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  • 1. PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 2. Chapter 11 Nervous System II
    • Meninges
      • membranes surrounding CNS
      • protect CNS
      • three layers
        • dura mater – outer, tough
        • arachnoid mater – thin, weblike
        • pia mater – inner, very thin
  • 3. Meninges of the Spinal Cord
  • 4. Ventricles
    • interconnected cavities
    • within cerebral hemispheres and brain stem
    • continuous with central canal of spinal cord
    • filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    • lateral ventricles
    • third ventricle
    • fourth ventricle
    • cerebral aqueduct
  • 5. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • secreted by choroid plexus
    • circulates in ventricles, central canal of spinal cord, and subarachnoid space
    • completely surrounds brain and spinal cord
    • clear liquid
    • nutritive and protective
    • helps maintain stable ion concentrations in CNS
  • 6. Spinal Cord
    • slender column of nervous tissue continuous with brain
    • extends downward through vertebral canal
    • begins at level of foramen magnum and terminates near first and second lumbar
  • 7. Cross Section of Spinal Cord
  • 8. Functions of Spinal Cord
    • center for spinal reflexes
    • conduit for nerve impulses to and from the brain
  • 9. Reflex Arcs Reflexes – automatic, subconscious responses to stimuli within or outside the body
  • 10. Reflex Arcs
  • 11. General Components of a Spinal Reflex
  • 12. Reflex Behavior
    • example is the knee-jerk reflex
    • simple monosynaptic reflex
    • helps maintain an upright posture
  • 13. Reflex Behavior
    • example is a withdrawal reflex
    • prevents or limits tissue damage
  • 14. Reflex Arc
    • example crossed extensor reflex
    • crossing of sensory impulses within the reflex center
    • to produce an opposite effect
  • 15. Tracts of the Spinal Cord
    • Ascending tracts conduct sensory impulses to the brain
    • Descending tracts conduct motor impulses from the brain to motor neurons reaching muscles and glands
  • 16. Ascending Tracts
    • major ascending spinal cord tracts
      • fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus
      • spinothalamic
        • lateral and anterior
      • spinocerebellar
        • posterior and anterior
  • 17. Descending Tracts
    • major descending spinal cord tracts
      • corticospinal
        • lateral and anterior
      • reticulospinal
        • lateral, anterior and medial
      • rubrospinal
  • 18. Nerve Tracts of the Spinal Cord
  • 19. Brain
    • Functions
      • interprets sensations
      • determines perception
      • stores memory
      • reasoning
      • makes decisions
      • coordinates muscular movements
      • regulates visceral activities
      • determines personality
    • Major Parts
      • cerebrum
        • two hemispheres
      • basal nuclei
      • diencephalon
      • brainstem
      • cerebellum
  • 20. Brain
  • 21. Brain Development
    • Three Major Vesicles
    • Forebrain
    • Midbrain
    • Hindbrain
  • 22. Brain Development
  • 23. Structure of Cerebrum
    • corpus callosum
      • connects cerebral hemispheres
    • convolutions
      • bumps or gyri
    • sulci
      • grooves
    • longitudinal fissure
      • separates hemispheres
    • transverse fissure
      • separates cerebrum from cerebellum
  • 24. Lobes of Cerebral Hemispheres
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Occipital
    • Insula
  • 25. Functions of the Cerebrum
    • interpreting impulses
    • initiating voluntary movements
    • storing information as memory
    • retrieving stored information
    • reasoning
    • seat of intelligence and personality
  • 26. Functional Regions of Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex – thin layer of gray matter that constitutes the outermost portion of cerebrum; contains 75% of all neurons in nervous system
  • 27. Sensory Areas
    • Cutaneous Sensory Area
      • parietal lobe
      • interprets sensations on skin
    • Visual Area
      • occipital lobe
      • interprets vision
    • Auditory Area
      • temporal lobe
      • interprets hearing
    • Sensory Area for Taste
      • near bases of the central sulci
      • Sensory Area for Smell
            • arise from centers deep within the cerebrum
  • 28. Sensory Areas
  • 29. Association Areas
    • regions that are not primary motor or primary sensory areas
    • widespread throughout the cerebral cortex
    • analyze and interpret sensory experiences
    • provide memory, reasoning, verbalization, judgment, emotions
  • 30. Association Areas
    • Frontal Lobe Association Areas
      • concentrating
      • planning
      • complex problem solving
    • Parietal Lobe Association Areas
      • understanding speech
      • choosing words to express thought
    • Temporal Lobe Association Areas
      • interpret complex sensory
      • experiences
      • store memories of visual scenes,
      • music, and complex patterns
    • Occipital Lobe Association Areas
      • analyze and combine visual images with other sensory experiences
  • 31. Hemisphere Dominance
    • The left hemisphere is dominant is most individuals
    • Dominant hemisphere controls
      • speech
      • writing
      • reading
      • verbal skills
      • analytical skills
      • computational skills
    • Nondominant hemisphere controls
      • nonverbal tasks
      • motor tasks
      • understanding and interpreting musical and visual patterns
      • provides emotional and intuitive thought processes
  • 32. Memory
    • Short Term
      • working memory
      • closed neuronal circuit
      • circuit is stimulated over and over
      • when impulse flow ceases, memory does also
        • unless it enters long-term memory via memory consolidation
    • Long Term
      • changes structure or function of neurons
      • enhances synaptic transmission
  • 33. Motor Areas
    • Primary Motor Areas
      • frontal lobes
      • control voluntary muscles
    • Broca’s Area
      • anterior to primary motor cortex
      • usually in left hemisphere
      • controls muscles needed for speech
    • Frontal Eye Field
      • above Broca’s area
      • controls voluntary movements of eyes and eyelids
  • 34. Motor Areas
  • 35. Functions of the Cerebral Lobes
  • 36. Basal Nuclei
    • masses of gray matter
    • deep within cerebral hemispheres
    • caudate nucleus , putamen , globus pallidus
    • produce dopamine
    • control certain muscular activities
      • primarily by inhibiting motor functions
  • 37. Diencephalon
    • between cerebral hemispheres and above the brainstem
    • surrounds third ventricle
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • optic tracts
    • optic chiasma
    • infundibulum
    • posterior pituitary
    • mammillary bodies
    • pineal gland
  • 38. Diencephalon
    • Thalamus
      • gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex
      • receives all sensory impulses (except smell)
      • channels impulses to appropriate part of cerebral cortex for interpretation
    • Hypothalamus
      • maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities
      • links nervous and endocrine systems
  • 39. Diencephalon
    • Consists of
      • portions of frontal lobe
      • portions of temporal lobe
      • hypothalamus
      • thalamus
      • basal nuclei
      • other deep nuclei
    • Functions
      • controls emotions
      • produces feelings
      • interprets sensory impulses
    Limbic System
  • 40. Brain Stem
    • Three Parts
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla Oblongata
  • 41. Midbrain
    • between diencephalon and pons
    • contains bundles of fibers that join lower parts of brainstem and spinal cord with higher part of brain
    • cerebral aqueduct
    • cerebral peduncles – bundles of nerve fibers
    • corpora quadrigemina – centers for visual and auditory reflexes
  • 42. Pons
    • rounded bulge on underside of brainstem
    • between medulla oblongata and midbrain
    • helps regulate rate and depth of breathing
    • relays nerve impulses to and from medulla oblongata and cerebellum
  • 43. Medulla Oblongata
    • enlarged continuation of spinal cord
    • conducts ascending and descending impulses between brain and spinal cord
    • contains cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory control centers
    • contains various nonvital reflex control centers (coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting)
  • 44. Reticular Formation
    • complex network of nerve fibers scattered throughout the brain stem
    • extends into the diencephalon
    • connects to centers of hypothalamus, basal nuclei, cerebellum, and cerebrum
    • filters incoming sensory information
    • arouses cerebral cortex into state of wakefulness
  • 45. Types of Sleep
    • Slow Wave
      • non-REM sleep
      • person is tired
      • decreasing activity of reticular system
      • restful
      • dreamless
      • reduced blood pressure and respiratory rate
      • ranges from light to heavy
      • alternates with REM sleep
    • Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
      • paradoxical sleep
      • some areas of brain active
      • heart and respiratory rates irregular
      • dreaming occurs
  • 46. Cerebellum
    • inferior to occipital lobes
    • posterior to pons and medulla oblongata
    • two hemispheres
    • vermis connects hemispheres
    • cerebellar cortex – gray matter
    • arbor vitae – white matter
    • cerebellar peduncles – nerve fiber tracts
    • dentate nucleus – largest nucleus in cerebellum
    • integrates sensory information concerning position of body parts
    • coordinates skeletal muscle activity
    • maintains posture
  • 47. Major Parts of the Brain
  • 48. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Cranial nerves arising from the brain
      • Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles
      • Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera
    • Spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord
      • Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles
      • Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera
  • 49. Nervous System Subdivisions
  • 50. Structure of a Peripheral Nerve
  • 51. Nerve Fiber Classification
    • Sensory Nerves – conduct impulses into brain or spinal cord
    • Motor Nerves – conduct impulses to muscles or glands
    • Mixed Nerves – contain both sensory nerve fibers and motor nerve fibers; most nerves
  • 52. Nerve Fiber Classification
    • General somatic efferent fibers
      • carry motor impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles
    • General visceral efferent fibers
      • carry motor impulses away from CNS to smooth muscles and glands
    • General somatic afferent fibers
      • carry sensory impulses to CNS from skin and skeletal muscles
    • General visceral afferent fibers
      • carry sensory impulses to CNS from blood vessels and internal organs
  • 53. Nerve Fiber Classification
    • Special somatic efferent fibers
      • carry motor impulses from brain to muscles used in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and forming facial expressions
    • Special visceral afferent fibers
      • carry sensory impulses to brain from olfactory and taste receptors
    • Special somatic afferent fibers
      • carry sensory impulses to brain from receptors of sight, hearing, and equilibrium
  • 54. Cranial Nerves
  • 55. Cranial Nerves I and II
    • Olfactory (I)
      • sensory
      • fibers transmit impulses associated with smell
    • Optic (II)
      • sensory
      • fibers transmit impulses associated with vision
  • 56. Cranial Nerves III and IV
    • Trochlear (IV)
      • some sensory
        • proprioreceptors
      • primarily motor
      • motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes
    • Oculomotor (III)
      • some sensory
        • proprioreceptors
      • primarily motor
      • motor impulses to muscles that
        • raise eyelids
        • move the eyes
        • focus lens
        • adjust light entering eye
  • 57. Cranial Nerve V
    • Trigeminal (V)
      • mixed
      • opthalmic division
        • sensory from surface of eyes, tear glands, scalp, forehead, and upper eyelids
      • maxillary division
        • sensory from upper teeth, upper gum, upper lip, palate, and skin of face
      • mandibular division
        • sensory from scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, lower gum, and lower lip
        • motor to muscles of mastication and muscles in floor of mouth
  • 58. Cranial Nerves VI and VII
    • Abducens (VI)
      • primarily motor
      • motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes
      • some sensory with proprioreceptors
    • Facial (VII)
      • mixed
      • sensory from taste receptors
      • motor to muscles of facial expression, tear glands, and salivary glands
  • 59. Cranial Nerves VIII and IX
    • Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
      • sensory
      • vestibular branch
        • sensory from equilibrium receptors of ear
      • cochlear branch
        • sensory from hearing receptors
    • Glossopharyngeal (IX)
      • mixed
      • sensory from pharynx, tonsils, tongue, and carotid arteries
      • motor to salivary glands and muscles of pharynx
  • 60. Cranial Nerve X
    • Vagus (X)
      • mixed
      • somatic motor to muscles of speech and swallowing
      • autonomic motor to viscera of thorax and abdomen
      • sensory from pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of thorax and abdomen
  • 61. Cranial Nerves XI and XII
    • Accessory (XI)
      • primarily motor
      • cranial branch
        • motor to muscles of soft palate, pharynx, and larynx
      • spinal branch
        • motor to muscles of neck, and back; some proprioreceptor
    • Hypoglossal (XII)
      • primarily motor
      • motor to muscles of the tongue; some proprioreceptor
  • 62. Functions of Cranial Nerves
  • 63. Spinal Nerves
    • mixed nerves
    • 31 pairs
      • 8 cervical
        • (C1 to C8)
      • 12 thoracic
        • (T1 to T12)
      • 5 lumbar
        • (L1 to L5)
      • 5 sacral
        • (S1 to S5)
      • 1 coccygeal
        • (Co)
  • 64. Spinal Nerves
    • Dorsal root (posterior or sensory root)
      • axons of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion
    • Dorsal root ganglion
      • cell bodies of sensory neurons whose axons conduct impulses inward from peripheral body parts
  • 65. Dermatome
    • an area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate
  • 66. Spinal Nerves
    • Ventral root (anterior or motor root)
      • axons of motor neurons whose cell bodies are in spinal cord
    • Spinal nerve
      • union of ventral root and dorsal root
  • 67. Cervical Plexuses Nerve plexus – complex networks formed by anterior branches of spinal nerves; fibers of various spinal nerves are sorted and recombined
    • Cervical Plexus
      • formed by anterior branches of C1-C4
      • lies deep in the neck
      • supply muscles and skin of the neck
      • C3 – C5 contribute to phrenic nerves
  • 68. Brachial Plexuses
    • C5-T1
    • lies deep within shoulders
    • musculocutaneous nerves
      • supply muscles of anterior arms and skin of forearms
    • ulnar and median nerves
      • supply muscles of forearms and hands
      • supply skin of hands
    • radial nerves
      • supply posterior muscles of arms and skin of forearms and hands
    • axillary nerves
      • supply muscles and skin of anterior, lateral, and posterior arms
  • 69. Lumbosacral Plexuses
    • T12 – S5
    • extend from lumbar region into pelvic cavity
    • obturator nerves
      • supply motor impulses to adductors of thighs
    • femoral nerves
      • supply motor impulses to muscles of anterior thigh and sensory impulses from skin of thighs and legs
    • sciatic nerves
      • supply muscles and skin of thighs, legs, and feet
  • 70. Plexuses
  • 71. Autonomic Nervous System
    • functions without conscious effort
    • controls visceral activities
    • regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
    • efferent fibers typically lead to ganglia outside CNS
    • Two Divisions
      • sympathetic – prepares body for fight or flight situations
      • parasympathetic – prepares body for resting and digesting activities
  • 72. Autonomic Nerve Fibers
    • all are neurons are motor (efferent)
    • preganglionic fibers
      • axons of preganglionic neurons
      • neuron cell bodies in CNS
    • postganglionic fibers
      • axons of postganglionic neurons
      • neuron cell bodies in ganglia
  • 73. Sympathetic Division
    • thoracolumbar divison – location of preganglionic neurons
    • preganglionic fibers leave spinal nerves through white rami and enter paravertebral ganglia
    • paraverterbral ganglia and fibers that connect them make up the sympathetic trunk
  • 74. Sympathetic Division
    • postganglionic fibers extend from sympathetic ganglia to visceral organs
    • postganglionic fibers usually pass through gray rami and return to a spinal nerve before proceeding to an effector
    • Exception: preganglionic fibers to adrenal medulla do not synapse with postganglionic neurons
  • 75. Sympathetic Division
  • 76. Parasympathetic Division
    • craniosacral division – location of preganglionic neurons
    • ganglia are near or within various organs
      • terminal ganglia
    • short postganglionic fibers
      • continue to specific muscles or glands
    • preganglionic fibers of the head are included in nerves III, VII, and IX
    • preganglionic fibers of thorax and abdomen are parts of nerve X
  • 77. Parasympathetic Division
  • 78. Autonomic Neurotransmitters
    • Cholinergic Fibers
      • release acetylcholine
      • preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
      • postganglionic parasympathetic fibers
    • Adrenergic Fibers
      • release norepinephrine
      • most postganglionic sympathetic fibers
  • 79. Actions of Autonomic Neurotransmitters
    • depend on receptors in the membrane
    • Cholinergic receptors
      • bind to acetlycholine
      • muscarinic
        • excitatory
        • slow
      • nicotinic
        • excitatory
        • rapid
    • Adrenergic Receptors
      • bind to epinephrine and norepinephrine
      • alpha and beta
        • both elicit different responses on various effectors
  • 80. Insert figure 11.39 Actions of Autonomic Neurotransmitters
  • 81. Control of Autonomic Activity
    • Controlled largely by CNS
    • Medulla oblongata regulates cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory activities
    • Hypothalamus regulates visceral functions, such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, and water and electrolyte balance
    • Limbic system and cerebral cortex control emotional responses
  • 82. Life-Span Changes
    • Brain cells begin to die before birth
    • Over average lifetime, brain shrinks 10%
    • Most cell death occurs in temporal lobes
    • By age 90, frontal cortex has lost half its neurons
    • Number of dendritic branches decreases
    • Decreased levels of neurotransmitters
    • Fading memory
    • Slowed responses and reflexes
    • Increased risk of falling
    • Changes in sleep patterns that result in fewer sleeping hours
  • 83. Clinical Application Cerebral Injuries and Abnormalities
    • Concussion
      • brain jarred against cranium
      • loss of consciousness
      • temporary loss of memory
      • mental cloudiness
      • headache
      • recovery usually complete
    • Cerebral Palsy
      • motor impairment at birth
      • caused by blocked cerebral blood vessels during development
      • seizures
      • learning disabilities
    • Cerebrovascular Accident
      • stroke
      • sudden interruption in blood flow
      • brain tissues die