September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 1 
Weiji today g Jihui tomorrow 
Lewis Larsen 
Pr...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 2 
Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 3 
Source: http://www.estquality.com/technology N...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 4 
Source: C. Zu & H. Li, Energy & Environmental ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 5 
Source: http://www.popsci.com/node/30347 
So-c...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 6 
Japanese companies understand convergence of ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 7 
Overview of three technology domains ………………………...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 8 
Energy density scale-up can increase safety ri...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 9 
Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 10 
Three different technologies now converging o...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 11 
Three domains of technology all involve energ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 12 
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyrig...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 13 
Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 14 
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyrig...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 15 
Huge decrease in distances separating battery...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 16 
Technology convergence is length-scale relate...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 17 
Technology convergence is length-scale relate...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 18 
“… eventually there comes a time when neither...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 19 
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyrig...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 20 Convergence of batteries, LENRs, and energetic...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 21 
“Hot electrons do the impossible: plasmon- in...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 22 
What was thought impossible becomes possible ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 23 
What was thought impossible becomes possible ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 24 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 25 
Low energy neutron reactions (LENRs) are a un...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 26
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 27
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 28 
Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs 
Many-body...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 29
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Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs Collective...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 32 
Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs 
Many-body...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 33 
Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs 
Below are...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 34 
Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs 
In 2009 w...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 35 
Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs 
Nuclear a...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 36 
Solves several 
unexplained 
astronomical mys...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 37 
Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 38 
Battery industry is already encountering LENR...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 39 
Battery industry is already encountering LENR...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 40 
Battery industry is already encountering LENR...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 41 
Anders’ SEM images vs. selected images of pos...
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Excerpted and quoted directly from: “Ultrafas...
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Excerpted and quoted directly from: “Multipli...
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Battery industry is already encountering LENR...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 45 
Battery industry is already encountering LENR...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 46 
A. Anders: Spot Type 1 - “contaminated” surfa...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 47 
Battery industry is already encountering LENR...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 48 
Please note that as little as a single blazi...
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Within as little as milliseconds after the c...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 50 
Battery industry is already encountering LENR...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 51 
 Although there are differences, there is a ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 52 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 53 
Market success of lithium-based batteries an...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 54 
Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights...
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Typically well-controlled electrochemical re...
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Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Go...
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Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 58 
Garden variety single-cell thermal runaways:...
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Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Fi...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 60 
Field-failure category of thermal runaways c...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 61 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 62 
Separators: polyethylene (M.P. ~125o C) or po...
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separator 
separator 
Al 
Cu 
Carbon-based ma...
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Example of a battery that had a thermal runaw...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 65 
Perfect microspheres suggest there was μ-scal...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 66 
When NTSB scientists investigated charred de...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 67 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 68 
Parallels between LENRs and Lithium-based bat...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 69 
Parallels between LENRs and Lithium-based bat...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 70 
Lattice Energy LLC has developed multiple al...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 71 
Parallels between LENRs and Lithium-based bat...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 72 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 73 
“Burn ‘em all --- let God sort ‘em out.” 1. 
...
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Causative agent that can trigger thermal runa...
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Source: “Chemical Principles” S. Zumdahl, pp....
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High thermal runaway temps create energetic m...
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High thermal runaway temps create energetic m...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 78 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 79 
Lithium-based batteries come in many differen...
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1859 
1989 
1899 
1991 
1996 
Increased batte...
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Increased battery energy density drives conve...
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Increased battery energy density drives conve...
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Source: http://www.extremetech.com/computing/...
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Credit: ca. 2012 
Increased battery energy de...
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Increased battery energy density drives conve...
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Increased battery energy density drives conve...
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Increased battery energy density drives conve...
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Increased battery energy density drives conve...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 89 
Increased battery energy density drives conve...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 90 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 91 
Energy density scale-up can increase safety r...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 92 
Energy density scale-up can increase safety r...
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Unfortunately, safer lead-acid batteries are...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 94 
Thermal runaway event inside single-cell, li...
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Energy density scale-up can increase safety r...
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Since 1991: improved battery energy densities...
September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 97 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and ...
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013
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Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013

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Large increases in battery energy densities drive convergence between energetic materials, LENRs and batteries. Today LENRs create problems in high-energy-density advanced batteries; battery manufacturers can potentially turn today’s LENR issues into tomorrow’s opportunities. Importantly,
Japanese companies understand the convergence: Mitsubishi Heavy industries, Toyota Central Research, Toyota Motor Corp., and other unnamed large Japanese companies all now have LENR R&D programs; Lattice believes their ultimate goal is to eventually be able to replace the internal combustion engine using CO2-free LENRs.

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  • Sept. 15, 2014: updated document and also added Slides #86 - 89 re unexpected pullback in Lithium-air battery R&D by two major players, IBM and JCESR.
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  • @lewisglarsen Thank you Lew. I believe this also explains some of the phenomena observes by research scientists in a Science Daily Article In Chemical Reactions Water Turns Up The Speed without Increaseing The Heat. Mostly in MOFs and that area. Trace amounts of water such as is found in interstellar space when introduced into a chemical reaction will Markedly increase the production on the chemical reaction some 1000 percent and such. As this area is in the Fuel Cell stack and membrane area of technology it does have some pertinance ro hydrogen and electrical production via fuel cells of SOFC and PEM Cell areas.
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  • Dear Jessee:

    Good luck in your work on water-splitting technology ---- it sounds interesting.

    As an aside, C. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann (Technical University of Berlin) et al. have published on quantum entanglement and collective oscillations of protons and deuterons on surfaces (and elsewhere) since 1995. One of their relatively early published results was that hydrogens on simple H2O and D2O molecules are quantum mechanically entangled with each other.

    For example, we know that in terms of chemical stoichiometry the chemical formulas for water molecules are H2O and D2O, respectively. However, when C. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann et al. measured the stoichiometry of isolated water molecules with either deep inelastic neutron scattering (interacts with nuclei) or electron scattering (interacts with electron shells) you experimentally observe the same very different stoichiometry ---- in both cases you see H1.5O or D1.5O instead of H2O or D2O. The explanation for this amazing result is that the protons or deuterons in water molecules are mutually quantum mechanically entangled with each other a good part-of-the-time, i.e., they are behaving like bosons and have interpenetrating DeBroglie wave functions

    So a lowly water molecule resting on a metallic surface is already a sophisticated quantum mechanical object. They also found that in many cases, Q-M entanglement of hydrogens also occurred in hydrogen-rich functional groups found on certain, much larger, molecules.

    Lew
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  • @lewisglarsen Hello Lew. Yes; page 20 gets into the water splitting technique you mention. As life would have it; I am working with a very similar technology right now. It does involve some very similar components in its operation, though the Gold Tipped NANO Rod technology is superior in efficacy; it is considerably more expensive as a technological approach than the technology I am workung with for due to materials choices and scale of particulates. It none the less is quite effective in hydrogen production. A third generation design does however employ NANO Particulate. I plan to solicit DOE Funding for further development of the technology myself. I have covered the Gold Tipped NANO Rod material in several publications like Nature, Science Daily; and R&D. It is quite effective. It is an effective photo electric catalytic reaction technology. Gold is a superior materials choice as it does not oxidize. Carbon is also an excellent materials choice as a catlytic material for hydrogen generation. Working at the NANO Scale is also quite effective and this is where all chemical reactions occur.
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  • Dear Jessee:

    P.S. - it has been well-known for over 100 years that aqueous electrolysis can be used to produce hydrogen (for example, H2 production can occur during quick-charging of lead-acid batteries) under moderate conditions, i.e., below the boiling point of water at 100 degrees C.

    That said, and not being an expert on alternative methods of hydrogen production, I don't exactly know how the economic $ costs compare between 'brute force' dissociation of H2O using high temperatures and catalysts vs. production of hydrogen via ordinary aqueous electrolysis.

    Again, what is amazing about Mubeen et al. was that they were able to successfully split water without using an external source of electrical power (as in ordinary electolysis) or an external source of high-temperature process heat. Instead, they only relyied on energetic 'hot electrons' produced by photons in sunlight interacting with surface plasmon electrons on Gold nanorods to get the water-splitting job done.

    Lew
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Lattice Energy LLC- Increased Energy Densities Drive Convergence of Batteries and LENRs-Sept 6 2013

  1. 1. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 1 Weiji today g Jihui tomorrow Lewis Larsen President and CEO Lattice Energy LLC September 6, 2013 Contact: 1-312-861-0115 lewisglarsen@gmail.com http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen Large increases in device energy densities Drive convergence between energetic materials, LENRs and batteries LENRs can sometimes create thermal problems in high-energy-density batteries Battery manufacturers can potentially turn today’s LENR issues into greater profitability in future LENRs a nano energetic materials Critical point a for a strategy shift? Release bonding or binding energy Chinese characters: wei ji “I have learned to use the word ‘impossible’ with the greatest caution.” Wernher von Braun Sept. 15, 2014: added Slides #86 - 89 re unexpected pullback in Lithium-air battery R&D by two major players, IBM and JCESR
  2. 2. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 2 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 2
  3. 3. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 3 Source: http://www.estquality.com/technology Note: superimposed S-curve and dates were added by Lattice Batteries maturing and approaching technological limits Energy density increases and related cost reductions are slowing down 1859 1899 1991 1996 2014 Next 10 -15 years Lithium-based batteries became dominant in portable electronics and new EVs because they have much higher energy densities than other battery chemistries Energy density in Wh/L
  4. 4. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 4 Source: C. Zu & H. Li, Energy & Environmental Science 4 pp. 2614 - 2624 (2011) LENRs could be great leap forward in energy density Lithium-ion technology nearing energy-density limits for that chemistry Energy density in Wh/kg
  5. 5. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 5 Source: http://www.popsci.com/node/30347 So-called “thermite reactions” burning at thousands of degrees have much in common with absolute worst case field- failure thermal runaways in chemical batteries Certain chemical reactions release enough heat to actually melt metals Over time, energetic materials, LENRs, and advanced battery technologies are all gradually converging and overlapping with each other; it is a very persistent trend This is happening because future R&D paths to create vastly improved commercial products in these domains must all necessarily utilize micron- to nm-scale objects and energetic processes occurring on surfaces/interfaces Achieving such ambitious future goals with regard to system-level product performance and energy density will require using optimized combinations of co-existing chemical, electromagnetic, and … thanks to insights provided by Widom-Larsen … green radiation-free nano- nuclear processes with huge intrinsic energy densities Synergistic interaction and interdisciplinary cross- fertilization between these three domains of technology will create many opportunities for revolutionary change
  6. 6. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 6 Japanese companies understand convergence of LENRs and batteries: Mitsubishi Heavy industries, Toyota Central Research, Toyota Motor Corp., and other unnamed large Japanese companies all now have LENR R&D programs; Lattice believes their goal is to eventually replace the internal combustion engine with CO2-free LENRs Battery manufacturers should begin factoring LENRs into product safety risk mitigation strategies - weiji. Ideally, they would also embrace LENRs, viewing it as strategic opportunity to increase battery safety in the near-term, and in longer-term to gradually move toward a new, higher-performance future portable power technology whose energy density surpasses anything that is possible in the chemical realm - jihui Lattice would welcome a major battery manufacturer as a strategic business partner Based on proprietary technical knowledge, Lattice believes achievable thermal energy densities in commercial LENR devices could be substantially greater than 0.1% of Lattice’s estimated theoretical maximum of 57,500,000 Wh/kg. At a conservative 0.1% of maximum, still equates to extraordinary thermal energy density of ~57,500 Wh/kg. Assuming a value of 20% for heat-to-rotational power conversion efficiency translates into an estimated effective LENR net energy density of ~11,500 Wh/kg, which is equivalent to 100% efficient chemical combustion of gasoline with Oxygen and ≅ to Lithium-oxygen battery’s estimated theoretical maximum density of 11,680 Wh/kg
  7. 7. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 7 Overview of three technology domains …………………………….…………….. 9 - 12 Technology convergence is length-scale-related ..………………..……….…... 13 - 19 What was thought impossible becomes possible at nm ……………………… 20 - 23 Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs …..…………………….………….......... 24 - 36 Battery industry is already encountering LENRs …………..………….…….... 37 - 51 Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly …………………………………... 52 - 60 Example of a battery that had a thermal runaway …………………………….. 61 - 66 Parallels between LENRs and Lithium-based batteries ……………….….….. 67 - 71 High thermal runaway temps create energetic materials …………………….. 72 - 77 Increased battery energy density drives convergence …………………..…….78 - 89
  8. 8. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 8 Energy density scale-up can increase safety risks …………………………..... 90 - 96 Japanese companies understand the convergence …………….……………... 97 - 100 If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em ..……………………....…………..…….………… 101 - 107 Working with Lattice: we think we know the way…..……..….……………...... 108 - 110 Additional reading for the technically inclined ……………..……….…….…... 111 - 112 Parting thoughts ……………………………………………………………….……. 113 Quote regarding revolutions: Eric Hoffer (1967)……….…..…….…..…..114 Closing slide: Jihui - the future .……………………..….………….……… 115
  9. 9. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 9 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries Revolution in nuclear technology September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 9 Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs
  10. 10. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 10 Three different technologies now converging on nanoscale Each domain is being driven by a quest for higher energy densities Chemical batteries: devices used for reversibly storing electrical input energy (charging) in chemical bonds and controllably releasing clean electricity (discharging) on demand. Rise of portable electronic consumer products has driven vast, meteoric growth in both primary and secondary battery markets for more than 40 years Energetic materials: chemical compounds that can be triggered to irreversibly release very large amounts of chemical bonding energy via extremely fast reactions; are typically quite uncontrollable after being triggered Low energy neutron reactions (LENRs): unlike more familiar fission or fusion processes mainly driven by the strong interaction, these are truly eco-green nuclear processes wherein key steps depend instead on weak interactions; importantly, while LENRs can be designed to controllably release extremely large amounts of CO2- free thermal energy, they do not emit any dangerous fluxes of deadly energetic neutron or gamma radiation Credit: J. Le Perchec, Europhysics Letters (2010) Coherent cavity mode high-E-field hot spots
  11. 11. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 11 Three domains of technology all involve energy releases Differ in main purpose, source, energy-scale of reactions, and rates Technology domain Main purpose Source of energy Energy- scale Typical rates of reactions Temps in Centigrade Representative examples Electro- chemical batteries Store electrical energy reversibly in chemical bonds Chemical bonds Electron Volts (eV) Slow to moderate; typically diffusion rate-limited at various types of interfaces found inside batteries Batteries can generally be operated safely only at temperatures < 200o C Large variety of different chemistries: lead-acid, alkaline, NiMH, Nickel-cadmium, Lithium-ion, LiFePO4, Lithium-oxygen, etc. Energetic materials Thermal igniters, explosives, propellants Chemical bonds eVs Fast combustion processes w. O2, e.g., deflagration and detonation Macroscopic peak temps max-out at ~5,000o C Thermite reactions (burning of metals), dinitro-chloro-azido benzene, RDX, etc. Low energy neutron reactions (LENRs) Produce large amounts of CO2-free thermal energy from decay particles’ kinetic energies and gamma conversion to infrared Nuclear binding energy stored inside atomic nuclei Mega- electron Volts (MeVs) one MeV is equal to a million eVs Nuclear reactions themselves are super-fast, i.e., picosecond and faster; decays of any resulting unstable isotopes can range from very slow on order of millions of years to fast, i.e., nanoseconds Peak temperatures in micron- scale, short- lived LENR hotspot regions on surfaces and at interfaces typically reach ~3,700o to 5,700o C Neutron captures on various elements and isotopes; for example, LENR neutron capture processes starting with Lithium as base fuel target can release ~27 MeV in short sequence of nuclear reactions that do not release any energetic neutron or gamma radiation
  12. 12. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 12 September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 12 LENRs are a paradigm-shifting nuclear technology No deadly gamma radiation … No dangerous energetic neutron fluxes and Insignificant production of radioisotopes Truly revolutionary and environmentally safe
  13. 13. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 13 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 13
  14. 14. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 14 September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 14 LENRs and nanotechnology are intimately connected Large length scales Huge array of new technological capabilities and opportunities open-up at micron to nanometer length-scales
  15. 15. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 15 Huge decrease in distances separating battery anodes from cathodes centimeter (1.0 cm) millimeter-scale (.01 cm) micron-scale (.001mm) Baghdad battery ~ 250 BCE? 20th century lead-acid starter battery Contemporary lithium-ion battery Technology convergence is length-scale related Jelly roll
  16. 16. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 16 Technology convergence is length-scale related All paths lead toward using micron- to nm-scale objects and processes Credit: the Thomann Group at Rice University Credit: Scientific Reports 3 paper #2335 (Aug. 2013) High-E-field nm-scale hot spots near interfaces Battery performance is diffusion-rate-limited through intervening materials and across interfaces; to improve this parameter and increase overall energy density of battery cells, manufacturers invented the “jelly roll” architecture and shrank thicknesses of dielectric plastic separators between anode and cathode from centimeters to microns (thousand-fold decrease); to further increase performance and energy density parameters, they are increasingly utilizing nanotechnology and developing new types advanced battery chemistries, e.g., Lithium-Oxygen technology Independently, technologists working to improve energy density and performance metrics of energetic chemical materials used in thermal igniters, propellants, and certain types of explosives are increasingly utilizing much of the same nanotechnology --- this relatively new area of R&D is called “nano-energetic materials” Paradigm-shifting Widom-Larsen theory explains the key role of nanoplasmonics in LENRs, why they are intrinsically μm- to nm- scale surface and interfacial phenomena, and illuminates an R&D pathway that incorporates existing nanotechnology to design and fabricate commercial versions of LENR heat sources at low cost Conclusion: energetic materials, battery and LENR technologies are converging by utilizing μm-to nm-scale objects and processes
  17. 17. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 17 Technology convergence is length-scale related All R&D paths lead to nm-scale processes/objects at surfaces/interfaces Eco-green ultra- high performance energy storage and power generation systems for key portable, stationary, and mobile applications Very energetic materials Nanotech/plasmonics Advanced batteries Materials science LENRs
  18. 18. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 18 “… eventually there comes a time when neither component replacement nor structural deepening [of the older, dominant technological paradigm] add much to performance. If further advancement is sought, a [new] novel principle is needed.” pp. 138 “Origination is not just a new way of doing things, but a new way of seeing things … And the new threatens … to make the old expertise obsolete. Often in fact, some version of the new principle [paradigm] has been already touted or already exists and has been dismissed by standard practitioners, not necessarily because lack of imagination. But because it creates a cognitive dissonance, an emotional mismatch, between the potential of the new and the security of the old.” pp. 139 W. Brian Arthur, “The Nature of Technology - What it is and how it evolves” Free Press (2009) Technology convergence is length-scale-related Will trigger revolutionary change in many synergistic technologies
  19. 19. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 19 September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 19 jihui wei ji Thermal runaways Tomorrow Chemical-only processes LENRs + chemical processes coexist Widom-Larsen paradigm shift Dominant paradigm today
  20. 20. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 20 Convergence of batteries, LENRs, and energetic materials September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 20
  21. 21. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 21 “Hot electrons do the impossible: plasmon- induced dissociation of H2 on Au” S. Mukherjee et al. NANO Letters 13 pp. 240 - 247 (2013) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/nl303940z ABSTRACT: “Heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance in chemistry and energy applications. Catalysts that couple light energy into chemical reactions in a directed, orbital-specific manner would greatly reduce the energy input requirements of chemical transformations, revolutionizing catalysis- driven chemistry. Here we report the room temperature dissociation of H2 on gold nanoparticles using visible light. Surface plasmons excited in the Au nanoparticle decay into hot electrons with energies between the vacuum level and the work function of the metal. In this transient state, hot electrons can transfer into a Feshbach resonance of an H2 molecule adsorbed on the Au nanoparticle surface, triggering dissociation. We probe this process by detecting the formation of HD molecules from the dissociations of H2 and D2 and investigate the effect of Au nanoparticle size and wavelength of incident light on the rate of HD formation. This work opens a new pathway for controlling chemical reactions on metallic catalysts.” What was thought impossible becomes possible at nm Example: first experimental evidence for room temp. dissociation of H2
  22. 22. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 22 What was thought impossible becomes possible at nm Example: essentially room temp. splitting of water H2O molecules “An autonomous photosynthetic device in which all charge carriers derive from surface plasmons” S. Mubeen et al. Nature Nanotechnology 8 pp. 247 - 251 (2013) http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v8/n4/full/nnano.2013.18.html ABSTRACT: “Solar conversion to electricity or to fuels based on electron– hole pair production in semiconductors is a highly evolved scientific and commercial enterprise. Recently, it has been posited that charge carriers either directly transferred from the plasmonic structure to a neighboring semiconductor (such as TiO2) or to a photocatalyst, or induced by energy transfer in a neighboring medium, could augment photoconversion processes, potentially leading to an entire new paradigm in harvesting photons for practical use. The strong dependence of the wavelength at which the local surface plasmon can be excited on the nanostructure makes it possible, in principle, to design plasmonic devices that can harvest photons over the entire solar spectrum and beyond. So far, however, most such systems show rather small photocatalytic activity in the visible as compared with the ultraviolet. Here, we report an efficient, autonomous solar water-splitting device based on a gold nanorod array in which essentially all charge carriers involved in the oxidation and reduction steps arise from the hot electrons resulting from the excitation of surface plasmons in the nanostructured gold. Each nanorod functions without external wiring, producing 5 × 1013 H2 molecules per cm2 per s under 1 sun illumination (AM 1.5 and 100 mW cm−2), with unprecedented long-term operational stability.” Until now, besides $ expensive aqueous electrolysis at <100o C, many water-splitting technologies have often involved various types of high temperature processes; e.g.: “Efficient generation of H2 by splitting water with an isothermal redox cycle” C. Muhich et al., Science 341 pp. 540 - 542 (2013) http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/540.abstract Quoting from Muhich et al.: “We show that these temperature swings are unnecessary and that isothermal water splitting (ITWS) at 1350°C using the ‘hercynite cycle’ exhibits H2 production capacity >3 and >12 times that of hercynite and ceria, respectively, per mass of active material when reduced at 1350°C and reoxidized at 1000°C.”
  23. 23. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 23 What was thought impossible becomes possible at nm Example: essentially room temp. splitting of water H2O molecules Fig. 1 (a) in S. Mubeen et al., Nature Nanotechnology (2013) In story titled, “Gold replaces semiconductor for solar energy conversion,” by Kate Prengaman (Materials Research Society, Materials 360 Online, published March 11, 2013 - http://www.materials360online.com/newsDetails/38540); she interviewed Prof. Martin Moskovits (Univ. California-Santa Barbara), one of the co-authors of the Nature Nanotechnology paper by Muhich et al. In describing the Moskovits interview she wrote: “ ‘The sunlight excites electrons on the surface of the gold so that they temporarily oscillate in unison’, says Martin Moskovits, one of the paper’s authors. He likens the process, known as a surface plasmon, to a flash mob dance - a sudden coordinated motion replaces the usual random motion for a brief display. ‘We knew that they could suck up an enormous amount of energy from the sun. We knew that the light would send their electrons quivering,’ Moskovits says. ‘The electrons come away with additional energy, and it’s that energy we want to grab to make hydrogen and oxygen’.” What Moscovits is in fact describing in vivid informal terms are many- body collective effects with surface plasmon electrons. These same physics ‘aikido’ effects in W-L theory, in conjunction with analogous many-body collective quantum effects that occur with protons or deuterons and local breakdown of Born-Oppenheimer approximation on surfaces and at interfaces, are exactly what enable weak- interaction nuclear processes to occur in condensed matter at relatively low macroscopic temperatures, i.e., stars not required to trigger nucleosynthetic reactions in the laboratory and in Nature.
  24. 24. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 24 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 24
  25. 25. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 25 Low energy neutron reactions (LENRs) are a uniquely green nuclear technology: no deadly energetic gamma or neutron radiation and no production of long-lived radioactive wastes LENRs are neither fission nor fusion but something wonderfully different September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 25
  26. 26. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 26
  27. 27. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 27
  28. 28. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 28 Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs Many-body collective effects and Q-M entanglement enable aikido Table shows the key attributes of W-L many-body LENR-active surface patches Type of particle in LENR- active patch Are particles in patch charged? Dimensionality Do particles collectively oscillate? Are particles Q-M entangled? Comments Widom- Larsen surface patch Sizes vary randomly - diameters can range from several nm to perhaps up to ~100 microns Surface plasmon electrons (fermions) Decidedly many-body Yes, - ~2-D to 3-D somewhat reduced Yes Yes Q-M wave functions are very delocalized within a patch Very high nuclear-strength electric fields > 2 x 1011 V/m present within an energized patch; this increases local SP electron masses, allowing some of them to directly react with protons in e + p  n + ν Surface protons (hydrogen) (fermions) Decidedly many-body Yes, + ~2-D to 3-D somewhat reduced Yes Yes Q-M wave functions are very delocalized within a patch Very high nuclear-strength electric fields > 2 x 1011 V/m present within an energized patch thanks to E-M coupling and breakdown of the Born- Oppenheimer approximation Substrate material Mostly neutral atoms except for interstitial absorbed hydrogenous ions that occupy material-specific sites in substrate bulk lattice No charge-neutral for the most part Essentially 3-D i.e., bulk material No No When protons are loaded into a hydride-forming lattice, they occupy specific interstitial sites. After site occupancies > ~0.80 , protons start leaking back onto surface, forming collectively oscillating, Q-M entangled, ~2-D monolayer pools of protons that E-M couple locally to surface plasmon electrons
  29. 29. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 29
  30. 30. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 30
  31. 31. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 31 Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs Collective many-body physics and SP electrons enable interconnection Nuclear Chemical
  32. 32. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 32 Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs Many-body collective neutron production requires input energy Input energy is required: to create non-equilibrium conditions that enable nuclear-strength local E-fields which produce populations of heavy-mass e-* electrons that react with many- body surface patches of p+, d+, or t+ to produce neutrons via e-* + p+  1 n or e-* + d+  2 n, etc. (cost = 0.78 MeV/neutron for H; 0.39 for D; 0.26 for T); includes (can be combined): Electrical currents - i.e., an electron beam of one sort or another can serve as input source Ion currents - across the interface on which SP electrons reside (i.e., an ion beam that can be comprised of protons, deuterons, tritons, and/or other types of charged ions); one method used to input energy is ion flux caused by imposing a pressure gradient (Iwamura et al. 2002) Incoherent and coherent E-M photon fluxes - can be incoherent E-M radiation found in resonant electromagnetic cavities; with proper coupling, SP electrons can also be directly energized with coherent laser beams emitting photons at appropriate resonant wavelengths Organized magnetic fields with cylindrical geometries - mainly at very high electron currents; includes organized, non-ideal so-called “dusty plasmas” - scales way-up to stellar flux tubes Key feature of complex multi-step LENR transmutation networks: large numbers of viable network pathways can release more net nuclear binding energy that arises from a combination of neutron captures (with direct conversion of resulting prompt and delayed gammas into IR per W-L theory) and nuclear decays (e.g., α, β, etc.) vs. input energy that is required to produce total numbers of neutrons required for network pathway(s) to operate
  33. 33. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 33 Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs Below are the basic requirements for successfully triggering LENRs Substantial quantities of Hydrogen isotopes must be brought into intimate contact with fully-loaded metallic hydride-forming metals (or non-metals like Se); e.g., Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium, Nickel, Titanium , Tungsten, etc. Please note that collectively oscillating, 2-D surface plasmon (SP) electrons are intrinsically present and cover the surfaces of such metals. At “full loading” of H, many-body, collectively oscillating island-like patches of protons (p+), deuterons (d+), or tritons (t+) will form spontaneously at random locations scattered across such surfaces Or, delocalized collectively oscillating π electrons that comprise the outer covering surfaces of fullerenes, graphene, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules behave very similarly to SPs; when such molecules are hydrogenated, they can create many-body, collectively oscillating, entangled quantum systems that, per W-L theory, are functionally equivalent analogues of loaded metallic hydrides (trigger LENRs on aromatic rings) Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down in tiny surface patches of contiguous collections of collectively oscillating p+, d+, and/or t+ ions; enables E-M coupling between nearby SP or π electrons and hydrogen ions at these locations; creates nuclear-strength local electric fields > 2 x 1011 V/m; effective masses of electrons in that field are then increased to a multiple of an electron at rest (e → e*) - determined by required ~simultaneous energy input(s) System must be subjected to external non-equilibrium fluxes of charged particles or E-M photons that are able to transfer input energy directly to many-body SP or π electron surface films. Examples of such external energy sources include (they may be used in combination): electric currents (i.e., electron beams); E-M photons (e.g., emitted from lasers, IR-resonant E-M cavity walls, etc.); pressure gradients of p+, d+, and/or t+ ions imposed across surfaces; currents of other ions crossing the SP electrons on surface in either direction (ion beams); etc. Such sources can provide additional input energy required to surpass certain minimum H-isotope-specific electron-mass thresholds that allow production of ULM neutron fluxes via e* + p+, e* + d+, or e* + t+ weak interactions N.B.: please note again that surface plasmons are collective, many-body electronic phenomena closely associated with interfaces. For example, they can exist at gas/metal interfaces or metal/oxide interfaces. Thus, surface plasmon oscillations will almost certainly also be present at contact points between purely metallic surfaces and adsorbed so-called target nanoparticles composed of metallic oxides, e.g., PdO, NiO, or TiO2, etc., or vice-versa
  34. 34. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 34 Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs In 2009 we hypothesized surface plasmons on polycyclic aromatics Our conjecture was recently confirmed by A. Manjavacas et al. (March 2013) ABSTRACT: “We show that chemically synthesized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exhibit molecular plasmon resonances that are remarkably sensitive to the net charge state of the molecule and the atomic structure of the edges. These molecules can be regarded as nanometer-sized forms of graphene, from which they inherit their high electrical tunability. Specifically, the addition or removal of a single electron switches on/off these molecular plasmons. Our first- principles time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) calculations are in good agreement with a simpler tight- binding approach that can be easily extended to much larger systems. These fundamental insights enable the development of novel plasmonic devices based upon chemically available molecules, which, unlike colloidal or lithographic nanostructures, are free from structural imperfections. We further show a strong interaction between plasmons in neighboring molecules, quantified in significant energy shifts and field enhancement, and enabling molecular-based plasmonic designs. Our findings suggest new paradigms for electro-optical modulation and switching, single-electron detection, and sensing using individual molecules.” “Tunable molecular plasmons in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons” A. Manjavacas et al. ACS Nano 7 pp. 3635 - 3643 (2013) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn4006297 “Technical Overview - PAHs and LENRs” L. Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC November 25, 2009 (61 slides) http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llctechnical-overviewpahs- and-lenrsnov-25-2009 Synopsis: Widom-Larsen predicts that under proper conditions, energy can be inputted to hydrogenated PAH rings such that ultra low momentum neutrons are created from ring hydrogens (protons) via weak interaction; produced neutrons then capture on nearby ring carbon atoms, causing nuclear transmutation See Slides # 42 – 45 in:
  35. 35. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 35 Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs Nuclear and non-nuclear chemical processes coexist on LENR-active surfaces LENR hot spots create intense local heating and variety of readily noticeable surface features such as craters: over time, LENR-active surfaces inevitably experience major micron-scale changes in local nanostructures and elemental/isotopic compositions. On LENR-active substrate surfaces, there are a myriad of different complex, nanometer-to micron-scale electromagnetic, chemical, and nuclear processes that operate in conjunction with and simultaneously with each other. LENRs involve interactions between surface plasmon electrons, E-M fields, and many different types of nanostructures with varied geometries, surface locations relative to each other, different-strength local E-M fields, and varied chemical/isotopic compositions; chemical and nuclear realms interoperate To varying degrees, many of these complex, time-varying surface interactions are electromagnetically coupled on many different physical length-scales: thus, mutual E-M resonances can be very important in such systems. In addition to optical frequencies, SP and π electrons in condensed matter often also have some absorption and emission bands in infrared (IR) and UV portions of E-M spectrum. Well, walls of gas-phase metallic or glass LENR reaction vessels can emit various wavelengths of E-M photon energy into the interior space; glass tubes with inside surfaces coated with complex phosphors can function as resonant E-M cavities. Target nanostructures, nanoparticles, and/or molecules located inside such cavities can absorb IR, UV, or visible photons radiated from vessel walls if their absorption bands happen (or are engineered) to fall into same spectral range as E-M cavity wall radiation emission; complex two-way E-M interactions between targets and walls occurs (imagine interior of a reaction vessel as arrays of E-M nanoantennas with walls and targets having two-way send/receive channels) Wide variety of complex, interrelated E-M, nuclear, and chemical processes may be occurring simultaneously, side-by-side in adjacent nm to μ-scale local regions on LENR-active surfaces: for example, some regions on a given surface may be absorbing E-M energy locally, while others nearby can be emitting energy (e.g., as energetic electrons, photons, other charged particles, etc.). At same time, energy can be transferred laterally from regions of resonant absorption or capture to other regions in which emission or consumption is taking place: e.g., photon or electron emission, and/or LENRs in which: [E-M field energy] + e- → e-* + p+ → nulm + ν
  36. 36. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 36 Solves several unexplained astronomical mysteries Energetic particles (GeVs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and ultra-high energy cosmic rays (TeVs) Active galactic nuclei in vicinity of compact, massive objects (black holes) Up to several AU (distance from earth to sun) Solves mysteries of heating of solar corona and radioactive isotopes in stellar atmospheres Transmutations, large fluxes of energetic particles (to GeVs), limited gamma shielding, X-rays Dusty plasmas: high mega-currents and very large-scale, highly organized magnetic fields Outer layers and atmospheres of stars (flux tubes) Many Meters to Kilometers This regime is useful for large-scale commercial power generation Transmutations, ‘leakier’ gamma shielding, heat; X-rays up to 10 keV, larger energetic particle fluxes Dusty plasmas: mixed high-current and high local magnetic fields Exploding wires, planetary lightning Microns to Many Meters This regime is useful for small-scale commercial power generation Transmutations, high level gamma shielding, heat, some energetic particles Very high, short-range electric fields on solid substrates Hydrogen isotopes on metallic surfaces Microns Obtain unavailable trace elements; survive deadly gamma/X-ray radiation Transmutations, high level gamma shielding Very short-range electric or magnetic fields Certain earthly bacteria and fungi Submicron Comment Collective LENR Phenomena Electromagnetic Regime Type of System Length Scale Note: mass renormalization of electrons by high local E-fields not a key factor in magnetically dominated regimes at large length scales Green nuclear regime Widom-Larsen theory explains LENRs LENRs in condensed matter only occur in nm- to micron-sized regions Green LENR processes are intrinsically micron-to-nanometer-scale phenomena Magnetically dominated regime W-L theory’s many-body collective E-M effects extend from microcosm to macrocosm Aikido physics
  37. 37. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 37 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 37
  38. 38. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 38 Battery industry is already encountering LENRs LENR experiments in electrolytic cells are similar to charging batteries Example 1: Heavy-water P&F-type electrolytic cell Electric current provides necessary input energy Example 2: Light-water P&F-type electrolytic cell Electric current provides necessary input energy for LENRs For over 20 years, LENR researchers have been reporting credible experimental data providing evidence for nuclear transmutations in electrolytic chemical cells. Some such experiments, e.g. Miley et al. (1996) have produced outstanding results Source: html version is http://newenergytimes.com/v2/reports/Index-of-LENR-Experimental-Methodologies.shtml pdf: http://www.slideshare.net/StevenKrivit/lenr-methodsdistributioncopyrightnewenergytimes20130522-21707257
  39. 39. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 39 Battery industry is already encountering LENRs LENR-active hotspots in electrolytic cells / batteries hit 3,700 - 5,700o C Conditions conducive to initiation of LENRs occur in microscopic, micron-scale regions in random scattered locations on dendrites and other types of growing nanostructures and nanoparticles inside lithium-based batteries and electrolytic cells Although radiation-free, LENRs involving neutron captures on stable lithium isotopes are extremely energetic nuclear processes – can release up to 27 million times more heat than even the most exothermic types of electrochemical reactions Microscopic 100 micron LENR hotspot can release 5+ Watts of heat in less than 400 nanoseconds; nuclear processes raise local hotspot temps to 3,700 - 5,700o C Batteries: micron-scale LENR-active sites that happen to be located close to a plastic battery anode/cathode separator (with or without a ceramic layer) will vaporize and flash-ionize a local region of separator which can in turn trigger an internal electrical short discharge at that particular location ; similarly, an LENR patch occurring on surface of a Lithium cobalt oxide cathode or carbon anode can potentially directly trigger irreversible combustion of an affected electrode In rare events, LENRs can either induce internal electric arcs and/or directly trigger catastrophic thermal runaways in advanced batteries of many different chemistries
  40. 40. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 40 Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Mechanism for triggering microscopic LENR-active hotspots Dr. Andre Anders of Lawrence Berkeley National Lab has a model: Steps 1 - 4 below describe his “arc spot ignition” model as follows: High local electric field, enhanced by: Protrusion (e.g. roughness, previous arcing) [dendrites on surfaces] or Charged dielectrics (e.g. dust particles, flakes) [surface nanoparticles] 1.Higher field leads to locally greater e-emission 2.Joule heating enhances temperature of emission site 3.Higher temperature amplifies e-emission non-linearly 4.Runaway electric arc discharge To which Lattice would add, based on Widom-Larsen theory: 5.LENRs --- if other necessary preconditions are also fulfilled, as we have previously outlined in this document Positive thermal feedback loop Figure credit: B. Jüttner, Berlin LENR hotspot crater being created Timeline +
  41. 41. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 41 Anders’ SEM images vs. selected images of post-experiment surfaces in LENR experiments: LENR Pd surface post-experiment: P. Boss et al. Anders cathodic arc: post-experiment surface feature Please note what appears to be a somewhat common morphological difference between LENR craters and those produced by prosaic cathodic arcs as discussed by Anders. Many central craters in LENR SEM images often appear to have more sharply defined, crisper interior walls and greater depths (relative to the surface area) compared to arc discharges without LENRs (i.e., a much higher aspect-ratio); this may be indicative of much more rapid, higher levels of heating than those envisioned by Anders LENR craters - U.S. Navy SPAWAR Cathodic arcs also produce surface craters Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Morphological similarities: cathodic arc damage and LENR craters
  42. 42. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 42 Excerpted and quoted directly from: “Ultrafast laser patterning of OLEDs on flexible substrate for solid-state lighting” D. Karnakis, A. Kearsley, and M. Knowles Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering 4 pp. 218 - 223 (2009) http://www.jlps.gr.jp/jlmn/upload/25e2c628adb23db70b26356271d20180.pdf Fig. 6 from Karnakis et al. (2009) LENR Pd surface post-experiment: P. Boss et al. US Navy - SPAWAR Quoting from Karnakis et al.: “Laser irradiation at fluences between 137-360 mJ/cm2 removed the cathode layer only, resulting in a uniform flat floor and an intact LEP surface, allowing a relatively wide process window for cathode removal. A typical example of such laser patterned Ba/Al cathode layer on the OLED stack is shown in Figure 6. The average fluence was 230 mJ/cm2 irradiated with an estimated spot diameter at 1/e2 of 35 μm. This resulted in a crater diameter of 21.5 μm.” Battery industry is already encountering LENRs LENR craters have high aspect ratio just like laser ablation of surfaces Note microspheres formed at lips of craters Evidence for explosive boiling of metals:
  43. 43. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 43 Excerpted and quoted directly from: “Multiplicity and contiguity of ablation mechanisms in laser-assisted analytical micro-sampling”, D. Bleiner and A. Bogaerts Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 61 pp. 421 - 432 (2006) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0584854706000437 Fig. 1. Phase stability diagram of a liquid metal near the critical point. For fast heating, as obtained during ns laser ablation, the melt can be pushed close to critical conditions (superheating), which favors the realization of explosive boiling Fig. 2. Schematic visualization of the hydrodynamic evolution of a fluid system under and impulse stress (here milk). Note the non-deterministic formation of jets at the sides and their break-up into droplets. From Ref. [58]. Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Phase explosions (explosive boiling) of metals creates microspheres Note similarities to U.S. Navy SEM images of craters Phase stability diagram
  44. 44. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 44 Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Dynamic infrared (IR) imaging of LENR hotspots by U.S. Navy SPAWAR 2005 - U.S. Navy SPAWAR San Diego LENR Research Lab: Infrared Measurements Jan 13, 2009 - 2 min - Uploaded by Steven Krivit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pb9V_qFKf2M&feature=player_embedded Readers are urged to view USN SPAWAR’s (P. Boss et al.) fascinating short video clip: it is very reminiscent of high-speed flickering of thousands of tiny fireflies in a dark field at night Tiny, rapidly flickering hotspots during Pd co- deposition LENR experiment
  45. 45. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 45 Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Piezoelectric detection of nano-explosions on LENR electrode surface Copy of PowerPoint slides presented at Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-10) held in Cambridge, MA (2003); this document may differ from the accompanying paper that was published by World Scientific, Inc. in official conference Proceedings (2003) http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSpolarizedda.pdf Quoting directly: “The flashes observed in the IR experiments suggest ‘mini-explosions’ so we designed an experimental set-up to see if we could record these events using a piezoelectric sensor. Again, the co- deposition approach made this possible. A piezoelectric transducer was coated with epoxy as an insulation layer except for approximately 1 sq. cm on the front on which an electrically conducting material (Ag) was deposited. This became the cathode onto which Pd was co-deposited from the PdCl in a deuterated water solution. The experimental setup and instrumentation is shown.” Lattice comment: U.S. Navy SPAWAR researchers observed acoustic events in parallel with thermal imaging of transient LENR hot spots on electrodes
  46. 46. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 46 A. Anders: Spot Type 1 - “contaminated” surface LENR surface shown to right, which started-out smooth at the beginning of the experiment, appears to be much rougher in texture than the cathodic arc Zhang and Dash (2007) --- Fig. 10. SEM picture of region #2 in Fig. 4(b). SEM No.WS060424Pd-H-CC-i2-150X A. Anders “Cathodic Arcs, and related phenomena” (2010) Free copy of Zhang and Dash paper at: http://www.lenr- canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSexcessheat.pdf Cathodic arc craters LENR craters Fig. 11. Characteristic X-ray spectrum of spot #1 in Fig. 10. Quoting from discussion of Fig. 10: “Ni was listed as “not detected” in the chemical analysis provided by the vendor of the Pd foil. It is very unlikely to have resulted from the cold rolling process or from electrodeposition because it is highly localized near one corner of the cathode. If it is the result of either contamination from the rolling mill or from electroplating it should not be highly localized on only one corner of the cathode. It could not have resulted from SEM systems because the stainless steel components of the SEM chamber also contain Fe and Cr. Fe and/or Cr are not present in any of the spectra. The SEM does not have components made of pure Ni. Therefore, the origin of the Ni is not known.”. Nickel (Ni) anomalies observed on surface Anders’ SEM images vs. images of post-experiment surfaces in LENR experiments Battery industry is already encountering LENRs LENR experiments: craters associated w. elemental/isotopic anomalies
  47. 47. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 47 Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Zhang & Dash triggered nuclear transmutations in electrolytic cells Selected images of post-experiment surfaces in LENR experiments by Zhang and Dash LENRs: Zhang and Dash (2007) - Fig. 9 Fig. 9. SEM picture of crater at another time. SEM No.WS060607Pd-H-CC-i2-2kX Zhang and Dash: Table IX. Relative atomic percent concentrations of silver (Ag) in area and spots shown in Fig. 9 Spot # wa* area** +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 Ag/(Pd+Ag) 1.2 +/- 0.5 5.6 +/- 0.4 6.8 +/- 0.4 5.6 +/- 0.3 6.3 +/- 0.4 3.6 +/- 0.6 1.2 +/- 0.5 *wa = whole entire area comprising image in Fig. 9 ** area = delimited by the white square outlined in Fig. 9 Following likely took place in these experiments: Pd + n → unstable n-rich Pd isotope → Ag isotopes neutron capture beta decay Palladium Cathode Note: Pd surface b.p. = 2,970o C Palladium Cathode LENRs: Zhang and Dash (2007) - Fig. 8 Free copy of Zhang & Dash paper at: http://www.lenr-canr. org/acrobat/ ZhangWSexcess heat.pdf Quoting: “The most common finding is that silver occurs in craters, such as those shown in Fig. 8. These craters with rims almost certainly formed during electrolysis. Pt deposition was concentrated on these protruding rims.”
  48. 48. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 48 Please note that as little as a single blazing hot LENR-active site measuring only 30 microns in diameter --- if it happens to occur in vulnerable physical location deep inside a battery cell and adjacent to the surface of a plastic separator only 25 microns thick --- can effectively vaporize a tiny local region of the separator, almost instantly turning it into a dense, micron-sized ball of highly conductive plasma. This would in turn create an electrical short between anode and cathode at that location, triggering a large inrush of electrical arc current through the breach in the separator dam. Intense local Joule heating would ensue from the arc current, further enlarging the breach and spatially expanding the superheated region inside a given battery cell. Depending on many complex, event-specific details, such a conflagration may or may not grow to engulf an entire cell; thus rare LENR events do not inevitably cause catastrophic heat runaways. Under just the right conditions, a single microscopic LENR site can trigger a chain of energetic electrical (Joule heating) and chemical (exothermic reactions) processes that together create spatially autocatalytic, very macroscopic thermal runaway events that destroy battery cells billions of times larger than volumes of LENR site(s). In course of such runaways, 99.9+% of total energy released is non- nuclear; hot spark LENRs are just an effective triggering mechanism. Also note that internal electrical shorts - whatever their cause - can also trigger runaways. Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Detailed description of LENR processes in batteries
  49. 49. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 49 Within as little as milliseconds after the creation of an electric arc or LENR-active site, nm- to cm-scale local regions of a battery cell at or near such locations can become a super-hot, fiendishly complicated chemical “witches’ brew” consisting of many different types of old and newly created compounds, expected thermal decomposition products, various ionized species, and many mutually competing chemical reaction pathways Positive thermal (heat) feedback loop: the hotter a given region gets, the faster local chemical reactions accelerate therein and the more widely the conflagration spreads into previously unaffected regions of a given battery cell --- this is causative root of thermal runaway effect and “thermal fratricide” that can occur between many cells Evolution of such complex chemical systems is very rapid and incompletely understood - quite unpredictable with respect to final results: outcomes can range from minor thermal damage to single cell; to combustion of flammable electrolytes and charring of materials inside case and outside via venting; and at worst, to complete combustion of all materials located inside of and including cell casings -- - even all contents of surrounding multi-cell enclosures; worst-case Armageddon scenarios involve thermite-like, violent super-fast-reacting pyrotechnic processes Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Detailed description of LENR processes in batteries
  50. 50. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 50 Battery industry is already encountering LENRs Lithium-ion battery cells have relatively small safe operating window ~325o C ~325o C Thermal runaway + feedback loop Voltage/temp safe operating window only occupies small portion of entire battery parameter space
  51. 51. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 51  Although there are differences, there is a degree of morphological similarity in SEM images of post- experiment cathodic arc surfaces (e.g., crater-like structures and related droplets) compared to those observed after LENR-related experiments  To the extent that such morphologies are highly indicative of very rapid heating and quenching in small areas of cathode surfaces, it implies that temperatures reached in electric arc and LENR-active hot spots or patches are briefly high enough to melt and even boil and vaporize substrate metals, e.g., Palladium (Pd) boiling point = 2,970o C or other transition metals, including refractory ones and even Tungsten  Widom-Larsen theory predicts that if necessary preconditions are met, LENRs can be triggered in high- local-current arcs and high-EM-field electrical phenomena that include field emission and breakdown on surfaces, adjacent nanoparticles, and dendrite tips  Variety of different nuclear transmutation products observed by a large number of LENR researchers in and around surface structures such as craters suggests that LENRs probably occurred at non-negligible rates in and around such active regions  Micron-scale LENR-active sites that happen to be located close to a plastic battery separator (with or without a ceramic layer) will vaporize and flash-ionize a local region of separator which can in turn trigger an internal electrical short right there; similarly, an LENR patch occurring on surface of a Lithium cobalt oxide cathode or carbon anode can potentially trigger the irreversible combustion of an electrode  With or without the help of LENRs, electric arcs (internal shorts) are capable of triggering catastrophic thermal runaways in batteries of many varied chemistries Battery industry is already encountering LENRs LENRs or electric arcs force batteries out of safe operating window LENRs and/or electric arcs can trigger battery thermal runaways and fires
  52. 52. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 52 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 52
  53. 53. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 53 Market success of lithium-based batteries and large increases in cell energy densities have encouraged battery technologists familiar with relatively small- scale applications to scale-up into physically larger lithium-based cells and huge arrays of cells that can address vastly larger electrical energy storage requirements of stationary back-up power systems and mobile platforms, e.g., hybrid and all-electric plug-in vehicles, as well as new aircraft such as the Boeing Dreamliner. Unfortunately, this scale-up has led to unforeseen safety issues that were either simply not readily apparent to anyone or irrelevant risk factors in smaller-scale system applications There is really no such thing as a real-world Lithium battery chemistry that is 100% immune to danger of thermal runaways and/or catastrophic field-failures. From risk management perspective, various lithium chemistries only differ in their relative probabilities; some are more or less problem-prone than others Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly No Lithium-based battery chemistry is 100% immune to runaway risks Credit: Image by Jiangang Zhu and Jingyang Gan/WUSTL High-Q microresonators on a silicon wafer - class of devices called whispering-gallery-mode resonators Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 53
  54. 54. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 54 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 54 Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Thermal runaway fires sometimes occur in portable electronic devices
  55. 55. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 55 Typically well-controlled electrochemical reactions in batteries ordinarily generate a certain amount of unavoidable process heat which is then dissipated harmlessly simply by emitting invisible infra-red radiation from the battery case out into the local environment; during normal operation, contents of battery cells still remain well-within proscribed boundaries of designed range of optimal thermochemical operating temperatures On rare occasions, for a variety of different reasons, a battery cell’s electrochemical reactions can suddenly start running at greatly elevated rates that create more process heat than a battery’s normal thermal dissipative mechanisms can easily handle, which then starts raising the temperature of battery cell contents out beyond their ideal safe operating range; threshold for out-of-control danger has not yet been crossed At key point --- call it the Rubicon River for a failing battery cell --- a very dangerous positive (+) feedback loop is created: whereby, increasing cell temperatures further accelerate electrochemical reactions in cells which produces even more heat, boosting local cell temperatures even higher, etc. Thermal runaways are thus born: only question is how bad they get before destroying enough of a battery to stop + feedback-accelerated reactions Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 55 Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Start when reactions enter a temperature-driven positive feedback loop
  56. 56. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 56 Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Good news: thermal runaway events are statistically rare Bad news: when they do happen they can cause catastrophic effects By any reasonable standard, lithium-based batteries are a pretty safe technology: garden variety thermal runaways only occur at frequencies of one such event per several millions of battery cells The very worst, least understood type of thermal runaway, which goes under innocuous-sounding sobriquet of “field-failure,” occurs at a rate of one such event per ~ 4 - 5 million lithium-based battery cells right off the production line and regardless of their chemistry or primary vs. secondary, according to statistics collected by a major Japanese manufacturer of lithium-ion consumer batteries There’s one more issue: although it’s hard to quantitatively specify, probability of thermal runaways seems to increase significantly as batteries age and go thru a great many charge-discharge cycles Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 56
  57. 57. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 57 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 57 ‘Garden variety’ thermal runaways: Field-failure thermal runaways can also include electric arc shorting: Temps: ~300o C up to 600o C (Lattice’s criteria) Reasonably well understood failure events Triggered by substantial over-charging or excessively deep discharges of Li batteries Often triggered by external mechanical damage to battery cells, e.g., crushing, punctures; growth of internal dendrites pierces plastic separators Temps: > 600o C - can go up to thousands of o C with arcs Much rarer and comparatively poorly understood Many believe triggered and/or accompanied by electrical arc discharges (internal shorts); what causes initial micro-arcs? Much higher peak temperatures vs. garden variety events Lattice suggests: super-hot low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) could well be initial triggers for some % of them Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Two main types of damaging events: ‘garden variety’ and field-failures
  58. 58. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 58 Garden variety single-cell thermal runaways: can be as little as a battery that just heats-up a bit and simply stops functioning … or a battery’s case can bulge significantly from internally generated heat without designed venting and releasing of contents from the inside before it stops functioning and then starts cooling down on its own A slightly worse variant of a garden variety thermal runaway results in just a single cell venting or rupturing, but (in cases of flammable electrolytes) there are no hot, flaming battery contents spewed-out that could potentially ignite local combustibles and adjacent cells In worst-case garden variety runaway, hot flaming electrolyte erupts from a ruptured battery cell, which may ignite nearby materials and cells; in this event variant (that is still not the worst-of-the-worst), internal peak temperatures usually not yet hot-enough to melt metals Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Thermal runaways can have greatly varying degrees of severity Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 58
  59. 59. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 59 Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Field-failures are truly catastrophic events in chemical batteries Accepted battery industry definition of a field-failure thermal runaway event Source: “Batteries for Sustainability – Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability in Science and Technology,” Ralph J. Brodd, Ed., Chapter 9 by B. Barnett et al., “Lithium-ion Batteries, Safety” Springer ISBN 978-1-4614-5791-6 (2012) Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 59
  60. 60. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 60 Field-failure category of thermal runaways can reach extremely high peak temperatures of thousands of degrees Centigrade along with big electric arcs Such temperatures are hot-enough to melt metallic structures inside batteries and combust almost anything and everything located within a battery case If initiating spark is hot-enough, battery materials containing chemically bound oxygen will release it as O2; by creating its own oxygen supply, combustion process becomes self-sustaining, self-propagating flame front that consumes all burnable battery materials. Progressive thermal fratricide between cells can reduce batteries to unrecognizable debris; such fires could burn in a vacuum In absolutely worst-case events, even METALS can start burning in very fast, thermite-like reactions that can boost temps up to ~ 4,000o C; this is nightmare scenario wherein even deadly explosions with shrapnel can potentially occur Thermal runaways: batteries behaving badly Absolute worst-case Armageddon runaways involve burning metals Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 60
  61. 61. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 61 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 61
  62. 62. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 62 Separators: polyethylene (M.P. ~125o C) or polypropylene (M.P. ~155o C) Very thin separators: microporous insulating plastic films that allow Li+ ions to freely migrate through them, but still prevents anode and cathode from coming into direct physical contact with each other and shorting-out via hot electric arcs; these plastic films are only 25 μm thick Anode Cathode Carbon Lithium cobalt dioxide Lithium transport salt in electrolyte = LiPF6 Electrolyte = diethyl carbonate or perhaps dimethoxyethane Could be polyethylene or polypropylene or mix SEI layer Example of a battery that had a thermal runaway GS-Yuasa Lithium battery: Boeing 787 Dreamliner - Logan Airport (2013)
  63. 63. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 63 separator separator Al Cu Carbon-based material Not to scale Carbon-based material Source: figure adapted from Slide #13 in NTSB PowerPoint slideshow presented by Deborah Hersman at news conference on January 24, 2013 Copy of source document: http://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/2013/boeing_787/JAL_B-787_1-24-13.pdfs Anode Cathode Cu and Al current collectors Example of a battery that had a thermal runaway GS-Yuasa Lithium battery: Boeing 787 Dreamliner - Logan Airport (2013)
  64. 64. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 64 Example of a battery that had a thermal runaway Source: NTSB report: CT scan image Source: GS Yuasa - prismatic cell a la 787 Dreamliner battery Source: SONY “jelly roll” cell - commodity Lithium-ion battery Source: USPTO – sample patent drawing for prismatic battery cell Source: NTSB #13-013 February 19, 2013 GS-Yuasa Lithium battery: Boeing 787 Dreamliner - Logan Airport (2013)
  65. 65. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 65 Perfect microspheres suggest there was μ-scale stainless steel phase-explosion Presence of many perfect stainless steel microspheres in battery debris suggests that local temperatures were > 3,000o C Perfect stainless steel microspheres are created by condensation of droplets from a vapor phase; similarities to laser ablation NTSB Report No. 13-013: NTSB Report No. 13-013: Breakdown of surface Figure courtesy of B. Jüttner, Berlin LENR crater being formed; note creation of ~spherical droplets LENRs: Pd surface post-experiment SEM P. Boss et al. , U.S. Navy – SPAWAR: LENRs: Pd surface post-experiment SEM P. Boss et al. , U.S. Navy - SPAWAR Example of a battery that had a thermal runaway GS-Yuasa Lithium battery: Boeing 787 Dreamliner - Logan Airport (2013)
  66. 66. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 66 When NTSB scientists investigated charred debris found inside the ruined Logan GS Yuasa battery cells with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), near locations where electric arcs (internal short circuits) had obviously occurred they discovered notable numbers of perfect (microscopic) stainless steel microspheres lying amongst the disorganized rubble of variously damaged battery materials What most technical people following the NTSB’s investigation may not have fully appreciated was that these beautiful little metallic microspheres are smoking gun evidence for vaporization and condensation of stainless steel comprising the battery cell casing in local hotspots created by high-current, low voltage electric arcs, i.e., one or more internal shorts likely occurred inside GS Yuasa battery cell #5 This experimental data implies that the local temperature of the battery casing’s Type 304 stainless steel hotspots directly exposed to the internal short’s arc plasma didn’t just get to the melting point of such steel (~1,482 degrees C) --- instead these local areas got all the way up past the boiling point of stainless (> 3,000 degrees Centigrade), were turned into a gaseous vapor (expanding in volume by >50,000 x in the process of vaporizing); solid steel then recondensed from hot metallic vapor in the form of perfect nanoscale steel spheres as portions of the super-hot metallic Fe- alloy vapor quench-cooled. This flash-boiling of metal is called a phase explosion Perfect microspheres suggest there was μ-scale stainless steel phase-explosion Example of a battery that had a thermal runaway GS-Yuasa Lithium battery: Boeing 787 Dreamliner - Logan Airport (2013)
  67. 67. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 67 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 67
  68. 68. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 68 Parallels between LENRs and Lithium-based batteries LENR experiments with electrolytic cells resemble charging batteries Electrical current provides the input energy needed to produce neutrons per W-L Heavy-water P&F-type cell Light-water P&F-type cell Majority of LENR experiments with electrolytic cells had Lithium somehow present in the electrolyte; forms intimate alloys on surfaces of metallic cathodes. In classic Pons & Fleischmann-type experiments with Pd cathodes, ultra-low-momentum neutron captures on Lithium and Palladium produced most excess thermal energy measured with calorimetry LENR electrolytic cell with associated apparatus Courtesy: T. Mizuno et al., Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)
  69. 69. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 69 Parallels between LENRs and Lithium-based batteries Neutron captures on Li release 27 million x more energy vs. chemical Widom-Larsen theory posits following Lithium-target fuel LENR network cycle “Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces” A. Widom and L. Larsen European Physical Journal C – Particles and Fields 46 pp. 107-111 (2006) ULMN-catalyzed LENR Lithium network cycle – from Eqs. 30 - 32 6Li + n 7Li 3 3 7Li + n 8Li 3 3 8Li 8Be + e- 3 4 e 8Be 4He + 4He 4 2 2 4He + n 5He 2 2 5He + n 6He 2 2 6He 6Li + e- 2 3 e                 He is a reactant in this region; captures neutrons ULM neutron captures on Lithium Qv~16 MeV Qv~92 keV Low energy α-decay Begin Return cycle 8Li β-decay is largest single energy release in LENR Li cycle End Lithium-6 + 2 ULM neutrons g 2 Helium-4 + beta LENR neutron-catalyzed Lithium fuel cycle particle + 2 neutrinos + Q-value = ~26.9 MeV This particular cyclical LENR pathway can release about the same amount of energy as the D-T fusion reaction without creating any MeV-energy energetic neutrons, hard gamma radiation, or radioactive isotopes. Although a portion of the 26.9 MeV in excess nuclear binding energy released is lost (“haircut”) with emitted neutrinos, much of it still remains in the kinetic energy of the two helium atoms (which are low-energy alpha particles), and much more energetic beta particle. In this particular case, local solid matter is heated-up by the scattering of low-energy alpha and much-higher-energy beta particles; heavy-mass electrons also present in LENR-active patches convert any locally produced hard gammas or X-rays (from whatever process) directly into infrared heat.
  70. 70. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 70 Lattice Energy LLC has developed multiple alternative types of system embodiments for use in planned commercial versions of future LENR systems. Unfortunately, virtually all of them are highly proprietary, and cannot be discussed in a document such as this. That having been said, there is a generic type of LENR heat-producing device that can be discussed conceptually without disclosing sensitive engineering-related information A major difference between chemical batteries and LENR technologies is that with batteries the on-demand conversion from stored chemical energy into electrical power output is intrinsically automatic and built-in. In the case of LENR-based heat- producing devices, the principal product of nuclear reaction pathways triggered by neutron absorption is mostly raw infrared heat, which must then be converted into electricity by separate, integrated heat-to-electricity or heat-to-shaft-rotation energy conversion subsystems. For example, in an integrated LENR-based power generation system solid-state thermoelectric devices could convert raw heat directly into high quality DC electrical power; steam engines could also be built The chart on the next slide compares and contrasts selected aspects of a generic conceptualization of an LENR-based heat-producing device to a present-day advanced Lithium-based battery. It illustrates commonalities between various aspects of LENR-based systems and advanced Lithium-based battery technologies Parallels between LENRs and Lithium-based batteries Advanced batteries and LENR devices have commonalities and overlaps
  71. 71. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 71 Parallels between LENRs and Lithium-based batteries Advanced batteries and LENR devices have commonalities and overlaps Aspect or characteristic Advanced Lithium-ion polymer electrolyte batteries Conceptualized LENR-based heat-producing eco-green nuclear device Comments Comments Main purpose of device Reversibly store electricity in chemical bonds Power generation: release nuclear binding energy in form of IR heat Anode yes Graphite (Carbon) effectively Nickel, Titanium, etc. Cathode yes Li-iron phosphate effectively Nickel, Titanium, etc. Electrolyte yes Carbon-H polymer equivalent Aqueous fluid with dissolved metal salts; H2 gas Hydrogen isotopes (H) in some chemical form yes H in Carbon-H polymer (Cn-Hn) yes Either H or deuterium (D) in H2O/D2O or ionized gas – need H or D to make Widom-Larsen ULM neutrons Key chemical element Lithium shuttles electrons at eV energies Used as an electron carrier ion found in a chemical compound, e.g., LICoO2 or Li2FePO4 Lithium or alternative target release MeV nuclear binding energy Can be ‘burned’ as target nuclear fuel source– present in electrolyte - Lithium –seed LENR network releases 27 MeV in nuclear binding energy ‘Fuel’ Electrochemical electrons Charge-up from electrical power source (e.g., grid); then discharge SP and π electrons, + protons + Li and/or Nickel, Titanium, or any target fuel element or isotope that can capture catalytic neutrons Reactants ‘burned’ as nuclear fuels – in anode, cathode, and/or electrolyte – having no electrical charge, neutrons are promiscuous nuclear particles that can readily be captured by almost any element or isotope, which then triggers release of nuclear binding energy Typical energy-scale of reactions eVs Simply chemical electronic energies MeVs Nuclear binding energies – Lithium (Li) target: its nuclear reactions release ~27 MeV; other elements release much less binding energy than Li Principal output Electricity Voltages depend on chemistry Thermal IR heat Subsystem must convert into usable electricity Uses nanotech? yes e.g., fabrication yes e.g., fabrication, materials, preparation of fuel target nanoparticles Thermal mgmt. circuitry yes Prevent thermal failure events yes Prevent extreme overheating and thermal failure Microprocessor controlled? yes Uses sensors to control power yes Uses sensors to manage and control power output Eco-green? yes Safe disposal in landfills yes No radiation or ‘hot’ radioactive waste – OK landfills
  72. 72. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 72 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 72
  73. 73. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 73 “Burn ‘em all --- let God sort ‘em out.” 1. “You can run, but you can’t hide.” 2. 1.. Underlying motto unofficially adopted by various military groups; originally, was modernized from Latin, "Caedite eos. Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius" which literally translated means “Kill them all. God will recognize His own." Quote attributed to Arnaud, Abbot of Citeaux, in reply to question asking how one might tell Cathar heretics from orthodox Catholics during siege of Beziers in Albigensian Crusade (July, 1209) 2. Threat made to Mad Max by a murderous character named “Wez” in Mel Gibson‘s cult-classic film, “The Road Warrior” (1981) Adapted from a U.S. military motto: Popularized by U.S. special operations forces during the 1960s Vietnam war High thermal runaway temps create energetic materials Leave domain of stable electrochemistry when batteries heat-up enough LENRs are themselves energetic materials; can create many other energetic materials Batteries cannot withstand star-like local temperatures created by electric arc discharges or LENRS and remain stable; LENR-based power systems can be designed to handle this, e.g. dusty plasmas Creation of nightmarish local “witches’ brew” cauldrons of inter- reacting compounds and ions in some regions of failing batteries; very fast, hyper-accelerated reaction rates in superheated zones Witches’ cauldrons can generate their own supplies of Oxygen to support combustion processes that propagate spatially within and between battery cells via fast-moving, autocatalytic flame-fronts coupled with intense emission of thermal infrared and UV radiation Arc- and/or LENR-heated regions’ behavior is almost more akin to chemistry of stellar atmospheres than everyday electrochemistry
  74. 74. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 74 Causative agent that can trigger thermal runaways Regime or requirements Physical dimensions Key details Temperature range in o C Comments Electric discharges: that is, arcs or sparks; alternative names for internal electrical short circuits that can occur inside battery cells Outer edges of tubular arc plasma sheath Arc lengths can range in length from 2 nm between metallic nanoparticles all the way up to as long as several centimeters (cm) between larger structures Chemical and nuclear reactions can occur within; dep. on current ~2,727 up to ~4,727 Heat radiation is mainly created via Joule heating by electrons and ions found in arc discharge plasma; very damaging to materials; can even breach battery cell case Innermost core of arc plasma’s tubular sheath-like structure ~9,726 up to ~19,726 LENR-active hotspots: can occur on metallic surfaces or at oxide- metal interfaces anywhere inside battery where be: e-, p+ and metals Require local presence of hydrogen (protons), metals, and surface plasmon or π electrons 2 nanometers (nm) to as large as ~100+ microns (μ) in diameter; roughly circular in shape MeV-energy nuclear reactions occur within ~3,700 up to ~5,700 Directly radiate infrared heat photon energy; ionizes nearby molecules, materials, destroys μ-scale nanostructures Formation of LiF releases one of the highest known energy per mass of reactants, only second to that of BeO High thermal runaway temps create energetic materials Formation of Lithium fluoride releases an enormous amounts of heat B787 GS Yuasa battery definitely contained LiPF6 - Lithium hexafluorophosphate Identified in NTSB report as being detected during post-Logan incident materials analysis; at right - ionic molecular structure Chosen for ferrying Li+ ions between anode and cathode because highly soluble in non-aqueous, nonpolar electrolyte solvents such as diethyl carbonate and dimethoxyethane Melts at ~194o C; thermal decomposition begins 262- 284o C then decomposes into LiF and PF5
  75. 75. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 75 Source: “Chemical Principles” S. Zumdahl, pp. 608 in 6th edition, Houghton Mifflin (2009) Figure 13.9 in Zumdahl High thermal runaway temps create energetic materials Leave domain of stable electrochemistry when high local temps occur Once battery materials are locally heated to thousands of degrees and begin to intermix, the types of chemical as well as LENR reactions that are possible suddenly change radically and quite unpredictably. This confluence of mutually interacting and reinforcing processes creates what Prof. Michel Armand (Univ. Picardie, Paris) calls a fearsome “witches’ brew”
  76. 76. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 76 High thermal runaway temps create energetic materials Al + HF reaction below releases ~6x as much thermal energy as TNT Curse of the pyrotechnics and thermites Note: many thanks to J. Bruce Popp of FedEx for sending Lattice down this fruitful line of inquiry Note: Al, Fe, Cu, and O are all available somewhere inside many types of batteries; potential to form various energetic materials in or near witches’ brew cauldron areas Can potentially synthesize explosive nano pyrotechnic mixtures in localized regions Examples of two classic very exothermic thermite reactions: Fe2O3 + 2 Al g 2 Fe + Al2O3 3 CuO + 2 Al g 3 Cu + Al2O3 Please recall that LiF can be formed in some battery cells; when it is heated enough beyond its B.P. (1,681o C) in witches’ cauldrons it can decompose to form HF, which can then enable the following: 2 Al(s) + 6 HF(g) 2 AlF3(s) + 3 H2(g) Highest-temperature regions in and around localized witches’ cauldrons (almost star-like in many ways) can be hot enough to liberate metal ions which can then react with Oxygen to effectively create burning metals, which is often a high-temperature process: Cobalt metal burns in air at ~2,760o C; Aluminum at ~3,827o C; Iron at ~870o C; etc. --- bottom line: burning metals spells big trouble 400 - 600oC AlF3 rf Ho (solid) = - 1510.4 kJ/mol. Al2O3 rf Ho (solid) = - 780 kJ/mol. Al + HF is 2x CuO + Al and ~6x TNT
  77. 77. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 77 High thermal runaway temps create energetic materials LENR-active surface sites can flash-vaporize refractory metals “Phase explosion and Marangoni flow effects during laser micromachining of thin metal films” http://lyle.smu.edu/~mhendija/index_files/Hendijanifard%20SPIE2008.pdf Their most recently published work alone this line of inquiry is: “Nanosecond time-resolved measurements of transient hole opening during laser micromachining of an Aluminum film” M. Hendijanifard and D. Willis Journal of Heat Transfer 35 article #091201 (2013) Hendijanifard & Willis Intense heating by nuclear processes during short lifetimes of micron-scale LENR-active sites on metallic substrates can result in local flash-boiling of metals in what is also known as a phase explosion. In such events, a local region of metal is vaporized; depending on which metal, heated material expands by 40,000 to 70,000 times its previous volume as a solid. Vapor cloud can cool and condense into tiny droplets, creating microspheres seen in SEM images Curse of the metallic phase explosions
  78. 78. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 78 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 78
  79. 79. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 79 Lithium-based batteries come in many different chemistries LiSOCl2 LiAg2CrO4 LiAg2V4O11 LiBi2Pb2O5 LiCuO LiCuCl2 Li(CF)x LiI2 LiCu4O(PO4)2 LiPbCuS LiFeS2 Li-Cu4O(PO4)2 LiSO2Cl2 LiPbCuS LiBi2O3 Li/AlMnO2 LiFeS Li4Ti5O12 Li22Si4
  80. 80. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 80 1859 1989 1899 1991 1996 Increased battery energy density drives convergence Large uptick in past 25 years; lithium-air promises even higher density 2013 1859 1899 1989 1991 1996 Future: lithium-air? 2013 Lithium-based batteries became extremely dominant in portable electronics because they have much higher energy densities than other battery chemistries Adapted from source: http://liteplusbattery.com/lifepo4-energy-density/
  81. 81. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 81 Increased battery energy density drives convergence Comparison of present Lithium-ion vs. future Lithium-air technology Li-air battery reduces volume/weight by getting electron acceptor (O) from air Source: http://www.longtailpipe.com/2013/03/toyota-research-into-lithium-air-and.html
  82. 82. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 82 Increased battery energy density drives convergence Lithium-air = Lithium-oxygen: practical density much > than Li-ion Fig. 1 from: “Challenges and opportunities of nanostructured materials for aprotic rechargeable lithium-air batteries” J. Wang, Y. Li, and X. Sun, Nano Energy 2 pp. 443 - 467 (2013)
  83. 83. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 83 Source: http://www.extremetech.com/computing/126745-ibm-creates-breathing-high-density-light-weight-lithium-air-battery Increased battery energy density drives convergence IBM’s Lithium-air concept ca. 2012: an air-breathing advanced battery Also see: http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/smart_grid/article/battery500.html Credit: ca. 2012
  84. 84. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 84 Credit: ca. 2012 Increased battery energy density drives convergence IBM’s Lithium-air concept ca. 2012: an air-breathing advanced battery Electron flow How it works Lithium-air batteries are air breathing. During discharge (driving), oxygen from the air reacts with lithium ions, forming lithium peroxide on a carbon matrix. Upon recharge, the oxygen is given back to the atmosphere and the lithium goes back onto the anode. Oxygen Oxygen Carbon Lithium ion Lithium peroxide (Li2O2) Oxygen Lithium anode Electrolyte Li+ + -
  85. 85. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 85 Increased battery energy density drives convergence Frequency of LENR issues in batteries might be even higher in future “A critical review of Li/air batteries” J. Christensen et al. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 159 pp. R1 - R30 (2012) http://www.eosenergystorage.com/documents/2012_JES_Christensen_Kojic_Critical_Review_Li-air.pdf “The pursuit of rechargeable solid-state Li-air batteries” F. Li et al. Energy & Environmental Science 6 pp. 2302 - 2311 (2013) http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/ee/c3ee40702k/unauth#!divAbstract Excellent Li-air review papers: Trends toward greatly increased energy densities in lithium-based batteries and expanding use of nanotech will probably continue; many researchers believe Li-air is most promising new battery chemistry/technology Two papers cited to right provide comprehensive overviews of the present state-of-the-art with Li-air; after reading them, it appears that after several decades of R&D, Li-air battery technology is still in a state of considerable technical flux with many key, yet- to-be-answered questions. That being the case, it appears that large-scale commercial production of Li- air batteries is very probably 5 - 10 years in the future Recognizing that many key technical details of Li-air batteries have yet to be worked-out, but given what has happened so far with lithium-based battery chemistries, there is no reason to believe a priori that such batteries would be immune to the risk of thermal runaways. Given much greater energy densities, one could argue that LENRs might be more likely in Li-air
  86. 86. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 86 Increased battery energy density drives convergence Since Sept. 2013 two major Li-air players have downgraded R&D effort Source: http://qz.com/214969/two-big-labs-most-promising-next-generation-battery-electric-car/ “Two big labs step back from the most promising next-generation battery” Steve Levine in Quartz May 30, 2014 “In a sign of more gloom in the struggle for a better battery, two major US labs have quietly downgraded research on a technology until now widely believed to be the most promising path to a competitive electric car.” “IBM and the US-funded Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) have ratcheted down or outright abandoned their work on the lithium-air battery, a concept in which oxygen would react with lithium to create electricity.” “In a little-remarked-upon article in March, Nature magazine reported that IBM’s Winfried Wilcke, director of the Battery 500 Project, had a ‘change of heart’ about lithium-air and had turned his favor to a technology featuring sodium. In an electric car, a sodium-air battery, he said, stood a better chance of meeting the economics needed to compete with conventional cars. It was a dramatic move, with the most bullish player in lithium-air --- Wilcke himself --- calling it a day.”
  87. 87. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 87 Increased battery energy density drives convergence Since Sept. 2013 two major Li-air players have downgraded R&D effort Source: http://qz.com/214969/two-big-labs-most-promising-next-generation-battery-electric-car/ “Two big labs step back from the most promising next-generation battery” Steve Levine in Quartz May 30, 2014 “Wilcke did not respond to emails. An IBM spokesman told Quartz that the Nature report is accurate but said that the company is now working on both lithium-air and sodium.” “About the same time, JCESR dropped its lithium-air project entirely. Like IBM, JCESR did not announce the decision publicly. Kevin Gallagher, a JCESR manager, said it concluded that the challenges were too overwhelming to resolve any time soon. ‘The penalty of using gaseous reactions overwhelmed any advantage,’ he told Quartz.” “Lithium-air is not being abandoned everywhere. At Argonne, Michael Thackeray is directing work on a novel hybrid battery combining lithium-ion and lithium-air. The result is the potential for a battery with specific density of 500 watt hours per kilogram, two-and-a-half times greater than today’s best commercial lithium-ion cell.”
  88. 88. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 88 Increased battery energy density drives convergence Since Sept. 2013 two major Li-air players have downgraded R&D effort Richard Van Noorden in Nature 507 pp. 26 - 28 March 5, 2014 Source: http://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/1.14815!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/507026a.pdf “The rechargeable revolution: A better battery Chemists are reinventing rechargeable cells to drive down costs and boost capacity.” “Modern Li-ion batteries hold more than twice as much energy by weight as the first commercial versions sold by Sony in 1991 --- and are ten times cheaper. But they are nearing their limit. Most researchers think that improvements to Li-ion cells can squeeze in at most 30% more energy by weight (see 'Powering up').” “Five years ago, Wilcke, who heads IBM's nanoscience and technology division in San Jose, California, launched a project to develop a car battery with an 800- kilometre range. At the start, he focused on the theoretical ultimate in energy-dense electrochemical storage: the oxidation of lithium with oxygen drawn from the air. Such 'breathing' batteries have a huge weight advantage over other types, because they do not have to carry around one of their main ingredients. A lithium-oxygen (Li- O) battery can, in theory, store energy as densely as a petrol engine --- more than ten times better than today's car battery packs.”
  89. 89. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 89 Increased battery energy density drives convergence Since Sept. 2013 two major Li-air players have downgraded R&D effort Source: http://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/1.14815!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/507026a.pdf “The rechargeable revolution: A better battery Chemists are reinventing rechargeable cells to drive down costs and boost capacity.” “But after driving more than 22,000 kilometres in his [Tesla] electric roadster, Wilcke is happy with the 400-kilometre range that its battery already provides. The real problem, he says, is money: battery packs for electric cars cost more than $500 kWh−1. ‘What's holding back the mass acceptance of electric cars is really the price rather than the energy density,’ he says. So Wilcke now favours a cheaper breathing battery based on sodium. Theory predicts that sodium-oxygen (Na-O) batteries could provide only half the energy density of Li-O, but that is still five times better than Li-ion batteries. And sodium is cheaper than lithium, so Na-O might, Wilcke hopes, get closer to the $100- kWh−1goal that the JCESR and others have set for affordability.” “Wilcke's change of heart was undoubtedly influenced by the fact that many have given up hope on Li-O … ‘The bottom line is that Li-O has zero chance for vehicles,” says Stanley Whittingham … who invented the concept of Li-ion batteries in the 1970s …” Richard Van Noorden in Nature 507 pp. 26 - 28 March 5, 2014
  90. 90. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 90 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 90
  91. 91. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 91 Energy density scale-up can increase safety risks High capacity applications for lithium-based batteries in autos/aircraft Accidents with fires and explosions have been widely publicized on the Internet “There are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say, there are things that we now know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns – there are things we do not know we don't know.” Donald Rumsfeld U.S. Secretary of Defense Press conference (2002)
  92. 92. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 92 Energy density scale-up can increase safety risks High capacity applications for lithium-based batteries in autos/aircraft Accidents with fires and explosions have been widely publicized on the Internet Within the past several years, Lithium-based batteries have caused: Incinerations of hybrid and all-electric consumer vehicles Houses burned to the ground (EVs, laptop computers) Cargo aircraft destroyed in flight with multiple crew fatalities Thermal runaways on new passenger aircraft (Boeing 787) Bizarre explosion of a Lithium-ion battery recycling plant Unexplained destruction of US Navy ASDS all-electric minisub And a myriad of other battery-related mishaps involving virtually every type of Lithium chemistry have been reported
  93. 93. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 93 Unfortunately, safer lead-acid batteries are impractical for all-electric vehicles and e-aircraft --- their energy densities are simply too low Lead-acid batteries have been used safely in the U.S. for 150 years, nickel-cadmium for 67 years, consumer alkaline for 54 years; those chemistries are tried-and-true and well known to be relatively safe By contrast, battery industry has had less than 25 years of experience with high-energy density Lithium-based batteries; most of that was in consumer portable electronics applications where power demand/storage was measured in Watt-hours, not kilowatt-hours Energy density scale-up can increase safety risks High capacity applications for lithium-based batteries in autos/aircraft Accidents with fires and explosions have been widely publicized on the Internet Scale-up of any technology involves a certain level of inescapable intrinsic risks, some of which are known, and some which are not, e.g. Rumsfeld’s “unknown unknowns”
  94. 94. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 94 Thermal runaway event inside single-cell, lithium-based button battery might ruin a small electronic device, but it probably won’t set anything else on fire or hurt any nearby person or persons seriously Runaway inside smartphone’s multi-cell battery might start a woman’s handbag smoking or burn a hole through a man’s pants pocket, or make someone drop it, but it generally wouldn’t cause serious skin burns or ignite a large portion of someone’s clothing Catastrophic runaways inside significantly larger, multi-cell laptop computer batteries have inflicted serious burns on people’s legs and in several documented cases, have even burned-down entire homes Runaways involving large to extremely large many-cell secondary batteries on stationary (onsite back-up power) and mobile platforms such as hybrid or all-electric vehicles and passenger or cargo aircraft are very serious matters; can cause multiple fatalities and up to many millions of $ in physical damage to equipment and/or local facilities Risks can increase with scale-up Energy density scale-up can increase safety risks Very large form-factor Lithium batteries can do vastly more damage
  95. 95. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 95 Energy density scale-up can increase safety risks Thermal runaways become more likely if heat dissipation is impaired Surface area vs. volume decreases with increased size Positive system-level thermal feedback loops leading to runaways become easier in larger sizes For exothermic electrochemical reactions that normally occur inside operating battery cells, total cell heat production scales with the cube of the size of the battery cell (V ∝ r³), but a cell’s heat transfer capability scales with square of the size (A ∝ r²), so that rate of heat production-to- area ratio scales with the size (V/A ∝ r) End-result of this immutable scaling relationship between volumetric generation of heat within a given mass of reactants in a cell versus its area- related ability to dissipate produced heat is that chemistries that may well operate very safely in small cells are potentially dangerous and quite thermally unstable in considerably larger ones Consequence: scale-up of the internal energy densities, electrical capacity, and sheer physical size of battery systems can lead to much larger, vastly more dangerous thermal runaway events
  96. 96. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 96 Since 1991: improved battery energy densities enabled by Lithium-ion chemistry mutually reinforced and supported meteoric increases in global unit sales of portable electronic devices including laptop computers and cellphones and more recently, tablet computers and a myriad of different smartphones from many manufacturers Using various different chemistries, next logical step for battery technologists was to scale-up arrays of batteries so that their total electrical storage capacity was enough for effective use in hybrid/all-electric vehicles (EVs) and even larger-scale applications Persistently high gasoline prices encouraged CY 2000 global launch of first mass- produced, highly successful gasoline-electric hybrid car, the Toyota Prius. Market success of Prius along with continuing high gas prices and improvements in Li-ion technology encouraged development and sale of all-electric, plug-in vehicles by several new start-ups, notably Tesla (Roadster, 2008) and Fisker (Karma, 2012). Large established auto manufacturers now rising to meet upstarts’ competitive challenge Also driven by high jet fuel prices, parallel developments also occurred in aircraft technology which encouraged adoption of much lighter-weight airframes (carbon-fiber composite vs. older tried-and-true aluminum) and more weight-efficient all-electric (vs. older hydraulic) critical aircraft systems; this led to utilization of high-energy-density batteries for onboard electric power. These new technological thrusts were embodied in Boeing Dreamliner (2012), Cessna Citation (2013), and Chinese Yuneec e430 (2013) Energy density scale-up can increase safety risks Relatively high energy densities drove market success of Lithium
  97. 97. September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 97 Convergence of energetic materials, LENRs and batteries September 6, 2013 Lattice Energy LLC, Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 97

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