Habits of Mind …Another perspective oncurriculum design
Habits of Mind… knowing how to behave intelligently when you DONT know the answer. having a disposition toward behaving intelligently when confronted with problems, the answers to which are not immediately known: dichotomies, dilemmas, enigmas and uncertainties. Arthur Costa and Bena Kallick, Habits of Mind, A Developmental Series
Habits of Mind… Performative Literacy – knowledge that enables readers to activate and use all the other forms of knowledge required for the exercise of anything like a critical or disciplined literacySheridan Blau, Performative Literacy: The Habits of Highly Literate Readers
Habits of Mind… … ways of thinking that one acquires so well, makes so natural, and incorporates so fully into one’s repertoire, that they become mental habits – not only can one draw upon them easily, one is likely to do so. E. Paul Goldenberg, “Habits of Mind” as an Organizer for the Curriculum
New term for old concepts Intelligence can be taught (Whimbey, 1975) Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983) Learnable Intelligence (Perkins, 1995) Emotional Intelligence (Goleman, 1995) Moral Intelligence (Coles, 1997) (Costa and Kallick)
So why teach habits …? People know how to think better about something, but are not disposed to do so … “Without inclination, a person will not feel drawn toward X behavior. Without sensitivity, a person will not detect an X occasion.”Perkins, Jay, and Tishman, Beyond Abilities: A Dispositional Theory of Thinking
So why teach habits …?Habits of mind … emphasize attitudes, habits, and character traits in addition to cognitive skills; accommodate roles that emotions play in good learning; encourage intellectual “sensitivity” – recognizing opportunities to engage in intellectual behavior; support thought across and beyond disciplines. (Costa and Kallick)
So why teach habits …?A curriculum organized around habits of mind … builds a background for advanced study in the discipline gives a strong sense of how practice in the discipline is actually done serves the needs of students preparing for advanced study as well as students who have not developed skills or interest in the discipline (Goldenberg)
So why teach habits …?Finally, talking about habits of mind … provides a common talking point for instructors across disciplines and grade levels allows course designers to choose those habits of mind that best serve most students general education purposes. (Goldenberg)
Costa & Bennick’s habits1. Persisting 10. Gathering data through all2. Managing impulsivity senses3. Listening to others 11. Creating, imagining, and4. Thinking Flexibly innovating5. Thinking about thinking 12. Responding with wonder and awe6. Striving for accuracy and 13. Taking responsible risks precision7. Questioning 14. Finding humor8. Applying past knowledge to 15. Thinking interdependently new situations 16. Learning Continuously9. Thinking and communicating with accuracy and precision
Thinking dispositions1. To be broad and adventurous2. Toward sustained intellectual curiosity3. To clarify and seek understanding4. To be planful and strategic5. To be intellectually careful6. To seek and evaluate reasons7. To be metacognitive (Perkins, Jay, and Tishman)
Habits of critical thinkers1. Respect for reasons 7. Respect for others and truth in group inquiry and2. Respect for high- deliberation quality products and 8. Respect for performances legitimate3. Inquiring attitude intellectual authority4. Open-mindedness 9. Intellectual work ethic5. Fair-mindedness6. Independent- mindedness Bailins, Case, Coombs, and Daniels, Conceptualizing Critical Thinking
Blau’s performative literacy1. Sustained focused attention2. Willingness to suspend closure – to entertain problems rather than avoid them3. Willingness to take risks4. Tolerance for failure – willingness to re-read and re-read again5. Tolerance for ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty6. Intellectual generosity and fallibility7. Capacity to monitor and direct one’s own reading process – metacognitive awareness
From the CESTed Sizer proposes: CPESS habits of mind:1. Perspective 1. Evidence – how do we2. Analysis know what we know?3. Imagination 2. Perspective – who says?4. Empathy 3. Connection – what causes5. Communication what?6. Commitment 4. Supposition – what if?7. Humility 5. Relevance – who cares?8. Joy Habits of Mind. CESNationalweb. http://www.essentialschools.org
From BYU – 1st Year Exp.1. Curiosity2. Questioning3. Observation (through paying attention)4. Analysis (understanding the parts)5. Integration (understanding the whole)6. PersistenceHabits of Mind. Office of First-year Experience, Brigham Young University
Science habits of mind1. Curiosity2. Openness3. Skepticism * Balance between the two a central tension in all science. Too skeptical results in no new ideas tested. Too open results in no commitment to existing ideas.4. Communication Willingness to discuss and debate, share, cooperate and collaborate.Mark Volkmann and David Eichinger, Habits of Mind: Integrating the Social and Personal Characteristics of Doing Science into the Science Classroom.
Mathematics habits of mindStudents should be …1. Pattern sniffers Cuocco, Goldenberg, and Mark. Habits of Mind: an Organizing Principle2. Experimenters for Mathematics Curricula3. Describers4. Tinkerers5. Inventors6. Visualizers7. Conjecturers8. Guessers
Social Studies habits of mind1. Open mindedness2. Fair-mindedness3. Independent-mindedness4. Inquiring or “critical” attitude5. Respect for high quality products and performances6. Intellectual work ethicRoland Case and Ian Wright, Taking Seriously the Teaching of Critical Thinking
Habits in the curriculum …What we are proposing is something a bit different. It is not an act of faith that taking mathematics seriously gives one the mathematics directly and (also) improves one’s thinking, but almost the reverse: taking particular ways of thinking seriously and giving them top priority among the various principles one needs for organizing mathematics (or other) curricula, gives one the thinking skills directly and also improves one’s mathematics. (Goldenberg)
Habits in the curriculum …In considering habits, Goldenberg proposes …1) What “habits of mind” do people need to be safe, healthy, employable, socially connected ...? What “habits” will they need to be adaptive to unforeseen obstacles and new problems2) What special contributions to that thinking can my discipline make? a. What knowledge and skills from my discipline best help to deliver the message about thinking? b. What might best convey the flavor of my discipline? c. What might be the most broadly useful to students?
Habits in the curriculum …Habit is a cable; we weave a thread of it each day, and at last we cannot break it. Horace Mann
Habits in the curriculum …Habit: A recurrent, often unconscious pattern of behavior that is acquired through frequent repetition. An established disposition of the mind or character.Habituate: To accustom by frequent repetition or prolonged exposure The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
Habits in the curriculum …A habits of mind approach requires: Multiple opportunities for practice, becoming increasingly varied and complex and in different contexts over time. “Thinking Occasions” (Barry Beyer, Improving Student Learning) Providing Scaffolds Modeling Opportunity for reflection and “self-talk”
Thinking OccasionsBeyer, quoting Vygotsky, notes that – Thinking occasions are not “time to think” add-ons. Rather, they are occasions that demand thinking. These occasions actually provoke thinking, by triggering it and calling it into play.
Scaffolds … A Support for thinking Strategies/Mental Models Worksheets/ graphic organizers Modeling open-ended nature of research
Modeling …At some point in our lives, each part of the intellectualprocess demanded our full concentration. But once learned(or, more precisely, once mastered), our mental habitsbecame so automatic that they faded from view.It is that very point that spells trouble in the classroom. Forthe same aspects of cognition that ease our job as thinkerspose the greatest threat to our effectiveness as teachers.Our familiar mental habits, often overlooked or omittedwhen we describe our thinking processes to others, cancreate a gulf between us and our students. Sam Wineburg, Teaching the Mind Good Habits
Professors may assume that their students are stupidor suffer from a learning disability. Often the truth ismuch simpler: No one has ever bothered to teachthem some basic but powerful skills of interpretation.As teachers, we need to remember what the worldlooked like before we learned our disciplines ways ofseeing it. We need to show our students the patientand painstaking processes by which we achievedexpertise. Only by making our footsteps visible can weexpect students to follow in them. Wineburg
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