Table Revolutionary LENRs have unique absence of hard radiation and long-lived radwaste production; allows manmade transmutation to occur under moderate macroscopic conditions in tabletop systems that do not require massive shielding and containment subsystems. Stars, fission or fusion reactors, and nuclear weapons are not necessary for nucleosynthesis of desired elements
  13. 13. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 13 Basic science of Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs has been published in peer- reviewed academic physics journals; theory strongly confirmed by a voluminous body of published experimental data that dates back ~100 years. LENRs were hidden right in plain sight for majority that time because they lack hard radiation; scientists didn’t realize their anomalous results were caused by a nuclear process Experimental data published in refereed journals confirms idea that LENR transmutations can successfully be triggered in laboratory apparatus. Very sophisticated analytical techniques show that LENRs can also occur in industrial processes such as pyrolysis and naturally during ordinary lightning discharges Proof-of-concept: in Oct. 2013, Toyota published a paper in the peer-reviewed Japanese Journal of Applied Physics which confirmed important experimental results that Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) had first published in 2002. MHI had claimed transmutation of Cesium into Praseodymium via the forced diffusion of Deuterium gas through a thin-film heterostructure containing elemental Palladium using a permeation method pioneered by Mitsubishi. In 2012, at an American Nuclear Society meeting MHI reported successful production of Osmium (Os) and Platinum (Pt) from Tungsten (W) targets using exactly the same laboratory method New studies show looming future supply tightness in some elements; if LENRs were developed and cost-effective, could potentially help avert material shortages
  14. 14. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 14 In an earlier 2012 paper published in the MRS Bulletin, “Will metal scarcity impede routine industrial use” Graedel & Erdmann concluded that, “… current practices are likely to lead to scarcity for some metals in the not-too-distant future.” In paper just published in Journal of Cleaner Production, “Dynamic analysis of the global metals flows and stocks in electricity generation technologies” Elshkaki & Graedel concluded that, “… each solar photovoltaic technology has a constraining metal supply” that consists of Silver, Tellurium, Indium, and Germanium for each of four respective PV technologies. They noted especially that, “… The model results show that the most critical photovoltaic solar metal in terms of resource availability and production capacity is tellurium” used in cadmium telluride solar PV panels New first-ever comprehensive study just published on dec. 2 in PNAS by prof. Tom graedel et al. Of the yale univ. Center for industrial ecology, “on the materials basis of modern society.” They concluded that for 62 metals covered in their landmark research, in case of roughly a dozen+ key elemental metals “… potential substitutes for their major uses are either inadequate or appear not to exist at all” and that, “… for not 1 of the 62 metals are exemplary substitutes available for all major uses.” Researchers warn of future shortages and price hikes in key metals
  15. 15. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 15 Can LENR transmutation processes provide a solution for shortages? According to Graedel & Erdmann (2012): “As recently as 20 or 30 years ago, designers of most manufactured products drew from a palette of a dozen or so metals. That situation has changed remarkably, as modern technology employs virtually the entire periodic table. A few examples illustrate this point: turbine-blade alloys and coatings make use of more than a dozen metals; thousands of components are assembled into a single notebook computer; and medical equipment, medical diagnostics, and other high-level technological products incorporate more than 70 metals. This transformation is the result of the continuing search for better materials performance. To improve operational characteristics, 60 or so metals are incorporated into each microchip, and microchips are increasingly embedded into industrial plants, means of transportation, building equipment and appliances, consumer products, and other devices.” Given above situation, there is high likelihood of future shortages and concomitant price hikes in certain technologically important elements in which substitution of a different, alternative element is either difficult or impossible. Sharply rising demand for such elements is potentially on a collision course with physically limited supplies Production of most of such potentially scarce elements via LENRs in microscopic quantities during laboratory experiments has already been demonstrated and published; proof-of-concept for LENR transmutation of elements has been achieved Widom-Larsen theory enables LENR transmutation device engineering efforts; what remains to be determined is whether process can be scaled-up and is cost-effective
  16. 16. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 16 Bold-outlined boxes indicate production reported in LENR experiments
  17. 17. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 17 Performance of substitute elements superimposed on Periodic Table Source: Fig. 5 in Graedel et al., “On the materials basis of modern society,” PNAS (2013) Caption: “The periodic table of substitute performance. The results are scaled from 0 to 100, with 0 indicating that exemplary substitutes exist for all major uses and 100 indicating that no substitute with even adequate performance exists for any of the major uses.”
  18. 18. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 18 Over a dozen elements have few or no truly effective substitutes List includes: Magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mg), Copper (cu), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Rhodium (Rh), Rhenium (Re), Thallium (Tl), Lead (Pb), Lanthanum (La), Europium (Eu), Dysprosium (Dy), Thulium (Tm) and Ytterbium (Yb)
  19. 19. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 19 Ge, Ag, In, and Te are critical for solar photovoltaic technologies Germanium (Ge), Silver (Ag), Indium (In), and Tellurium (Te) are key tech materials
  20. 20. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 20 Image source is Fig. 1 on pp. 5 in APS/MRS report : http://www.aps.org/policy/reports/popa-reports/upload/elementsreport.pdf Colored boxes show elements key to >1 energy-related technology
  21. 21. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 21 Source: Mitsubishi presentation at ICCF-18 (2013) Cause-and-effect is obvious in this timeline plot of Mitsubishi’s LENR transmutation data: observed number of Cesium (Cs) atoms simultaneously goes down at roughly the same rate as number of Praseodymium (Pr) atoms goes up Cs Pr
  22. 22. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 22 Atomic Mass (A) Note: number of protons in nucleus determine + charge and the element’s atomic number (Z) Hydrogen (H) 1 Iron (Fe) 56 Bismuth (Bi) 209 Lawrencium (Lw) 262 Uranium (U) 235 Unstable to α- decay and fission; also rare decays of other types of particles Fission and α-decay processes recycle heavy elements back into lighter ones (lower values of A) Charged-particle fusion reactions in stellar cores (A1+A2) Different elements all have different atomic numbers (Z); a given element may have >1 stable and unstable isotopes that differ in A (total number of neutrons + protons = A). Today, there are 112 recognized elements (heaviest is Copernicium: Z = 112, A = 277, H.L. = 29 sec) and over 3,000+ known stable and unstable isotopes Neutron-capture (A+1n): r-process operates from A~56 up to ??? β- decays Copernicium (Cn) 277 Cosmic nucleosynthetic cycle in values of A proton p+ and e- Neutron-capture (A+1n): s- process leads to heavier unstable isotopes A > 277 Superheavies Beta-decay: unstable, neutron-rich isotopes generally decay via the beta- minus (β-) decay process; converts a neutron (n) into a charged proton; atomic number increases by +1 which creates a stable or unstable isotope of a different element; value of A ~same Fusion reactions: deep in cores of stars s-process: thought to occur in outer envelopes of late-stage red giant stars r-process: as of today, while most believe it occurs only in supernova explosions, nobody is 100% certain that idea is true Creation of elements in stars - LENRs can accomplish same on Earth
  23. 23. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 23
  24. 24. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 24
  25. 25. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 25
  26. 26. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 26
  27. 27. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 27 2013: MHI summarized LENR transmutation of targets reported to date Source: https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/36792/RecentAdvancesDeuteriumPermeationPresentation.pdf?sequence=1 Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs explains all of these varied experimental results Confirmed by Toyota: JJAP (Oct. 2013) Confirmed H. Nagaoka: Nature (1925) MHI slide from ICCF-18 (2013) Target elements Lattice modified original slide Cesium (Cs), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), and Tungsten (W) target elements are implanted onto or into Palladium (Pd) thin-film substrate layer
  28. 28. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 28 Confirm Mitsubishi’s experimental method: transmutation of Cs g Pr Source: http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/52/107301/ “Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study on the increase in the amount of Pr atoms for Cs-ion-implanted Pd/CaO multilayer complex with Deuterium permeation” T. Hioki, N. Takahashi, S. Kosaka, T. Nishi, H. Azuma, S. Hibi, Y. Higuchi, A. Murase, and T. Motohiro Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 52 pp. 107301-1 to 107301-8 (2013) Abstract: “To investigate the nuclear transmutation of Cs into Pr reported in this journal by Iwamura and coworkers, we have measured the amount of Pr atoms in the range as low as ~1 x 1010 cm-2 using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Cs- ion-implanted Pd/CaO multilayer complexes before and after Deuterium permeation. The amount of Pr was initially at most 2.0 x 1011 cm-2 and it increased up to 1.6 x 1012 cm-2 after Deuterium permeation. The increase in the amount of Pr could be explained neither by Deuterium permeation-stimulated segregation of Pr impurities nor by external contamination from the experimental environment during the permeation. No increase in Pr was observed for permeation with Hydrogen. These findings suggest that the observed increase in Pr with Deuterium permeation can be attributed to a nuclear origin, as reported by Iwamura and coworkers, although the amount of the increase in Pr is two orders of magnitude less than that reported by them.”
  29. 29. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 29 Confirm Mitsubishi’s experimental method: transmutation of Cs g Pr “Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study on the increase in the amount of Pr atoms for Cs-ion-implanted Pd/CaO multilayer complex with Deuterium permeation” Conclusions: “Using ICP-MS, we determined the concentration of Pr in the range as low as 1.0 x 1010 cm-2 for a variety of samples with respect to the Pd/CaO multilayer complex. The amounts of Pr in the D2-permeated, Cs-ion-implanted multilayer complex samples were one order of magnitude larger than those in the non-D2-permeated samples. The Pr atoms detected in the non-D2-permeated samples were attributed to the Pr impurity contained in the Pd substrate used and the Pr atoms contaminated from the experimental environment of the Cs ion-implantation process in our laboratory. The observed increase in Pr atoms with deuterium permeation could not be explained by deuterium-stimulated segregation of the Pr contaminations onto the surface. Therefore, the observed increase in Pr with deuterium permeation is hard to explain in terms of chemical origins. Furthermore, no increase in Pr was observed by permeation with hydrogen. These findings seem to support the claim by Iwamura et al. that the nuclear transmutation of Cs into Pr occurs with deuterium permeation through Cs-deposited Pd/CaO multilayer complexes. The amount of Pr as the transmutation product was estimated to be on the order of 1 x 1012 cm-2 or ~0.1 ng/cm2 in the present study. Thus, ICP-MS analysis on the order of 1 x 1010 cm-2 was required for observing the increase in Pr with deuterium permeation. The amount of the increased Pr was two orders of magnitude smaller than that reported by Iwamura and coworkers.”
  30. 30. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 30 Confirm Mitsubishi’s experimental method: transmutation of Cs g Pr Neutron production rates in MHI method likely very low vs. electrochemical cells “Theoretical Standard Model rates of proton to neutron conversions near metallic hydride surfaces” A. Widom and L. Larsen (2007) [12-page arXiv preprint] http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/nucl-th/pdf/0608/0608059v2.pdf Abstract: “The process of radiation induced electron capture by protons or deuterons producing new ultra low momentum neutrons and neutrinos may be theoretically described within the standard field theoretical model of electroweak interactions. For protons or deuterons in the neighborhoods of surfaces of condensed matter metallic hydride cathodes, such conversions are determined in part by the collective plasma modes of the participating charged particles, e.g. electrons and protons or deuterons. The radiation energy required for such low energy nuclear reactions may be supplied by the applied voltage required to push a strong charged current across a metallic hydride surface employed as a cathode within a chemical cell. The electroweak rates of the resulting ultra-low momentum neutron production are computed from these considerations.” Eqs. 108 and 109 At right is reference to an arXiv preprint in which we perform a first-principles calculation of many-body collective neutron production rates in an electric-current- driven electrolytic chemical cell. We thus obtained W-L theoretically estimated rates of 1012 to 1014 neutrons per sec/cm2; this range of values is in good agreement with the best-available published experimental measurements of such rates in well-performing aqueous electrolytic cells Again, according to the Widom-Larsen theory, input energy is required to produce neutrons that catalyze nuclear transmutations, the end-products of which are measured to estimate effective transmutation rates Using only relatively modest pressures and temperatures to supply required input energy, it is obvious that W-L neutron production rates in permeation experiments using the MHI method would be vastly lower than what would happen in current-driven electrolytic cells that have much greater amounts of input power available to produce ULM neutrons. Neutron production rates via permeation will thus be extremely low to begin with; in addition, when key neutron production rate adjustments taken into account, e.g., neutron fluxes with D are 2x H, would expect that Pr produced would be much lower in H2 vs. D2 experiments
  31. 31. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 31  In July 2002, Iwamura and colleagues at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Japan) first reported expensive, carefully executed experiments clearly showing nuclear transmutation of selected stable implanted target elements to other stable elements as detected via XPS analysis  Experiments involved permeation of D2 gas under 1 atm. pressure gradient at 343o K through a Pd:Pd/CaO thin-film heterostructure with Cs and Sr target elements placed on outermost Pd surface; electric current was not used to load Deuterium into Pd, only applied pressure differential, some heating, and time produced these results  Invoked Iwamura et al.’s EINR theory model (1998) to explain this data  Results: Cs target is transmuted to Pr and Sr target transmuted to Mo “Elemental analyses of Pd complexes: effects of D2 gas permeation” Y. Iwamura et al. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 41 pp. 4642 - 4650 (2002) Central results were as follows: Cs goes down Pr goes up Note: Iwamura et al. make an interesting qualitative observation on pp. 4648 in the above paper, “…more permeating time is necessary to convert Sr into Mo than Cs experiments. In other words, Cs is easier to change than Sr.” Comment: this observation is consistent with W-L theory neutron catalyzed transmutation; this result would be expected because Cs- 133’s neutron capture cross-section of 29 barns at thermal energies is vastly higher than Sr-88 ‘s at 5.8 millibarns. Ceteris paribus, Cs transmutes faster simply because it captures neutrons more readily Isotopes on samples’ surfaces analyzed in roughly real- time during the course of the experiments using XPS technique 88 96 38 42 Sr  Mo 133 141 55 59 Cs  Pr Involves forced diffusion (permeation) of D2/H2 through Pd thin-film Target elements implanted onto/into Pd film transmuted under mild conditions Source for an author’s copy: http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/IwamuraYelementalaa.pdf
  32. 32. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 32 Concept behind method presented in MHI slide from ICCF-18 (2013) Source: https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/36792/RecentAdvancesDeuteriumPermeationPresentation.pdf?sequence=1 MHI slide from ICCF-18 (2013) Lattice added purple arrows: Widom-Larsen LENR transmutation processes occur at or near surface Cesium (Cs), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), and Tungsten (W) target elements are implanted onto or into Palladium (Pd) thin-film substrate layer Lattice modified original slide
  33. 33. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 33 Necessary energy inputs were provided by D2 temperature/pressure ULM neutron fluxes produced by MHI method <<< lower than electrolytic cells “Elemental analyses of Pd complexes: effects of D2 gas permeation” Y. Iwamura et al. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 41 pp. 4642 - 4650 (2002) Central results were as follows: Cs goes down Pr goes up Isotopes on samples’ surfaces analyzed in roughly real- time during the course of the experiments using XPS technique 88 96 38 42 Sr  Mo 133 141 55 59 Cs  Pr  Question: using W-L theory of LENRs, are there plausible neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic pathways that have adequate Q-value energetics, half-lives, and neutron capture cross-sections that can explain the central results of Mitsubishi (2002) and Toyota’s (2013) D2 (Deuterium) permeation experiments in which 133Cs (Cesium) was transmuted into 88Sr (Strontium)?  Answer: yes, theoretically possible pathways that fully explain these published experimental results are provided in diagrams shown on the next two slides  Note: Widom-Larsen theory also successfully explains other Mitsubishi D2 permeation experiments in which 88Sr (Strontium) was transmuted into 96Mo (Molybdenum) and experiments in which Barium (Ba) isotopes were transmuted into Samarium (Sm)
  34. 34. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 34 133 134 55 55 thermal 134 135 6 55 55 thermal 135 136 55 55 thermal 13 55 Cs 1 ulm n Cs + (Q = 6.9 MeV; 2.1 yrs; σ 140b) Cs 1 ulm n Cs + (Q = 8.8 MeV; hl 2.3 x 10 yrs; σ 8.9b) Cs 1 ulm n Cs + (Q = 6.8 MeV; hl 13.2 days; σ ?)               6 137 55 thermal 137 138 55 55 thermal 138 139 55 55 thermal 139 55 Cs 1 ulm n Cs + (Q = 8.3 MeV; hl 30.1 yrs; σ 0.25b) Cs 1 ulm n Cs + (Q = 4.4 MeV; hl 33.4 min; σ ?) Cs 1 ulm n Cs + (Q = 6.6 MeV; hl 9.3 min; σ ?) Cs 1 ulm                 140 55 thermal 140 141 55 55 thermal 141 141 55 56 141 141 56 57 n Cs + (Q = 4.4 MeV; hl 64 sec; σ ?) Cs 1 ulm n Cs + (Q = 5.5 MeV; hl 25 sec; σ ?) Cs decays 100% via Ba + (Q = 5.3 MeV; hl 18.3 min) Ba decays 100% via                  141 141 57 58 141 141 58 59 La + (Q = 3.2 MeV; hl 3.9 hrs) La decays 100% via Ce + (Q = 2.5 MeV; hl 32 days) Ce decays 100% via Pr + X-rays (Q = 580 keV; stable)           Neutron-catalyzed transmutation: Cesium (Cs) g Praseodymium (Pr) Condensed summary illustrates one possible LENR transmutation pathway Series of neutron captures and beta (β-) decays
  35. 35. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 35 88 89 38 38 89 89 38 39 89 90 39 39 thermal 90 91 39 39 Sr 1 ulm n Sr + (Q = 6.4 MeV; 50.5 days) Sr decays 100% via Y + X-rays (Q = 1.5 MeV; stable) Y 1 ulm n Y + (Q = 6.9 MeV; hl 64hrs; σ 6.5b) Y 1 ulm n Y + (Q = 7.9 MeV; h               thermal 91 92 39 39 thermal 92 93 39 39 thermal 93 93 6 39 40 l 59 days; σ ?) Y 1 ulm n Y + (Q = 6.5 MeV; hl 3.5 hrs; σ ?) Y 1 ulm n Y + (Q = 7.5 MeV; hl 10.2 hrs; σ ?) Y decays 100% via Zr + (Q = 2.9 MeV; hl 1.5 x 10 yr                  thermal 93 94 40 40 thermal 94 95 40 40 thermal 95 95 40 41 s; σ <4b) Zr 1 ulm n Zr + (Q = 8.2 MeV; stable; σ 0.05b) Zr 1 ulm n Zr + (Q = 6.5 MeV; hl 64 days; σ ?) Zr decays 100% via Nb + X-rays (Q = 1.1 MeV; hl 35 days;               thermal 95 96 41 41 thermal 96 96 41 42 σ <7b) Nb 1 ulm n Nb + (Q = 6.9 MeV; hl 23.4 hrs; σ ?) Nb decays 100% via Mo + (Q = 5.3 MeV; stable)           Neutron-catalyzed transmutation: Strontium (Sr) g Molybdenum (Mo) Condensed summary illustrates one possible LENR transmutation pathway Series of neutron captures and beta (β-) decays
  36. 36. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 36 Neutron-catalyzed transmutation: Barium (Ba) g Samarium (Sm) Comments on Mitsubishi’s experimental results reported at ICCF-11 in 2006 Reference: “Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D2 gas permeation through Pd complexes,” Iwamura et al., Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science – Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion, J-P. Biberian, ed., World Scientific (2006) ISBN 981-256-640-6 This paper is also available online in the form of their original conference PowerPoint slides at: http://www.lenr- canr.org/acrobat/IwamuraYobservatioc.pdf Also online as a Proceedings paper published by World Scientific at: http://www.lenr- canr.org/acrobat/IwamuraYobservatiob.pdf Used experimental set-up very similar to what was utilized in the work reported in 2002 JJAP paper and Toyota in 2013 Natural abundance Ba as well as 137Ba enriched targets were electrochemically deposited on the surfaces of thin-film Pd- complex device heterostructures Ba targets subjected to a D+ ion flux for 2 weeks; flux was created by forcing D2 gas to permeate (diffuse) through the thin-film structure via a pressure gradient imposed between the target side and a mild vacuum on the other XPS and SIMS were used to detect elements and isotopes Central results of these LENR experiments were the observations of Ba isotopes being transmuted to Samarium isotopes 62Sm149 and 62Sm150 over a period of two weeks (see documents cited to the right for experimental details) Among other things, they concluded that, “ … a very thin surface region up to 100 angstrom seemed to be active transmutation zone,” which is consistent with W-L theory
  37. 37. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 37 Cesium-target LENR neutron-catalyzed element transmutation network Note: to reduce visual clutter in the network diagram, gamma emissions (converted to infrared photons by heavy e-* electrons) are not explicitly shown; similarly, except where specifically listed because a given branch cross-section is significant, beta-delayed decays also generally not shown ULM neutron captures on isotopes: proceed from left to right; using the Brookhaven National Laboratory’s online calculator, the estimated Q-value of the particular neutron capture reaction (MeV) is shown above the dark purple horizontal arrow Beta- (β-) decays: proceed from top to bottom; denoted with dark blue vertical arrow pointing downward; Q-value (MeV) of the decay is shown either to left or right Beta-delayed decays accompanied by the emission of a free neutron: indicated by reddish orange arrows; proceed from right to left at a ~45 degree angle; Q-value is not shown; neutrons are not explicitly shown BR: means “branching ratio”; % of 100 shown if there is more than one significant nuclear decay pathway Color coded half-lives of specific isotopes: when known, half-lives are shown as “HL = xx”. Stable and quasi-stable isotopes (i.e., those with half-lives > or equal to 107 years) indicated by green boxes; isotopes with half-lives < 107 but > than or equal to 103 years indicated by light blue; those with half-lives < than 103 years but > or equal to 1 day are denoted by purplish boxes; half-lives of < 1 day in yellow; with regard to half-life, notation “? nm” means a particular isotope’s HL has not yet been measured Measured natural terrestrial abundances for stable isotopes: indicated with % symbol; for example - 83Bi209 = 100% (essentially ~stable with half-life = 1.9 x 1019 yrs); 82Pb-205 ~stable with HL= 1.5 x107 yrs; etc. Legend
  38. 38. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 38 Legend: ULM neutron captures proceed from left to right; Q-value of capture reaction in MeV is on top of purple horizontal arrow as follows: Beta decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted w. blue vertical arrow with Q-value to right: Totally stable isotopes are indicated by green boxes; some with extremely long half-lives are labeled “~stable”; natural abundances denoted in % Unstable isotopes are indicated by color-coded boxes; half-lives when known are shown as “HL = xx” 56Ba-137 Stable 11.2% 56Ba-138 Stable 71.7% 56Ba-139 HL= 1.4 hrs Qv=2.3 MeV 57La-139 Stable 99.9% β- 56Ba-140 HL=12.8 days Qv=1.1 MeV 57La-140 HL=1.7 days 56Ce-140 Stable 88.5% β- Qv=3.8 MeV β- 56Ba-141 HL= 18.3 min Qv=3.2 MeV 57La-141 HL=3.9 hrs 58Ce-141 HL=33 days 59Pr-141 Stable 100% β- Qv=2.5 MeV β- Qv=0.6 MeV β- 56Ba-142 HL= 10.6 min Qv=2.2 MeV 57La-142 HL=4.3 sec 56Ce-142 Stable 11% 59Pr-142 HL=4.3 sec 60Nd-142 Stable 27% β- Qv=4.5 MeV β- Qv=5.7 MeV β- 56Ba-143 HL= 14.5 sec Qv=4.3 MeV 57La-143 HL=14.2 min 58Ce-143 HL=1.4 days 59Pr-143 HL=13.6 days 60Nd-143 Stable 12.2% β- Qv=3.4 MeV β- Qv=1.5 MeV β- Qv=0.9 MeV β- 8.6 4.7 6.4 4.5 6.2 4.2 5.9 5.2 6.7 5.2 6.2 4.8 5.4 7.2 5.1 6.9 5.8 7.4 5.8 6.1 7.8 56Ba-130 Stable 0.1% 56Ba-131 HL= 11.5 days 56Ba-132 Stable 0.1% 56Ba-133 HL= 10.5 yrs 56Ba-134 Stable 2.4% 56Ba-135 Stable 6.6% 56Ba-136 Stable 7.9% 7.5 9.8 7.2 9.5 7.0 9.1 6.9 7.5 β- Qv=2.3 MeV Note: beta decays of 66Ba-131 and 66Ba-133 and subsequent nuclear reactions with their products are omitted from chart because of tiny abundances of 66Ba-130 and 66Ba-132 Increasing values of A Increasing values of Z Network continues 55Cs-133 Stable 100% 55Cs-134 HL = 2.1 yrs 6.9 55Cs-135 HL=2.3x106 yr 55Cs-136 HL = 13 days 6.8 8.3 Omitted network segment of neutron capture on Cesium from Cs-137 thru Cs-142 LENR transmutation network: starts with stable Cesium (Cs) target Produces Praseodymium 8.8 Qv=2.1 MeV Qv=0.3 MeV Qv=2.6 MeV Qv=4.2 MeV Qv=6.2 MeV Qv=5.3 MeV Qv=7.3 MeV Qv=6.3 MeV β- β- β- β- β- β- β- β-
  39. 39. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 39 56Ba-143 HL= 14.5 sec Qv=4.3 MeV 57La-143 HL=14.2 min 58Ce-143 HL=1.4 days 59Pr-143 HL=13.6 days 60Nd-143 Stable 12.2% β- Qv=3.4 MeV β- Qv=1.5 MeV β- Qv=0.9 MeV β- 56Ba-144 HL= 11.5 sec Qv=3.1 MeV 57La-144 HL=40.8 sec 58Ce-144 HL=285 days 59Pr-144 HL=17.3 min 60Nd-144 Stable 23.8% β- Qv=5.6 MeV β- Qv=0.3 MeV β- Qv=3.0 MeV β- 56Ba-145 HL= 4.3 sec Qv=5.6 MeV 57La-145 HL=24.8 sec 58Ce-145 HL=3.0 min 59Pr-145 HL=6.0 hrs 60Nd-145 Stable 8.3% β- Qv=4.1 MeV β- Qv=2.5 MeV β- Qv=1.8 MeV β- 56Ba-146 HL= 2.2 sec Qv=4.1 MeV 57La-146 HL= 6.3 sec 58Ce-146 HL= 13.5 min 59Pr-146 HL= 24.2 min 60Nd-146 Stable 17.2% β- Qv=6.6 MeV β- Qv=1.1 MeV β- Qv=4.2 MeV β- 56Ba-147 HL= 0.9 sec Qv=6.3 MeV 57La-147 HL=4.0 sec 58Ce-147 HL=56.4 sec 59Pr-147 HL=13.4 min 60Nd-147 HL= 11 days 61Pm-147 HL=2.6 yrs 62Sm-147 ~Stable 15% β- Qv=5.2 MeV β- Qv=3.4 MeV β- Qv=2.7 MeV β- Qv=0.9 MeV Qv=0.2 MeV β- 56Ba-148 HL= 0.6 sec Qv=5.1 MeV 57La-148 HL=1.3 sec 58Ce-148 HL=56 sec 59Pr-148 HL=2.3 min 60Nd-148 Stable 5.8% β- Qv=7.3 MeV β- Qv=2.1 MeV β- Qv=4.9 MeV β- 56Ba-149 HL= 0.3 sec Qv=7.3 MeV 57La-149 HL=1.1 sec 58Ce-149 HL=5.3 sec 59Pr-149 HL=2.3 min 60Nd-149 HL=1.7 hrs 61Pm-149 HL=2.2 days β- Qv=5.9 MeV β- Qv=4.4 MeV β- Qv=3.3 MeV β- Qv=1.7 MeV β- Qv=1.1 MeV β- 56Ba-150 HL= 300 ms Qv=6.4 MeV 57La-150 HL=510 ms 58Ce-150 HL=4.0 sec 59Pr-150 HL=6.2 sec 60Nd-150 ~Stable 5.6% β- Qv=7.8 MeV β- Qv=3.5 MeV β- Qv=5.4 MeV β- 61Pm-148 HL=5.4 days 61Pm-150 HL=2.7 hrs 62Sm-150 Stable 7,4% Qv=2.5 MeV β- Qv=3.5 MeV β- 5.9 4.8 6.9 5.6 7.8 3.7 6.2 4.7 7.0 5.8 5.7 3.7 5.5 3.5 5.2 4.2 5.8 4.4 5.8 4.3 6.7 4.4 4.4 6.4 6.2 5.2 7.6 6.8 5.3 5.2 7.3 5.9 8.1 6.6 5.0 7.3 5.9 5.3 7.4 5.6 8.0 3.3 5.3 4.8 5.3 7.9 5.6 6.5 5.9 4.8 6.9 5.8 7.8 β- Note: in many cases, Q-values for ULM neutron capture reactions are significantly larger than Q-values for competing beta decay reactions. Also, neutron capture processes are much, much faster than beta decays; if ULM neutron fluxes are high enough, neutron-rich isotopes of a given element can build-up (move along same row to right on the above chart) much faster than beta decays can transmute them to different chemical elements (move downward to other rows on chart) Network continues to next slide 62Sm-148 ~Stable 11.3% 62Sm-149 ~Stable 13.8% 3.7 3.7 5.7 3.7 5.5 3.5 5.2 3.3 5.9 Neutron capture on Cs ends at Cs-151 Resume showing neutron capture on Cs-143 55Cs-143 HL= 1.8 sec 55Cs-144 HL= 994 ms 55Cs-145 HL= 587 ms 55Cs-146 HL= 321 ms 55Cs-147 HL= 235 ms 55Cs-148 HL= 146 ms 55Cs-149 HL= 50 ms 55Cs-150 HL= 50 ms Qv=8.5 MeV Qv=7.4 MeV Qv=9.4 MeV Qv=8.6 MeV Qv=10.7 MeV Qv=9.6 MeV Qv=11.6 Qv=6.3 MeV 97% β- β- 86% β- 86% β- 71% β- 75% β- ? % β- ? % β-
  40. 40. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 40 56Ba-150 HL= 300 ms Qv=6.4 MeV 57La-150 HL=0.5 sec 58Ce-150 HL=4.4 sec 59Pr-150 HL=6.2 sec 60Nd-150 ~Stable 5.6% 61Pm-150 HL=2.7 hrs 62Sm-150 Stable 7.4% β- Qv=7.8 MeV β- Qv=3.5 MeV β- Qv=5.4 MeV β- Qv=3.5 MeV β- 56Ba-151 HL= 200 ms Qv=8.5 MeV 57La-151 HL=0.3 sec 58Ce-151 HL=1.0 sec 59Pr-151 HL=22.4 sec 60Nd-151 HL=12.4 min 61Pm-151 HL=28.4 hrs 62Sm-151 HL=90 yrs β- Qv=7.2 MeV β- Qv=5.3 MeV β- Qv=4.2 MeV β- Qv=2.4 MeV β- Qv=1.2 MeV β- 56Ba-152 HL= 100 ms Qv=7.5 MeV 57La-152 HL=150 ns 58Ce-152 HL=1.4 sec 59Pr-152 HL=3.2 sec 60Nd-152 HL=11.4 min 61Pm-152 HL=4.1 min 62Sm-152 Stable 26.7% β- Qv=9.1 MeV β- Qv=4.7 MeV β- Qv=6.4 MeV β- Qv=1.1 MeV β- Qv=3.5 MeV β- 56Ba-153 HL= 2.2 sec Qv=9.3 MeV 57La-153 HL=150 ns 58Ce-153 HL>150 ns 59Pr-153 HL= 4.3 sec 60Nd-153 HL= 31.6 sec 61Pm-153 HL=5.3 min 62Sm-153 HL=46.3 hrs β- Qv=8.4 MeV β- Qv=6.3 MeV β- Qv=5.7 MeV β- Qv=3.3 MeV β- Qv=1.9 MeV β- 57La-154 HL=100 ms 58Ce-154 HL>150 ns 59Pr-154 HL=2.3 sec 60Nd-154 HL= 25.9 sec 61Pm-154 HL=1.7 min 62Sm-154 Stable 22.7% Qv=10.1 MeV β- Qv=5.5 MeV β- Qv=7.5 MeV β- Qv=2.8 MeV β- Qv=4.0 MeV β- 57La-155 HL=60 ms 58Ce-155 HL> 150 ns 59Pr-155 HL=1 sec 60Nd-155 HL= 8.9 sec 61Pm-155 HL=41.5 sec 62Sm-155 HL=22.3 min Qv=9.6 MeV β- Qv=7.4 MeV β- Qv=6.7 MeV β- Qv=4.5 MeV β- Qv=3.2 MeV β- Qv=76.6 keV β- Qv=0.8 MeV β- Qv=1.6 MeV β- 63Eu-151 ~Stable 47.8% 63Eu-152 HL= 13.5 yrs 63Eu-153 Stable 52.2% 63Eu-154 HL= 8.6 yrs 63Eu-155 HL= 4.8 yrs 4.9 3.3 5.3 4.8 6.5 5.3 7.9 5.6 3.9 3.1 4.9 3.5 4.5 5.7 4.3 5.4 3.8 5.1 5.9 4.6 5.7 5.3 7.3 5.9 8.3 6.3 5.9 7.5 8.6 6.4 5.9 8.0 6.4 4.9 6.6 5.8 8.2 6.1 4.2 5.1 Neutron capture on Ba ends 5.3 7.2 6.3 Qv=0.3 MeV β- Qv=2.0 MeV β- Qv=1.8 MeV 28% β- 0.0 LENR transmutation network can potentially continue further up to even higher values of A if ULM neutron fluxes are continued for longer times 5.2 4.3 6.2 5.3 7.4 5.6 8.0 Neutron capture on La ends 0.0
  41. 41. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 41 MHI reported on Tungsten target results at 2012 Winter ANS meeting Unable to reach Gold because MHI method’s neutron fluxes are too low Source of adapted graphic is New Energy Times: http://news.newenergytimes.net/2012/12/06/mitsubishi-reports-toyota-replication/
  42. 42. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 42 Green LENR transmutations
  43. 43. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 43 Mitsubishi confirmed Nagaoka’s 1925 experiments Tungsten target LENR transmutation network shown in isotopic space Region of neutron-catalyzed transmutation pathways discussed herein LENRs start with targets and traverse rows of the Periodic Table In this section, we will be discussing a theoretical LENR neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic network (yellow arrow) that begins in the region of Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W) targets, produces stable Gold (79Au197) and can extend to higher-Z elements as far as Lead (Pb) and Bismuth (83Bi209) HYDROGEN
  44. 44. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 44 Black-outlined boxes indicate production in MHI experiments W g Os g Pt Tungsten g Osmium g Platinum
  45. 45. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 45 MHI reported Tungsten target results at 2012 Winter ANS meeting Also confirmed vector of W-L theory’s predicted pathway from W g Au Quoting directly from New Energy Times subscriber-only content concerning 2012 Winter ANS meeting, “A member of the audience asked Iwamura whether other Japanese companies besides Toyota and Mitsubishi are working on LENR. Iwamura said yes but they were not disclosing it.” These companies are serious LENR players Technical notes: permeation technique used by Iwamura et al. in experiments with Tungsten (W) targets produces only relatively small fluxes of ultra low momentum neutrons; their electroweak neutron production rate was therefore insufficient to drive the W-L LENR transmutation network all the way out to the stable Gold isotope during elapsed time of the experiments (only got as far as Platinum – Pt, which was observed) Please carefully examine data found in PowerPoint slides, related paper published in ANS Transactions, and video of Dr. Iwamura’s Nov. 14, 2012, ANS meeting presentation While Mitsubishi’s carefully conducted LENR experiments did not reach Gold, they did observe key intermediate nucleosynthetic products, namely Osmium and Platinum Since Nagaoka’s experiments had vastly higher levels of input energy in the form of electric currents, per W-L theory they would be expected to produce higher neutron fluxes and progress further along LENR network path: in fact, Nagaoka did reach Gold
  46. 46. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 46 MHI reported Tungsten target results at 2012 Winter ANS meeting Selected documents concerning ANS Winter meeting LENR session held on Nov. 14, 2012: Dec. 7, 2012: New Energy Times article by Steven Krivit article about this session (substantial part of its entire content is subscriber-only), titled, “Mitsubishi Reports Toyota Replication” http://news.newenergytimes.net/2012/12/06/mitsubishi-reports- toyota-replication/ Dr. Yasuhiro Iwamura’s 44-slide PowerPoint for presentation (free content - see Slides #26 - 29): http://newenergytimes.com/v2/conferences/2012/ANS2012W/2012Iwamura- ANS-LENR.pdf Iwamura’s related 4-page paper published in Transactions of the ANS (free content - see page #3 just under Fig. 6 “SIMS Analysis for W Transmutation Expts”); note: cites 2006 Widom & Larsen theory paper published in the European Physical Journal C: http://newenergytimes.com/v2/conferences/2012/ANS2012W/2012Iwamura-ANS-LENR- Paper.pdf Online YouTube video for viewing Iwamura’s live presentation at the ANS meeting (free content): http://youtu.be/VefCEaLAkRw (running time is ~43 minutes; Dr. Iwamura’s English is excellent) Previous American Nuclear Society session re LENRs occurred 15 years ago
  47. 47. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 47 Source - Slide #28 in: http://newenergytimes.com/v2/conferences/2012/ANS2012W/2012Iwamura-ANS-LENR.pdf
  48. 48. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 48 Source - Slide #29 in: http://newenergytimes.com/v2/conferences/2012/ANS2012W/2012Iwamura-ANS-LENR.pdf
  49. 49. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 49 Modern Italian work is ~theoretically equivalent to Nagaoka’s Electric discharge with 74W cathode in alkaline H2O instead of CnH2n+2 + Hg Unaware of Nagaoka’s much earlier work, ca. 2003 - 2004 D. Cirillo and E. Iorio in Italy inadvertently designed and constructed an LENR experimental system involving electric discharges and Tungsten electrodes that, from a WLT perspective, was ~theoretically equivalent to Nagaoka’s 1920s experimental set-up; they subsequently observed and reported transmutation products that were consistent with Nagaoka's results reported in Nature and operation of the 74W180-target Widom- Larsen LENR transmutation network that is described herein Cirillo & Iorio’s modern experimental set-up utilized an “aqueous electrolyte plasma glow-discharge cell” From an abstract broad-brush theoretical viewpoint, main differences between their new experimental system and Nagaoka’s set-up of 80 years earlier was that: (1) in Cirillo & Iorio’s experiments the protons needed to produce LENR neutrons came from hydrogen atoms in water (H2O) instead of in transformer oil (CnH2n+2); and (2) no Mercury (Hg) was initially present in their system, so 80Hg196 + n → 80Hg197 → 79Au197 electron-capture reaction can clearly be excluded as potential source of surface Gold they observed using EDX (vs. Nagaoka’s physicochemical methods)
  50. 50. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 50 Schematic overview of Cirillo & Iorio’s LENR experimental apparatus Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 Comment on their experimental data: Unbeknownst to the experimenters, they may have had either Barium (Ba) titanate and/or Dysprosium (Dy) as component(s) in the composition of the dielectric ceramic sleeve that was partially covering the cathode immersed in the electrolyte; Ba and/or Dy are commonly present in such ceramics. Under the stated experimental conditions, Ba and Dy could easily 'leach-out' from the surface of the ceramic into the electrolyte, creating yet another target element that could migrate onto the surface of their Tungsten (W) cathode. Since none of the potential intermediate transmutation products such as Nd (Neodymium), Sm (Samarium), and Gd (Gadolinium) were observed, it is possible that there may have been LENR ULM neutron captures starting with Dy → Er (Erbium) → Tm (Thulium) → Yb (Ytterbium), LENR transmutation products that were also observed in these experiments Ceramic sleeve (bright blue) Ceramic sleeve (bright green) _ + Comment: this LENR experiment involves formation of a dense plasma in a double- layer confined to the surface of Tungsten (W) cathode (-) by a liquid electrolyte
  51. 51. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 51 Used SEM-EDX to detect intermediate products of 74W-target network Quoting: “… electrodes are cylindrical rods with a diameter of 2.45 mm, and a length of 17.5 cm … both are made of pure Tungsten [W] …cathode is partially covered with a ceramic sleeve, which allows … control [of] the dimensions of … exposed cathode surface submerged in … solution.” In their experiments, Rhenium (Re), Osmium (Os), and Gold (Au) were observed post-experimentally as nuclear transmutation products on the Tungsten (W) cathode surface; other LENR transmutation products were also observed (please see our comment on previous Slide) According to WLT, operation of the 74W-target LENR transmutation network could in theory produce a nucleosynthetic pathway of W → Re → Os → Ir → Pt → Au; in fact, Re, Os, and Au were claimed to have been observed by Cirillo & Iorio in these modern experiments Theoretically similar to Nagaoka’s experiments in 1920s: LENR transmutation products were observed, Gold (Au) in particular, that can be explained with neutron captures and beta- decays beginning with Tungsten (W) as a target Paper - conference presentation ; not peer-reviewed: “Transmutation of metal at low energy in a confined plasma in water" D. Cirillo and V. Iorio, on pp. 492-504 in “Condensed Matter Nuclear Science – Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion,” J-P. Biberian, ed., World Scientific (2006) Free copy of paper available at: http://www.lenr- canr.org/acrobat/CirilloDtransmutat.pdf Abstract: "Energetic emissions have been observed from an electrolytic cell when tungsten [W] electrodes are used to generate a confined plasma close to the cathode immersed an alkaline solution. In addition, energy generation has been observed, always close to the cathode, along with the appearance of new chemical elements in the experimental apparatus. These elements were not present in the cell before the experiment. This observation is proof of nuclear transmutations occurring within the cell. The results of this research and a theoretical model of the phenomenon were shown for the first time on April 18, 2004 during the second Grottammare (Ap) ONNE meeting in Italy.”
  52. 52. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 52 Used SEM-EDX to detect intermediate products of 74W-target network Rhenium (Re) Osmium (Os) Gold (Au) and Thulium (Tm) See comment on earlier Slide re Thulium Osmium detected - Fig. 13. Analysis conducted with an SEM-EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. of plasma discharge - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Rhenium detected - Fig. 12. Analysis conducted with an SEM –EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. of plasma - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Gold and Thulium detected - Fig. 14. Analysis conducted with an SEM-EDX on small area of cathode surface after 4000 sec. plasma discharge - Jan 2004 (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Fig. 10 – Tungsten thermionic emission (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Fig. 11 – View of the plasma heat transfer mechanism (Cirillo & Iorio, 2006) Fig. 9 – Tungsten fusion area [after 4,000 sec.] (Cirillo &Iorio, 2006)
  53. 53. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 53 Mitsubishi & Italians confirm Nagaoka’s 1925 experiments Nagaoka et al. produced Gold from Tungsten via electric arcs in oil Transmutations with electric arcs widely reported and discussed in 1920s Unlike, comparatively unknown Wendt & Irion team at the Univ. of Chicago (1922), Nagaoka was world-renowned physicist and one of the most preeminent scientists in Japan when he began his high- current discharge transmutation experiments in September 1924 For an appreciation of Hantaro’s high scientific stature during that era, please see Wikipedia article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hantaro_Nagaoka Given the very international character of science even at that time, it is very likely that Nagaoka was aware of worldwide controversy swirling around Wendt & Irion’s exploding wire experiments and of Rutherford's short but devastating critical attack on them in Nature It is also quite likely that Hantaro was aware of Robert Millikan’s very supportive views on subject of triggering transmutations with electric arcs (note: Millikan had just won a Nobel prize in physics) Nagaoka must have also known about Miethe & Stammreich’s work in Germany; they claimed to have changed Mercury into Gold in a high-voltage Mercury vapor lamp, “The reported transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” Nature 114 pp. 197 - 198 (1924) Nagaoka was well-known as a competitor of Ernest Rutherford; Hantaro’s “Saturn model” of the atom was only competing model cited by Rutherford in his seminal 1911 paper on atomic nuclei Please see: “Preliminary note on the transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” H. Nagaoka, Nature 116 pp. 95 - 96 (1925) Available for purchase on Nature archives at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v116/n2907/abs/116095a0.html Abstract: "The experiment on the transmutation of mercury was begun in September 1924, with the assistance of Messrs. Y. Sugiura, T. Asada and T. Machida. The main object was to ascertain if the view which we expressed in NATURE of March 29, 1924, can be realised by applying an intense electric field to mercury atoms. Another object was to find if the radio-active changes can be accelerated by artificial means. From the outset it was clear that a field of many million volts/cm. is necessary for the purpose. From our observation on the Stark effect in arcs of different metals (Jap. Journ. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 45–73) we found that with silver globules the field in a narrow space very near the metal was nearly 2 à -105 volts/cm. with terminal voltage of about 140. The presence of such an intense field indicated the possibility of obtaining the desired strength of the field for transmutation, if sufficient terminal voltage be applied. Though the above ratio of magnification would be diminished with high voltage, the experiment was thought worth trying, even if we could not effect the transmutation with the apparatus at hand."
  54. 54. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 54 Essence of Prof. Nagaoka’s brilliant experiments: In the simplest terms: Prof. Nagaoka created a powerful electric arc discharge between a spark gap comprising two metallic, Thorium-oxide-free Tungsten (W) electrodes (supplied by Tokyo Electric Company) bathed in a dielectric liquid “paraffin” (today referred to as “transformer oil;” general formula CnH2n+2) that was ‘laced’ with liquid Mercury (Hg) Depending on experiment, arcing between Tungsten electrodes in oil was continued for 4 - 15 hours until, quoting, “ … the oil and mercury were mixed into a black pasty mass.” Please note that Mercury readily forms amalgams with many different metals, including Gold (Au) and Tungsten (W) Small flecks of Gold were sometimes quite visible to the naked eye in “black masses” produced at the end of a given experiment. They also noted that, “The Gold obtained from Mercury seems to be mostly adsorbed to Carbon.” Microscopic assays were conducted by, “heating small pieces of glass with the Carbon,” to form a so-called “Ruby glass” that can be used to infer the presence of gold colloids from visual cues very apparent under a microscope Critics complained about the possibility that the Gold observed was some sort of “contamination.” Responding to critics, Nagaoka et al. further purified literally everything they could think of and also made certain that the lab environs were squeaky clean; they still kept seeing anomalous Gold. Also, in some experiments they also observed, “a minute quantity of white metal.” Two years later in 1926, Nagaoka reported to Scientific American that they had finally been able to identify the “white metal” --- it was metallic Platinum (Pt) Fig. 1 – Apparatus for the electric discharge H. Nagaoka, Nature July 18, 1925 Macroscopic flecks of Gold and Platinum were visible to naked eye
  55. 55. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 55 Widom-Larsen theory fully explains Nagaoka’s experimental results Based on WLT 74W180 LENR network , what sequence of reactions could have produced observed Gold and Platinum? All of the ingredients for LENRs to occur were in fact present: hydride-forming metal found therein was Tungsten (sadly, Nagaoka was unaware that Mercury was more-or-less a red herring); which was in contact with abundant Hydrogen (protons) in transformer oil (CnH2n+2); the Born-Oppenheimer approximation broke-down on surfaces of electrodes; and finally, there were large non-equilibrium fluxes of charged particles --- electrons in the high-current arc discharges. Unbeknownst to Nagaoka, his high-current arcs probably also produced small amounts of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and perhaps even a little graphene. ULM neutron production rates via W-L weak interaction could have been quite substantial in his high-electric-current-driven experimental system because of large energy inputs as electrical currents What could have happened in Nagaoka’s experiments was that Tungsten-target, ULM neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic networks spontaneously formed. What follows is but one example of an energetically favorable network pathway that could produce detectable amounts of the only stable Gold isotope, 197Au, within ~4 hours (shortest arc discharge period after which Au was observed). Other alternative viable LENR pathways can produce unstable Gold isotopes, e.g., 198Au with half-life = 2.7 days and 199Au with HL = 3.1 days (both would be around for a time at end of a successful experiment) One possible 74W180-target LENR network pathway that could produce Pt/Au in as little elapsed time as 4-5 hours is: 74W-186 Stable 28.4% 76Os-192 Stable 41% 79Au-197 Stable 100% 74W-187 HL = 23.7 hrs 76Os-193 HL = 1.3 days 74W-188 HL = 69.8 days 76Os-194 HL = 6.0 yrs 74W-189 HL = 11.6 min 76Os-195 HL = 6.5 min 74W-190 HL = 30 min 77Ir-195 HL = 2.5 hrs 74W-191 HL = 20 sec 77Ir-196 HL = 52 sec 74W-192 HL = 10 sec 78Pt-196 Stable 25.3% 75Re-192 HL = 16 sec 78Pt-197 HL = 19.9 hrs 5.6 7.1 5.3 2.0 5.8 β- 4.2 4.2 0.7 0.7 5.5 6.8 4.9 6.9 4.9 6.6 2.1 3.2 5.9 Begin End at Gold Note: stable elements (incl. % natural abundance) and half-lives of unstable isotopes are shown; green arrows connecting boxes denote capture of an LENR neutron; blue connecting arrows denote beta decays; energetic Q- values for neutron captures or beta decays are also provided; note that ALL Q-values are substantially positive, thus this particular nucleosynthetic pathway is very energetically favorable for producing Platinum and Gold 3.2 2.0 β- β- β- β- β- β-
  56. 56. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 56 No one ever tried to repeat Nagaoka’s experiments during 1920s. Why? Re catalytic converters as sources of Gold: “Occurrence of Platinum, Palladium, and Gold in pine needles of Pinus pinea from the city of Palermo (Italy),” G. Dongarra, D. Varrica, and G. Sabatino, Applied Geochemistry 18 pp. 109-116 (2003) Quoting: “Preliminary data on the presence of Pt, Pd and Au in airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Palermo (Sicily, Italy) are presented. They were obtained by analysing 40 samples of pine needles (Pinus pinea L.) collected in and around the city. Observed concentrations range from 1 to 102 μg/kg for Pt, 1 to 45 μg/kg for Pd and 22 to 776 μg/kg for Au. Platinum and Pd concentrations in pine needles are up to two orders of magnitude higher than their crustal abundances. They exhibit a high statistical correlation (R2=0.74) which suggests a common origin.” “Precious metal concentrations measured within the city centre are much higher than those occurring outside the town. The distribution patterns of Pt and Pd in the study area are compared to the distributions of Au and Pb. Gold is enriched at the same sites where Pt and Pd are enriched, while Pb shows some discrepancies. The most probable local source of all of these elements is traffic. Average Pt and Pd emissions in the city area are estimated to be about 136 and 273 g/a, respectively.” Discussed in Lattice presentation found at URL: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc- len-rs-in-catalytic-convertersjune-25-2010 Nagaoka’s reported results most likely were right , i.e., Au and Pt were produced: Note that stable Gold can also be produced via neutron capture on stable 80Hg196 which creates unstable 80Hg197 that has a half-life of 2.7 days and decays via electron capture into stable 79Au197. However, natural abundance (0.15%) of 80Hg19 initially present in Nagaoka's 1920s experiments was so low that this alternative pathway cannot plausibly account for observed production of macroscopically visible quantities of Au and Pt flecks It is puzzling why this seemingly fruitful line of inquiry appears to have died-out worldwide by the time Chadwick experimentally verified the neutron’s existence in 1932? Oddly, it does not appear that anyone else ever tried to exactly duplicate Nagaoka’s experiments. However, there were well-publicized failures to replicate Miethe & Stammreich’s Gold experiments that were extensively chronicled in Scientific American. Interestingly, Miethe’s experimental apparatus consisted of Mercury arc lamps with Tungsten electrodes inside evacuated quartz tubes; no transformer oil was present in those arcs. Perhaps Nagaoka’s decision to use oil was exceedingly fortuitous: by doing so, he inadvertently guaranteed that his apparatus contained enormous quantities of hydrogen for making ULM neutrons Please take note of the quotation from Prof. Nagaoka reproduced on Slide #75. In saying what he said, Hantaro clearly believed that some sort of commercial transmutation technology would eventually be developed at some point in the future. Thus, in our opinion not only was he a humble, brilliant scientist; he was also a rather bold visionary thinker --- truly a man far ahead of his own time Interestingly, in the present era it is certainly possible that minute quantities of Gold are actually being produced in automobile catalytic converters via the transmutation of some Platinum present in the converters: at right, please see citation to a 2003 paper in Applied Geochemistry and URL to yet another Lattice SlideShare presentation dated June 25, 2010 Plausible LENR nucleosynthetic pathway shown in the previous Slide suggests that Nagaoka et al.’s claimed observations of macroscopically visible particles of Gold in their ca. 1920s electric arc experiments in transformer oil could very well have been correct
  57. 57. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 57 Widom-Larsen theory Tungsten-target LENR transmutation network Series of neutron captures and nuclear decays that transmute W g Pt g Au We will now examine a hypothetical Widom-Larsen theory LENR transmutation network that begins with neutron captures on Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W) targets Explanatory legend for network diagrams appears on the next slide  74W180-target network produces Gold (Au) and Platinum (Pt); if sufficiently high neutron fluxes are maintained for enough time, it can even reach Bismuth (Bi) Need input energy to make ultra cold neutrons that catalyze LENR transmutations According to the WLT, in condensed matter systems LENRs occur in many tiny nm- to micron-scale surface sites or patches that only live for several hundred nanoseconds before they die; such sites can form and re-form spontaneously While unstable intermediate network products undergo nuclear decays, their half- lives are generally short (especially those that are more neutron-rich); this network does not produce significant amounts of dangerous long-lived radioactive isotopes Importantly, there is very intriguing experimental evidence that this nucleosynthetic network occurs in laboratories, catalytic converters in vehicles, and out in Nature
  58. 58. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 58 W-L explains Mitsubishi, Italian, and Nagaoka results Legend Neutron capture and nuclear decay processes: ULM neutron captures: proceed from left to right except for upper-left corner; Q-value of capture reaction (MeV) in green either above or below horizontal arrow. Beta- (β-) decays: proceed from top to bottom; denoted with bright blue vertical arrow pointing down with Q-value (MeV) in blue either to left or right; beta+ (β+) decays are denoted with yellow arrow pointing upward to row above Alpha decays: indicated with orange arrows, proceed mostly from right to left at an angle with Q-value (MeV) shown in orange located on either side of the process arrow. Electron captures (e.c.): indicated by purple vertical arrow; Q-value (MeV) to left or right. Note: to reduce visual clutter in the network diagram, gamma emissions (converted to infrared photons by heavy e-* electrons) are not shown; similarly, except where specifically listed because a given branch cross-section is significant, beta-delayed decays also generally not shown; BR means branching ratio if >1 decay path alternative Color coded half-lives: When known, half-lives shown as “HL = xx”. Stable and quasi-stable isotopes (i.e., those with half-lives > or equal to 107 years) indicated by green boxes; isotopes with half-lives < 107 but > than or equal to 103 years indicated by light blue; those with half-lives < than 103 years but > or equal to 1 day are denoted by purplish boxes; half-lives of < 1 day in yellow; with regard to half-life, notation “? nm” means isotope has been verified by HL has not been measured Measured natural terrestrial abundances for stable isotopes: Indicated with % symbol; note that 83Bi209 = 100% (essentially ~stable with half-life = 1.9 x 1019 yrs); 82Pb-205 ~stable with HL= 1.5 x107 yrs;
  59. 59. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 59 Widom-Larsen theory Tungsten-target LENR transmutation network Please note: once created, the process of capturing an LENR ULM neutron on a nearby atom occurs very quickly; on the order of picoseconds, i.e., 0.000000000001 sec., i.e., 10-12 sec, which is much faster than any of the various nuclear decays found in this particular LENR network. Moreover, in case of condensed matter LENRs, while their neutron production rates are probably significantly lower than the r-process, LENR neutron capture cross-sections are vastly higher than those in stellar environments; on balance it is essentially a wash, so LENRs can effectively mimic the r-process. Thus, isotopes in LENRs can potentially capture additional neutrons (i.e., become more neutron-rich isotopes of the same element) before beta decay transmutes them into other higher-Z elements found in the Periodic Table. This is why super-hot astrophysical r-process can make heavier elements than the s-process (i.e., go beyond Bismuth): with much higher produced neutron fluxes, the r-process can successfully traverse and bridge key regions of very short-lived isotopes that are found in ultra-neutron-rich, high-Z reaches of vast nuclear isotopic landscape. Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 75Re-185 Stable 37.4% 75Re-186 HL = 3.7 days 76Os-186 Stable 1.58% 6.2 6.3 Increasing values of Z 73Ta-181 Stable 99.9+% 73Ta-182 HL = 114 days 73Ta-184 HL = 8.6 hrs 73Ta-185 HL = 49.3 min 7.4 6.9 5.6 74W-180 Stable 0.12% 74W-182 Stable 26.5% 74W-183 Stable 14.3 % 74W-184 Stable 30.6% 74W-185 HL = 75.1 days 8.1 6.2 5.8 73Ta-183 HL = 5.1 days 74W-186 Stable 28.4% Increasing values of A 6.1 6.7 7.4 7.2 5.5 7.4 1.8 1.1 2.9 2.0 5.4 73Ta-186 HL = 10.5 min 3.9 6.2 433 keV 1.1 BR 92.5% 7.2 74W-181 HL = 121 days ε 188 keV BR = 100% ε 579 keV BR = 7.5% Start with stable Tungsten targets of pure W metal Alternatively, one could start with 73Ta181 target Tungsten It should also be noted that all of the many atoms located within a 3-D region of space that encompasses a given ULM neutron’s spatially extended DeBroglie wave function (whose dimensions can range from 2 nm to 100 microns) will compete with each other to capture such neutrons. ULM neutron capture is thus a decidedly many-body scattering process, not few- body scattering such as that which characterizes capture of neutrons at thermal energies in condensed matter in which the DeBroglie wave function of a thermal neutron is on the order of ~ 2 Angstroms. This explains why vast majority of produced neutrons are captured locally and are only rarely detected at any energies during course of LENR experiments; it also clearly explains why human-lethal MeV-energy neutron fluxes are characteristically not produced in condensed matter LENR systems.
  60. 60. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 60 Widom-Larsen theory Tungsten-target LENR transmutation network 75Re-188 HL = 17 hrs 76Os-188 Stable 13.3% 6.8 5.9 74W-187 HL = 23.7 hrs 75Re-187 ~Stable 1010 yrs ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Ta Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products coming from lower values of A 75Re-190 HL = 3.2 min 75Re-189 HL = 1 day 76Os-189 Stable 16.1% 76Os-191 HL = 15.4 days 76Os-190 Stable 26.4% 76Os-192 ~Stable 41.0% 76Os-193 HL = 1.3 days 76Os-194 HL = 6.0 yrs 77Ir-191 Stable 37.3% 77Ir-193 Stable 62.7% 77Ir-194 HL = 19.3 hrs 78Pt-192 Stable 0.79% 78Pt-193 HL = 51 yrs 78Pt-194 Stable 32.9% 4.9 7.0 5.7 6.9 8.0 6.2 6.3 8.4 6.1 1.8 1.6 Increasing values of A Increasing values of Z Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 73Ta-187 HL = 1.7 min 75Re-192 HL = 16 sec 75Re-193 HL = 30 sec 75Re-194 H L = 2 sec 74W-190 HL = 30 min 74W-191 HL = 20 sec 6.3 5.5 6.2 7.4 5.1 74W-189 HL = 11.6 min 74W-188 HL = 69.8 days 76Os-187 Stable 1.6% 75Re-191 HL = 9.8 min ULM Neutron Capture Ends on W ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Re 3.1 6.9 4.9 5.4 6.7 5.3 7.8 5.9 5.8 7.6 5.6 7.1 5.3 7.8 6.1 1.5 BR 95.1% 1.0 3.1 2.1 4.2 3.1 313 keV BR 100% 2..1 73Ta-189 HL = 3 sec 73Ta-190 HL= 3 x 102 msec 73Ta-188 HL = 20 sec 4.9 3.7 5.6 74W-192 HL = 10 sec ε 1..1 BR = 4.9% 77Ir-192 HL = 73.8 days 1.1 ε 57 keV BR = 100% 1.3 349 keV 2.5 1.3 3.2 2.1 4.9 97 keV 2.2 7.2 6.1 4.9 6.7 Produce Platinum As shown in these network charts, more neutron-rich, unstable beta-decaying isotopes tend to have more energetic decays and shorter half-lives. Electric current-driven LENR ULM neutron production and capture processes can occur at much faster rates than decay rates of beta-/e.c.-unstable isotopes in this network. Thus, if local ULM neutron production rates in LENR-active site are high enough, large differences in rates of beta decay vs. neutron capture processes means that largish populations of unstable, very neutron-rich isotopes can accumulate locally during 300 nanosec lifetime of an LENR-active patch, prior to its being destroyed.
  61. 61. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 61 Widom-Larsen theory Tungsten-target LENR transmutation network 76Os-196 HL = 34.8 min 77Ir-196 HL = 52 sec 78Pt-196 Stable 25.3% 6.7 76Os-195 HL = 6.5 min 77Ir-195 HL = 2.5 hrs Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products coming from lower values of A 77Ir-199 HL = 20 sec 77Ir-198 HL = 8 sec 78Pt-197 HL = 19.9 hrs 78Pt-199 HL = 30.8 min 78Pt-198 Stable 7.2% 78Pt-200 HL = 13 hrs 79Au-197 Stable 100% 79Au-199 HL = 3.1 days 79Au-200 HL = 48 min 79Au-201 HL = 27 min 5.8 6.9 5.6 6.9 5.9 7.6 5.6 7.3 5.2 6.9 6.5 7.6 6.3 7.2 6.1 6.8 2.0 1.3 0.6 1.7 666 keV 2.7 1.8 Increasing values of A Increasing values of Z Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 78Pt-195 Stable 33.8% ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Ir 5.3 7.2 6.1 78Pt-202 HL = 1.9 days 79Au-202 HL = 28.8 sec ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Os 80Hg-198 Stable 9.8% 80Hg-199 Stable 16.9% 80Hg-201 Stable 13.2% 80Hg-200 Stable 23.1% 80Hg-202 Stable 29.9% 79Au-198 HL = 2.7 days 78Pt-201 HL = 2.5 min 1.4 452 keV 719 keV 1.3 2.2 3.0 77Ir-197 HL = 5.8 min 2.2 4.1 3.0 1.2 1.1 3.2 6.7 8.0 6.2 7.8 6.0 7.9 ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Pt Produce Gold 80Hg-196 Stable 0.15% 80Hg-197 HL = 2.7 days ε 600 keV BR = 100% 6.8 8.5 Please note that: Q-value for neutron capture on a given beta-unstable isotope is often larger than the Q-value for the alternative β- decay pathway, so in addition to being a faster process than beta decay it can also be energetically more favorable. This can also contribute to creating fleeting yet substantial local populations of short-lived, neutron-rich isotopes. There is indirect experimental evidence that such neutron-rich isotopes can be produced in complex ULM neutron-catalyzed LENR nucleosynthetic (transmutation) networks that set-up and operate during brief lifetime of an LENR-active patch; see Carbon-target network on Slides # 11 - 12 and esp. on Slide #55 in http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llctechnical-overviewcarbon-target-lenr-networkssept-3-2009
  62. 62. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 62 “Electrically conductive bacterial nanowires produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 and other microorganisms” Y. Gorby et al., PNAS 103 pp. 11358–11363 (2006) http://www.pnas.org/content/103/30/11358.full.pdf+html
  63. 63. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 63 Potentially occurring in active undersea hydrothermal vent systems Collective electric interactions amongst bacteria resemble LENR chemical cells Now, fascinating new facts and speculation about electric bacteria - recent exciting discoveries by microbiologists have revealed that electric potentials, currents, and nanowires are associated with the activities of a number of different species of bacteria; how might this relate to the possibility of natural LENRs in hydrothermal vent systems? First, examine the concept of a LENR electrolytic chemical cell: Above are various conceptual schematics of a type of aqueous light-water electrolytic chemical cells used in many LENR experiments (typically would use DC power supply instead of a battery as a source of electrical current). Please note that using mass spectroscopy for post-experiment analyses, LENR researchers have carefully documented and reported production (via transmutation) of minute amounts of many different elements and isotopically shifted stable isotopes on the surfaces of cathodes found in such cells. In certain cases, array of transmutation products was huge
  64. 64. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 64 Scientists discovering that “electric bacteria” may well be ubiquitous “Shows that [bacterial] life can handle the energy in its purest form - electrons” Source: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25894-meet-the-electric-life-forms-that-live-on-pure-energy.html#.U9JcIfldW24 “Meet the electric life forms that live on pure energy” Catherine Brahic in New Scientist: Life July 16, 2014 Quoting excerpts directly: “Unlike any other life on Earth, these extraordinary bacteria use energy in its purest form – they eat and breathe electrons – and they are everywhere.” “Stick an electrode in the ground, pump electrons down it, and they will come: living cells that eat electricity. We have known bacteria to survive on a variety of energy sources, but none as weird as this. Think of Frankenstein's monster, brought to life by galvanic energy, except these ‘electric bacteria’ are very real and are popping up all over the place.” “Unlike any other living thing on Earth, electric bacteria use energy in its purest form – naked electricity in the shape of electrons harvested from rocks and metals. We already knew about two types, Shewanella and Geobacter. Now, biologists are showing that they can entice many more out of rocks and marine mud by tempting them with a bit of electrical juice. Experiments growing bacteria on battery electrodes demonstrate that these novel, mind-boggling forms of life are essentially eating and excreting electricity.” Excellent, well-written popular article
  65. 65. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 65 “Such bacteria are showing up everywhere we look, says Ken Nielsen.” “Bacterial cells that both eat and breathe electrons will soon be discovered” Source: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25894-meet-the-electric-life-forms-that-live-on-pure-energy.html#.U9JcIfldW24 “Meet the electric life forms that live on pure energy” Catherine Brahic in New Scientist: Life July 16, 2014 Quoting excerpts directly: “Electric bacteria come in all shapes and sizes. A few years ago, biologists discovered that some produce hair-like filaments that act as wires, ferrying electrons back and forth between the cells and their wider environment. They dubbed them microbial nanowires.” “Lars Peter Nielsen and his colleagues at Aarhus University in Denmark have found that tens of thousands of electric bacteria can join together to form daisy chains that carry electrons over several centimetres – a huge distance for a bacterium only 3 or 4 micrometres long.” “Such bacteria are showing up everywhere we look, says [Prof. Ken] Nielsen.” “Early work shows that such cables [bacterial nanowires] conduct electricity about as well as the wires that connect your toaster to the mains.”
  66. 66. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 66 Present-era and ancient fossil undersea hydrothermal vent systems Ancient hyperthermophilic Archaea bacteria require Tungsten to live “Discovered in 1986 in deep sea vents off Italy. It is a hyperthermophilic Archaea bacterium that grows at an astonishing 100°C, with a range between 70°C and 103°C. Optimally its pH is at 7, but it can stand between a pH of 5 and 9. It is anaerobic and heterotrophic in nature and has a fermentative metabolism. It has enzymes that contain Tungsten, a very rare phenomena for biological organisms. Tungsten is believed to fuel the growth of the bacterium.” Pyrococcus furiosus (1986)  74W180-target LENR neutron-catalyzed transmutation network discussed herein requires Tungsten target material to be locally present in order to, for example, produce Gold and Mercury as LENR network products Q. Is elemental Tungsten in some chemical form present in the environments of active hydrothermal vents? A. Yes, it can sometimes be relatively abundant Q. Are microorganisms living in undersea vent environments that are known to chemically manipulate elemental Tungsten and/or require it in their metabolism? A. Yes, please see the recently discovered hydrothermal vent bacterium to right See: G. Fiala & K. Stetter, "Pyrococcus furiosus sp. nov. represents a novel genus of marine heterotrophic archaebacteria growing optimally at 100°C,” Archives of Microbiology 145 pp. 56 - 61 (1986) doi:10.1007/BF00413027 H. Sakuraba & T. Ohshima, “Novel energy metabolism in anaerobic hyperthermophilic Archaea: a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 93 pp. 441 - 448 (2002) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389172302800901 Comments and key unanswered questions for geomicrobiologists: knowing that less than 1% of all living bacterial species have been well-characterized and grown in cultures and assuming that some bacteria can in fact utilize LENRs, is it possible that P. furiosus or some yet undiscovered microorganism(s) living somewhere in vent systems are creating LENR neutron captures on Tungsten and transmuting it into Gold via the 74W180-target network or is it somehow occurring abiologically therein? Truly a fascinating possibility for subject matter experts to investigate
  67. 67. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 67 Present-era and ancient fossil undersea hydrothermal vent systems Pyrobaculum aerophilum bacteria require Tungsten for at least one key enzyme Figure from: “Adaptation to a high-Tungsten environment: Pyrobaculum aerophilum contains an active Tungsten nitrate reductase” S. De Vries et al., Biochemistry 49 pp. 9911 - 9921 (2010) DOI: 10.1021/bi100974v Quoting from abstract: “Nitrate reductases (Nars) belong to the DMSO reductase family of molybdoenzymes. The hyperthermophilic denitrifying archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum exhibits nitrate reductase (Nar) activity even at WO42− concentrations that are inhibitory to bacterial Nars. In this report, we establish that the enzyme purified from cells grown with 4.5 μM WO42− contains W as the metal cofactor but is otherwise identical to the Mo- Nar previously purified from P. aerophilum grown at low WO42− concentrations. W is coordinated by a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor ... This is the first description of an active W-containing Nar demonstrating the unique ability of hyperthermophiles to adapt to their high-WO42− environment.” Quote from Schroeder & de Vries in 2006: “Tungsten salts are poorly soluble and reach significant concentrations only at elevated temperatures. In deep sea hydrothermal vents and hot springs tungsten concentrations can easily exceed 5 μM. We have previously shown that the archaeal denitrifier Pyrobaculum aerophilum strictly requires Tungsten for growth. P. aerophilum grows optimally at 100ºC and incorporates either Molybdenum (Mo) or Tungsten (W) into its respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar). The metal cofactor for Nar is dependent on the external Tungsten concentration. While Tungsten has been shown to be detrimental to bacterial NARs, P. aerophilum contains an active WNar.” Lattice comment: In Figure, please note close coordination of Tungsten (W) with Sulfur (S). Interestingly, so- called “mass-independent fractionation” of Sulfur isotopes has been published and is well- documented for certain hyperthermophiles Q. Is it simply prosaic chemical fractionation or are some such isotopic shifts really LENR transmutations by microorganisms?
  68. 68. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 68 Present-era and ancient fossil undersea hydrothermal vent systems Bacteria are known that chemically manipulate and concentrate (enrich) Gold This image shows maps of pure Gold with other elements. By determining what elements there are, scientists can see where the Gold is located in relation to the cells. These maps are quantitative X-ray fluorescence maps showing the distribution of Gold, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Sulfur and Zinc in an individual cell after a minute exposure to Au(III) at pH 7.0 (the quantified area is marked in the image, and concentrations are in the image). Credit: Reith et al., PNAS 5-9 October 2009 Frank Reith (Univ. of Adelaide) et al. have done some excellent, truly fascinating work on the geomicrobiology of Gold; here are two references to some recent must-read papers on subject: Interesting question for geomicrobiologists: why pray tell would any bacteria ever be ‘fooling around’ with Gold? Is it simply some sort of chemical manipulation because Au happens to be present in their environment? Or are there perhaps some other species (presently unknown to science) of bacteria that are actually engaged in transmuting Gold from Tungsten found in their metallomes for some as of today unknown biological purpose? “The geomicrobiology of Gold” F. Reith et al. The ISME Journal 1 pp. 567 - 584 (2007) http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v1/n7/pdf/ismej200775a.pdf “Mechanisms of Gold biomineralization in the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans” F. Reith et al. PNAS 106 pp. 17757 - 17762 (2009) http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/10/06/0904583106.full.pdf+html N.B. - Cupriavidus metallidurans utilizes Tungsten-enzyme, formate dehydrogenase
  69. 69. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 69 Less expensive, lighter stable elements More expensive, heavier Z stable elements Green LENR transmutation “An era can be said to end when its basic illusions are exhausted.” Arthur Miller, American playwright and essayist “When it came apart,” New York Magazine Dec. 30, 1974 - Jan. 6, 1975 Electroweak neutron production Beta- decays increase Z
  70. 70. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 70 Metallic Element Recent price US$ / measure of quantity Recent price in troy ounces Comment Price multiple versus Tungsten (W) Recent annual global production in metric tons (metal equiv.) Gold (Au) 1,225 /troy same Product 851x ~2,600 Platinum (Pt) 1,363 /troy same Product 947x ~186 Iridium (Ir) 400 /troy ounce same Product 277x ~10 Osmium (Os) 400 /troy ounce same Product 277x ~0.6 Rhenium (Re) 3,500 /kg. (99%) ~US$ 109 Product 78x ~45 Tantalum (Ta) 52 /lb. 82% wt. of Ta2O5 ~US$ 3.60 Target scrap metal 2.5x ~1,700 Tungsten (W) ~42,000 /short ton ~US$ 1.44 Target scrap metal 1.0x ~78,000 Au, Pt multiples of Tungsten price suggests LENRs may be economic Relative pricing imbalances create opportunities for high-margin LENR products Tellurium (Te): Current annual world production is on the order of ~80,000 kg. (80 metric tons) Recent price for 99.99% basis WH Rotterdam was ~US$ 98.00/kg. or ~US$ 216/lb. Potential materials for LENR targets include Cadmium (Cd) which recently traded basis 99.99% at US$ 1.00/lb. Price multiple of Te is 216x price of Cadmium Example of economics All prices are as of mid-December in 2013
  71. 71. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 71 Commercialized processes could potentially produce scarce elements Lower-cost target elements + energyinput  + nLENRs  higher-priced elements LENR transmutation processes would be similar to conventional mining in that high-$ valuable scarce elements would also be commercial end-products of business activity Would differ from age-old mining practices in that LENRs would not necessarily require digging huge holes in the earth’s crust and then crushing many tons of ore-bearing rock (which uses lots of costly energy) before long-utilized chemically based extraction/ processing/refining technologies can be used to produce desired end-product elements Intermediate mixtures of isotopes created in LENR production processes would be ~benign and not at all radioactive, so there would not be any $ costly nuclear safety issues to be addressed (unlike fission plants); cost-effective existing bulk chemical processing/separation/refining techniques could be used to produce saleable products Since LENR transmutation factories would not necessarily require large amounts of energy-intensive digging and megatons of rock crushing to produce commercially valuable scarce element products, the labor, energy, and capital equipment costs associated with those traditional aspects of conventional mining operations would be absent from bill-of-materials production costs for scarce elements by LENR factories
  72. 72. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 72 LENRs are a truly green radiation- and radwaste-free nuclear technology that can be used for power generation and transmuting target elements that are found in the Periodic Table Widom-Larsen theory explains physics of LENRs, enables engineering, and is supported by ~ 100 years of published experimental data (LENRs hidden in plain sight for most of that time) Proof-of-concept for LENR transmutation of various elements in minute laboratory quantities has been reported by Japanese companies in peer-reviewed journals; e.g., Mitsubishi, Toyota Recent studies, especially by Graedel et al. (2013, 2012), warn that costly and disruptive supply shortages could potentially occur in the near future for an array of different elements that --- for one reason or another --- are critical for manufacturing and achieving superior levels of performance in vast numbers of high-tech processes and myriads of devices, electronic and otherwise, that our modern society has come to depend upon in everyday life Most of these technologically critical, often relatively scarce, elements are already reported to have been produced in different LENR experiments, albeit only in microscopic quantities There are intriguing indications that bacteria may be able to induce LENRs; if this were true, desired elements might be produced someday by strains of genetically modified bacteria If commercialized versions of LENRs could be scaled-up both quantity- and % yield-wise, speculative analysis of the future economics of transmutation suggests that production of certain scarce elements could potentially yield saleable, high-gross-margin end-products
  73. 73. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 73 “On the materials basis of modern society” T. Graedel et al. PNAS Early Edition December 2, 2013, doi:10.1073/pnas.1312752110 (2013) http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/11/27/1312752110.full.pdf http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2013/11/29/1312752110.DCSupplemental/pnas.201312752SI.pdf “Will metal scarcity impede routine industrial use” T. Graedel & L. Erdmann MRS Bulletin 37 pp. 325 - 331 (2012) http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FMRS%2FMRS37_04%2FS0883769412000346a.pdf&code=e2c01b117e75410a968140bc4db80943 “Dynamic analysis of the global metals flows and stocks in electricity generation technologies” A. Elshkaki & T. Graedel Journal of Cleaner Production 59 pp. 260 - 273 (2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652613004575 “Energy critical elements - securing materials for emerging technologies” R. Jaffe (MIT) et al. Report: American Physical Society/Materials Research Society 28 pp. (2011) http://www.aps.org/policy/reports/popa-reports/upload/elementsreport.pdf
  74. 74. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 74 Index to large collection of documents re LENR theory, experimental data, and the technology: “Index to key concepts and documents” v. #19 L. Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC, May 28, 2013 [119 slides] Updated and revised through August 19, 2014 http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-index-to-documents-re-widomlarsen-theory-of-lenrsmay-28-2013 Lattice document concerning LENR-based power generation systems vs. fission and fusion: “Truly green nuclear energy exists – an overview for everybody: no deadly gammas … no energetic neutrons … and no radioactive waste” L. Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC, v. #5 updated and revised through March 5, 2014 [109 slides] http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/powering-the-world-to-a-green-lenr-future-lattice-energy-llcapril-11-2013 Detailed discussion and analysis of recent U.S. patent application by Mitsubishi: “Analysis and comments: patent application: US 2012/0269309 A1 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.” Lewis Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC, July 28, 2013 [8.5 x 11 - 51 pages] http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy- llcwidomlarsen-theory-explains-data-presented-in-new-mitsubishi- us-patent-applicationjuly-28-2013
  75. 75. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 75 “Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces” A. Widom and L. Larsen [first peer-reviewed paper published on Widom-Larsen theory; preprint on arXiv May 2005] European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields (EPJC) 46 pp. 107 - 112 (2006) Live hyperlink: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/widom-and-larsen-ulm-neutron-catalyzed-lenrs-on- metallic-hydride-surfacesepjc-march-2006 [as-published author’s copy of paper] Abstract: “Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions in metallic hydride system surfaces are discussed. Weak interaction catalysis initially occurs when neutrons (along with neutrinos) are produced from the protons that capture ‘heavy’ electrons. Surface electron masses are shifted upwards by localized condensed matter electromagnetic fields. Condensed matter quantum electrodynamic processes may also shift the densities of final states, allowing an appreciable production of extremely low momentum neutrons, which are thereby efficiently absorbed by nearby nuclei. No Coulomb barriers exist for the weak interaction neutron production or other resulting catalytic processes.” “A primer for electro-weak induced low energy nuclear reactions” Y. Srivastava, A. Widom, and L. Larsen [review paper; covers all theoretical aspects of Widom-Larsen theory to date] Pramana - Journal of Physics 75 pp. 617 - 637 (2010) Live hyperlink: http://www.ias.ac.in/pramana/v75/p617/fulltext.pdf Abstract: “Under special circumstances, electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low-energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow-moving electrons can (under appropriate circumstances) be collectively transferred into fewer, much faster electrons with energies sufficient for the latter to combine with protons (or deuterons, if present) to produce neutrons via weak interactions. The produced neutrons can then initiate low-energy nuclear reactions through further nuclear transmutations. The aim of this paper is to extend and enlarge upon various examples analyzed previously, present order of magnitude estimates for each and to illuminate a common unifying theme amongst all of them.”
  76. 76. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 76 Lattice welcomes inquiries from large, established organizations that have an interest in seriously discussing the possibility of becoming a strategic capital and/or technology development partner in the near- or long-term time frames Lattice also selectively engages in some fee-based third-party consulting. This work covers topics in the context of micron-scale, many-body collective quantum effects in condensed matter systems (including photosynthesis), safety issues arising from field failures causing Li-ion battery thermal runaways, nuclear waste remediation, and ultra- high-temperature superconductors, among others. Additional areas of expertise include long-term strategic implications of LENRs on high cap-ex long term investments in power generation and petroleum-related assets, as well as long-term price outlooks for precious metals and crude oil. We consult on these subjects as long as it does not involve disclosing proprietary engineering details applicable to LENR power generation systems 1-312-861-0115 lewisglarsen@gmail.com L. Larsen c.v.: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lewis-g-larsen-cv-june-2013 Consulting is subservient to company's main goal: commercializing LENRs for applications in ultra-high energy density portable, mobile, and stationary power generation systems
  77. 77. Lattice Energy LLC December 13, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013, All rights reserved 77 “The [high-current electric arc] experimental procedure here sketched cannot be looked upon as the only one for effecting transmutation [of other elements into Gold]; probably different processes will be developed and finally lead to industrial enterprises. Experiments with various elements may lead to different transmutations, which will be of significance to science and industry. Meagre as is the result, I wish to invite the attention of those interested in the subject so that they may repeat the experiment with more powerful means than are available in the Far East.” Prof. Hantaro Nagaoka “Letters to the Editor” Nature July 18, 1925

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