Lattice Energy LLC      Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy                    Patent Issuance...
Lattice Energy LLC          Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of CLENR Energy                       US Patent No. 7...
Lattice Energy LLC  Creation of ULM neutrons on loaded hydride surfaces - I Hydride forming elements, e.g., Palladium (Pd...
Lattice Energy LLC    Creation of ULM neutrons on loaded hydride surfaces - II    When all available interstitial sites i...
Lattice Energy LLCLocal capture of ULM neutrons on loaded hydride surfaces    Unlike energetic neutrons produced in most ...
Lattice Energy LLC   W-L mechanism in condensed matter LENR systems         Weak interaction processes are very important ...
Lattice Energy LLCConceptual details: W-L mechanism in metallic hydrides  Side view – not to scale – charge balances in di...
Lattice Energy LLCHigh level overview: W-L mechanism in condensed matter    US Patent No. 7,893,414 covers gamma to IR con...
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Lattice Energy LLC Issuance Announcement-US Patent No 7893414 - Feb 22 2011

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  • In the USA, the issued patent grants certain intellectual property rights to the Assignee that our company intends to vigorously enforce.

    Lewis Larsen, President and CEO, Lattice Energy LLC
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  • Does the granting of the patent mean anything regarding commercialisation of products coming from this technology?With the Rossi device apparently coming in several months the race is on!
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  • Dear Readers:

    As scheduled, this patent was issued by the USPTO on February 22, 2011; please see:

    Source URL (hyperlink) = http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=7893414&OS=7893414&RS=7893414

    Lewis Larsen February 25, 2011
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Lattice Energy LLC Issuance Announcement-US Patent No 7893414 - Feb 22 2011

  1. 1. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Patent Issuance Announcement US 7,893,414 will issue on February 22, 2011 “Apparatus and Method for Absorption of Incident Gamma Radiation and its Conversion to Outgoing Radiation at Less Penetrating, Lower Energies and Frequencies” Lewis Larsen, President and CEO “Tight-lipped, guided by reasons only, Cautiously let us step into the era of the unchained fire.” Czeslaw Milosz, poem “Child of Europe,” New York, 1946February 11, 2011 Copyright 2011 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 1
  2. 2. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of CLENR Energy US Patent No. 7,893,414 Inventors: Lewis Larsen and Allan Widom Assignee: Lattice Energy LLC, Chicago, Illinois USA USPTO Issue Date: February 22, 2011 Abstract: “Gamma radiation (22) is shielded by producing a region of heavy electrons (4) and receiving incident gamma radiation in such region. The heavy electrons absorb energy from the gamma radiation and re-radiate it as photons (38, 40) at a lower energy and frequency. The heavy electrons may be produced in surface plasmon polaritons. Multiple regions (6) of collectively oscillating protons or deuterons with associated heavy electrons may be provided. Nanoparticles of a target material on a metallic surface capable of supporting surface plasmons may be provided. The region of heavy electrons is associated with that metallic surface. The method induces a breakdown in a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Apparatus and method are described.”February 11, 2011 Copyright 2011 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 2
  3. 3. Lattice Energy LLC Creation of ULM neutrons on loaded hydride surfaces - I Hydride forming elements, e.g., Palladium (Pd), Nickel (Ni), Titanium (Ti), etc. can be viewed as akin to metallic ‘sponges’ that can absorb significant amounts of hydrogen isotopes in atom % via ‘loading’ mechanisms Analogous to loading a bone-dry sponge with H2O by gradually spilling droplets of water onto it, hydrogen isotopes can actually be ‘loaded’ into hydride-forming metals using different techniques, e.g., various levels of DC electric currents, pressure gradients, etc. Just prior to entering a metallic lattice, molecules of hydrogen isotopes dissociate, become monatomic, and then ionize by donating their electrons to the metallic electron ‘sea,’ thus becoming charged interstitial lattice protons (p+), deuterons (d+), or tritons (t+) in the process Once formed, ions of hydrogen isotopes migrate to and occupy specific interstitial structural sites in metallic hydride bulk lattices; this is a material-specific property Artist’s rendering : Magnetic Fields Lines Around Black Hole February 11, 2011 Copyright 2011 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 3
  4. 4. Lattice Energy LLC Creation of ULM neutrons on loaded hydride surfaces - II When all available interstitial sites in the interior of a bulk lattice are occupied by hydrogenous ions, a metallic hydride is ‘fully loaded,’ i.e., saturated. At that point, a dynamic balance between loading and deloading begins (so-called “breathing” mode) during which some of those ions start ‘leaking back out’ of the bulk onto the surface. This localized deloading is a dynamic process, occurring in discrete, island-like, micron-scale surface ‘patches’ or ‘droplets’ (scattered randomly across the surface) comprised of many contiguous p+, d+, and/or t+ ions (or admixtures thereof) Homogeneous (limited % admixtures; too large % will destroy coherence) collections of p+, d+, or t+ found in many-body patches on loaded metallic hydride surfaces oscillate in unison, collectively and coherently; their QM wave functions are effectively ‘entangled.’ Such coherence has been demonstrated in many experiments involving deep inelastic neutron- and High electric fields electron-scattering measurements on loaded hydrides surrounding “nanorice” – Au coating on hematite core Electric fields surrounding Collective oscillations of hydrogenous ions in many-body surface patches “nanorice” – Au coating on hematite core set the stage for local breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation; this enables loose electromagnetic coupling between p+, d+, or t+ ions See: A. Bushmaker et al., located in patches and nearby ‘covering’ surface plasmon polariton (SPP) “Direct observation of electrons. B-O breakdown creates nuclear-strength local electric fields Born-Oppenheimer (above 1011 V/m) in and around such patches. Effective masses of SPP approximation breakdown electrons (e-) exposed to very large local electric fields are thereby in carbon nanotubes” in increased (e-*), enabling neutron production via e-* + p+, e-* + d+, e-* + t+ Nano Lett. 9 (2) pp. 607-611 reactions above isotope-specific threshold values for E-M field strength Feb. 11, 2009 February 11, 2011 Copyright 2011 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 4
  5. 5. Lattice Energy LLCLocal capture of ULM neutrons on loaded hydride surfaces  Unlike energetic neutrons produced in most nuclear Ultra low momentum neutrons reactions, collectively produced LENR neutrons are have enormous absorption effectively ‘standing still’ at the moment of their creation in cross-sections on 1/v condensed matter. Since they are vastly below thermal isotopes. For example, Lattice energies (ultra low momentum), ULMNs have huge QM has estimated ULMN fission DeBroglie wavelengths (up to microns) and extraordinarily capture cross-section on U- large capture cross-sections on nearby nuclei; virtually all 235 @ ~1 million barns and will be locally absorbed; not detectable as ‘free’ neutrons on Pu-239 @ 49,000 barns (b), vs. ~586 b and ~752 b, respectively, for neutrons @  For the vast majority of stable and unstable isotopes, ULM thermal energies. A neutron neutron capture cross-sections are directly related to ~1/v, capture expert recently where v is the neutron velocity in m/sec. Since v is estimated ULMN capture on extremely small for ULM neutrons, their capture cross- He-4 @ ~20,000 b vs. value sections on atomic nuclei will therefore be correspondingly of <1 b for thermal neutrons large relative to cross-sections measured at thermal energies where v = 2,200 m/sec and the neutron DeBroglie By comparison, the highest known thermal capture cross wavelength is ~2 Angstroms. After being collectively section for any stable isotope created, virtually all ULMNs will be locally absorbed before is Gadolinium-157 @ ~49,000 any scattering on lattice atoms can elevate them to thermal b. The highest measured kinetic energies; per S. Lamoreaux (Yale) thermalization cross-section for any unstable would require ~0.1 to 0.2 msec, i.e. 10-4 sec., a long time on isotope is Xenon-135 @ ~2.7 typical 10-19 - 10-22 sec. time-scale of nuclear reactions rendering : Magneticb Artist’s million Fields Lines Around Black Hole February 11, 2011 Copyright 2011 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 5
  6. 6. Lattice Energy LLC W-L mechanism in condensed matter LENR systems Weak interaction processes are very important in LENRs 1. E-M radiation on metallic hydride surface No strong interaction fusion or heavy element fission occurring below, only weak interactions increases mass of surface plasmon electrons (High E-M field) + Mass-renormalized (radiation) + e − → e − 2. Heavy-mass surface plasmon polariton 1. ~ surface plasmon polariton electron electrons react directly with surface protons (p+) or deuterons (d+) to produce ultra low ν 2. + + momentum (ULM) neutrons (nulm or 2nulm, respectively) and an electron neutrino (νe) e − + p+ → n ~ +ν e ulm 3. Ultra low momentum neutrons (nulm) are captured by nearby atomic nuclei (Z, A) + + ν 2. representing some element with charge (Z) and e − + d + → 2n ~ +ν e atomic mass (A). ULM neutron absorption ulm produces a heavier-mass isotope (Z, A+1) via + transmutation. This new isotope (Z, A+1) may 3. itself be a stable or unstable, which will n + ( Z , A) → ( Z , A + 1) ulm Unstable or stable new isotope perforce eventually decay + + ν Many unstable isotopes β- decay, producing: 4. ( Z , A + 1) → ( Z + 1, A + 1) + e − + ν e 4. transmuted element with increased charge Unstable Isotope (Z+1), ~ same mass (A+1) as ‘parent’ nucleus; β- particle (e- ); and an antineutrino Weak interaction β- decays (shown above), direct gamma conversion to infrared (not shown), and α decays (not shown) produce most of the excess Note: colored shapes associated with diagram on next Slide heat calorimetrically observed in LENR systemsFebruary 11, 2011 Copyright 2011 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 6
  7. 7. Lattice Energy LLCConceptual details: W-L mechanism in metallic hydrides Side view – not to scale – charge balances in diagram only approximate A proton has just reacted with a SPP electron, Collectively oscillating patch of many creating a ‘ghostly’ ULM neutron via e* + p weak Surface of metallic protons or deuterons with nearby interaction; QM wavelength same ‘size’ as patch hydride substrate ‘heavy’ mass-renormalized SPP electrons ‘bathed’ in high local E-field Local region of very high (>1011 V/m) electric fields ‘above’ micron-scale, many-body QM wave function of ultra low patches of protons or deuterons where Born- momentum (ULM) neutron Oppenheimer Approximation breaks down Heavily hydrogen-‘loaded’ metallic hydride atomic lattice Conduction electrons in substrate lattice not shown Region of short-range, high = Proton, deuteron, or triton = Surface ‘target’ atom = Transmuted atom (nuclear product) strength E-M fields and ‘entangled’ QM wave functions of hydrogenous ions and SPP electrons = ULM neutron = Unstable isotope = SPP electron = ‘Heavy’ SPP electronFebruary 11, 2011 Copyright 2011 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 7
  8. 8. Lattice Energy LLCHigh level overview: W-L mechanism in condensed matter US Patent No. 7,893,414 covers gamma to IR conversion below LENR Nuclear Realm (MeVs) ‘Transducer’ regions: many-body collective effects, ~eV Chemical Energy Realm (eVs) Occurs within micron-scale ‘patches’ energies are ‘collected’ and ‘summed’ to MeV energies in Everywhere else in LENR systems micron-scale, many-body surface ‘patches’ by ‘film’ of SPP “Hot spots:”reach 3,000 - 6,000+ oC electrons and p+, d+, t+ ions in patches; all oscillate collectively Energy must be inputted to create ‘Craters’ visible in post-experiment SEM high surface E-M radiation fields images of LENR device surfaces that are needed to produce ULM e − + p+ → n ~ +ν e neutrons. Required input energy ulm E-M energy Input can be provided from one or a E-M energy E-M energy e − + d + → 2n ~ +ν e combination of: electron ‘beams’ ulm Mass- (electric currents); ion ‘beams’, i.e., Many-body, Normal-mass + + ν collectively renormalized surface plasmon fluxes of ions across the surface ‘film’ of SPP electrons (protons, oscillating surface polariton (SPP) or π deuterons, tritons, or other ions); n + ( Z , A) → ( Z , A + 1) surface’ patches’ plasmon electrons on and E-M photons, e.g., from lasers ulm of p+, d+, or t+ polariton surfaces of certain Either a stable (SPP) if nanoscale surface roughness ions carbon structures + isotope electrons – coupling parameters are satisfied Or unstable also convert Gamma photons IR photons γ isotope in an IR Infrared (IR) photons excited state gammas to IR excite lattice - may emit gammas Surface ‘film’ of SPP phonons Micron-scale surface regions with or X-rays electrons inherently ULM neutron Unstable isotope: very high local electromagnetic fields oscillates collectively captures on ‘target Which then subsequently undergoes fuel’ elements and some type of nuclear decay process Born-Oppenheimer Approximation breaks down in many- subsequent nuclear body ‘patches’ of p+, d+, or t+ on ‘loaded’ hydride surfaces reactions all In the case of typical beta- decay: release nuclear Heat + + ν Two-way, collective energy transfers occur back-and-forth binding energy – ( Z , A) → ( Z + 1, A) + e − + ν e neutrons are the via E-M fields coupling the chemical and nuclear realms ‘match’ that lights the fuel ‘on fire’ In the case of typical alpha decay: LENR final products: primarily stable Energetic + isotopes, energetic β-, α (He-4) particles, charged ( Z , A) → ( Z − 2, A − 4) + 4 He Output other charged particles, IR photons (with Output particles 2 excite lattice Extremely neutron-rich product isotopes small ‘tail’ in soft X-rays), and neutrinos phonons Neutrinos (ν) fly may also deexcite via beta-delayed off into space at decays, which also emit small fluxes of neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, etc. End with: ν and IR photons velocity cFebruary 11, 2011 Copyright 2011 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 8

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