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The Cardiovascular System

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  • 1. The Cardiovascular System
  • 2. THE HEART
  • 3. Anatomy
    • Location and Size
      • Fist size
      • Weights less than a pound
      • Located within the thorax flanked laterally by the lungs
      • Base: posterosuperior, 2 nd ICS
      • Apex: anteroinferior, 5 th ICS
  • 4. Anatomy
    • Coverings
      • Covered by serous membrane pericardium
        • Two layers:
          • Visceral pericardium
          • Parietal pericardium
      • Serous fluid
        • Pericarditis: results to decreased amount of serous fluid
  • 5. Anatomy
    • Wall Layers
      • Epicardium
      • Myocardium
        • Made up of cardiac muscle bundles twisted in a ring like arrangement
        • Contracting layer
      • Endocardium
        • Endothelial lining of heart chambers
        • Continuous with the endothelium of great vessels
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8. Anatomy
    • Valves
      • Atrioventricular valves
        • Left: BICUSPID/ Mitral
        • Right: TRICUSPID
        • Chordae tendinae
      • Semilunar Valves
        • Pulmonary
        • Aortic
        • Incompetent Valve
        • Valvular Stenosis
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
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  • 12.  
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  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. Anatomy
    • Chambers
      • Atria
        • Receiving chambers
      • Ventricles
        • Discharging chambers
  • 21. Anatomy
    • Great Vessels
      • Superior and inferior vena cava
      • Pulmonary arteries and veins
      • Aorta
  • 22. Anatomy
    • Cardiac Circulation
      • Coronary Arteries
        • At AV groove from aorta
        • Other major branches:
          • Left:
            • anterior interventricular
            • circumflex
          • Right
            • posterior interventricular
            • marginal
      • Cardiac Veins draining to the Cardiac Sinus
      • Angina pectoris
      • Myocardial infarction
  • 23.  
  • 24. Physiology
    • Conduction System of the Heart
      • Spontaneous and independent regular contraction
      • Atrial cells : 60 beats per minute
      • Ventricular cells : 20-40 beats per minute
      • Controlling system:
        • ANS
        • INTRINSIC CONDUCTING SYSTEM OR NODAL SYSTEM
  • 25. Physiology
    • Intrinsic Conducting System
      • Contraction rate NV: 75 beats per minute
      • Depolarizes fro atrium to ventricle
      • Parts:
        • Sinoatrial node (right atrium)
        • Atrioventricular node (at AV junction)
        • Atrioventricular bundle or Bundle of His and bundle branches (at interventricular septum)
        • Purkinje fibers (ventricular walls)
  • 26. Physiology
    • Sinoatrial Node
      • “ pacemaker” of the heart
      • With the highest rate of depolarization in the whole system
      • From atria to AV node -atrial contraction
      • Brief pause
      • AV node to bundle, then to branches, then to Purkinje fibers – ventricular contraction starting at apex
      • Heart Block – AV node damage
      • Fibrillation – cardiac “shuddering” due to ischemia
      • Tachycardia – over 100 beats
      • Bradycardia – less than 60 beats
  • 27. Physiology
    • Cardiac Cycle
      • Events of a complete heartbeat (0.8 sec)
      • Systole – heart (ventricular) contraction
      • Diastole – heart (ventricular) relaxation
  • 28. 1 2 3
  • 29. Physiology
    • Heart Sounds
      • Lub (S1) and the dup (S2)
        • S1
          • AV valves closing
        • S2
          • Semilunar valves closing
      • murmurs – turbulence due to obstructions, valve incompetency or stenosis
  • 30. Physiology
    • Cardiac Output
      • Amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute
      • Stroke volume – volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute
      • Starling’s Law – the more stretched cardiac muscles are, the stronger their contraction would be (based on venous return)
        • Congestive Heart Failure
        • Pulmonary congestion (edema in lungs) – LV weakens
        • Peripheral Congestion (edema in distal parts) – RV weakens
  • 31. Cardiac Output Heart Rate Stroke Volume
    • Sympathetic
    • Epinephrine and
    • Thyroxine
    • 1/Parasympathetic
    • Age
    • Sex
    Preload 1/Afterload Contractility Venous Return Venous Tone Total Blood Volume

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