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Respiration Lecture

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Respiration Lecture Respiration Lecture Presentation Transcript

  • What is Respiration ?
    • Goals:
      • What is the respiratory system?
      • What is respiration?
      • What are the structural features?
      • What are their functions?
  • Respiration is:
    • IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE BODY TAKES IN AND USES O 2 AND REMOVES CO 2
    • REQUIRES-
      • Ventilation by the lungs
          • inspiration and expiration
      • Gas exchange across alveolar membrane
          • diffusion, Fick’s law
      • Transport of gases by blood
          • haemoglobin
      • Uptake of O 2 and release of CO 2 by tissues
          • diffusion
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  • Other Functions of the Respiratory System
    • BEHAVIORAL -talking, laughing, singing, reading
    • DEFENSE - humidification, particle expulsion (coughing, sneezing), particle trapping (clots), immunoglobulins from tonsils and adenoids, a-1 antitrypsin, lysozyme, interferon, complement system
    • SECRETIONS - mucus (goblet cells, mucus glands)
  • Other Functions: cont
    • METABOLIC - forms angiotensin II, prostacyclin, bradykinin, serotonin and histamine
    • ACID - BASE BALANCE- changes in ventilation ;e.g., acute acidosis of exercise
    • MISCELLANAEOUS - lose heat and water, liquid reservoir for blood,force generation for lifting, vomiting, defaecation and childbirth
  • Which of the following are not a function of the Respiratory System: 1. Speech 2. Gas exchange 3. Metabolism 4. Structural support for the heart 5. Acid-base balance QUIZ Question
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  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  • Jeffery Movie
  • Fishman A, Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 3 rd ed. 1998, McGraw-Hill, p. 23.
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  • Conducting Airways
    • Includes: trachea --> terminal bronchioles
    • Trachea --> right and left mainstem bronchi.
      • Right mainstem vulnerable to foreign particles
    • Mainstem bronchi -->lobar bronchi.
    • Dichotomous branching: ~16 generations of airways
    • Convective Flow
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  • Bronchoscopy
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  • Airway Branching Murray, et al. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine 3 rd ed. Saunders 2000, p.56.
  • A = Terminal + Lobule Bronchiole 3-5 ACINI Functional Respiratory Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Alveolar Sac Alveolus
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    • Quiz Question:
    • Which of the following is not a function
    • of the conducting airways?
    • Humidifying the inspirated air
    • Adjusting the air to body temperature
    • 3. Exchange of CO 2
    • 4. Section of mucus
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  • Transitional & Respiratory Zones.
    • Final generations of airway
        • Respiratory Bronchioles
        • Alveolar Ducts
        • Alveoli
    • Diffusive air movement as opposed to Convective air movement
    • Interface between inspired air and blood
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  • Alveoli 1 and 8 million alveolar ducts 300 million alveoli (diameter 70-300  m) Total alveolar surface area ~ 70 m 2 Alveolar membrane thickness < 1  m.
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  • Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 24.
  • NORMAL
  • EMPHYSEMA
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  • Quiz Question: Arrange the following in order so that oxygen can get to the blood - respiratory bronchioles - trachea - alveolus - glottis - alveolar ducts - nose
  • Quiz Question: Arrange the following in order so that oxygen can get to the blood 1) nose 2) glottis 3) trachea 4) respiratory bronchioles 5) alveolar ducts 6) alveolus
  • Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 29.
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  • Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 30.
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  • Blood Vessels of the Lung
    • Pulmonary Artery:
    • Deoxygenated (venous) cardiac output.
    • Pulmonary capillaries
      • extremely dense
      • underground parking garage
    • Pulmonary Veins:
    • Oxygenated (arterial) cardiac output.
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  • Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2 nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 28.
  • Bronchiole Alveoli Pulm. artery Pulm. vein
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  • Alveolar-Capillary Membrane Murray, et al. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine 3 rd ed. Saunders 2000, p.16.
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