Introduction to Forensic Science Historical Overview  & Underlying Principles
What is Forensic Science? <ul><li>Forensic Science in General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The application of science to law </li...
History & Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Who was the person to bring forensic science out of the shadows? </li></...
History & Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Hans Gross (1847-1915) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Described the application o...
History & Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Edmond Locard (1877-1966) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Father of Modern For...
The Basic Crime Laboratory <ul><li>Physical Science Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Biology Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms Unit </...
Forensic Science  Judicial Concerns <ul><li>Frye  v.  United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admissibility in court </li></ul...
Other Forensic Science Services <ul><li>Forensic Pathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the victim? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Forensic Anthropology <ul><li>Primarily deals with the identification and examination of human skeletal remains </li></ul>...
Forensic Entomology <ul><li>Forensic Entomology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of insects and their relation to a crimina...
Forensic Odontology <ul><li>Identification of victims left in an unrecognizable state through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denta...
Forensic Engineering <ul><li>Failure analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Accident reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Fire analysis </...
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Overview History of Forensic Science

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Overview History of Forensic Science

  1. 1. Introduction to Forensic Science Historical Overview & Underlying Principles
  2. 2. What is Forensic Science? <ul><li>Forensic Science in General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The application of science to law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forensic Science Full Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The application of </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. History & Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Who was the person to bring forensic science out of the shadows? </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Arthur Conan Doyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherlock Holmes Series </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holmes series introduced many ideas that are now major parts in forensic science. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firearm identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much more </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. History & Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Hans Gross (1847-1915) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Described the application of science to the field of criminal investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed the use of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralogy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zoology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Botany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropometry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprinting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. History & Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Edmond Locard (1877-1966) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Father of Modern Forensic Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started the first crime laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded knowledge in the area of forensic science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locard’s Exchange Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come in contact with one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take away something </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deposit something </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Basic Crime Laboratory <ul><li>Physical Science Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Biology Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Document Examination Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Photography Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology Unit (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Latent Fingerprint Unit (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Polygraph Unit (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Voiceprint Analysis Unit (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence Collection Unit (Optional) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Forensic Science Judicial Concerns <ul><li>Frye v. United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admissibility in court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To meet the Frye Standard, the court must decide if the questioned procedure, technique, or principles are “generally accepted” by a meaningful segment of the relevant scientific community. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial judges act as a “gatekeeper” to determine admissibility </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Other Forensic Science Services <ul><li>Forensic Pathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the victim? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What injuries are present? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When did the injuries occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why and how were the injuries produced? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary role of medical examiner is to determine cause of death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If undeterminable through observation, then an autopsy is performed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manner of Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural -- Suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homicide -- Undetermined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accident </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Forensic Anthropology <ul><li>Primarily deals with the identification and examination of human skeletal remains </li></ul><ul><li>Exams can reveal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin, sex, approximate age, race, and skeletal injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass disaster identification </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Forensic Entomology <ul><li>Forensic Entomology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate time of death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forensic entomologists determine time of death by taking the life cycle of certain insects along with environmental characteristics into consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Insects can arrive at a dead body in as little as 20 minutes from the time of death </li></ul>
  11. 11. Forensic Odontology <ul><li>Identification of victims left in an unrecognizable state through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dental records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abuse/assault cases, etc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bite marks can link victims with assailant </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Forensic Engineering <ul><li>Failure analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Accident reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Fire analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion analysis </li></ul>

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