Overview History of Forensic Science

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This is a presentation that was given on a few historical aspects of forensic science.

This is a presentation that was given on a few historical aspects of forensic science.

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Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Forensic Science Historical Overview & Underlying Principles
  • 2. What is Forensic Science?
    • Forensic Science in General
      • The application of science to law
    • Forensic Science Full Definition
      • The application of
  • 3. History & Development of Forensic Science
    • Who was the person to bring forensic science out of the shadows?
    • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
      • Sherlock Holmes Series
    • Holmes series introduced many ideas that are now major parts in forensic science.
      • Serology
      • Document analysis
      • Firearm identification
      • Much more
  • 4. History & Development of Forensic Science
    • Hans Gross (1847-1915)
      • Described the application of science to the field of criminal investigation
      • Detailed the use of
        • Microscopy
        • Chemistry
        • Physics
        • Mineralogy
        • Zoology
        • Botany
        • Anthropometry
        • Fingerprinting
  • 5. History & Development of Forensic Science
    • Edmond Locard (1877-1966)
      • The Father of Modern Forensic Science
      • Started the first crime laboratory
      • Expanded knowledge in the area of forensic science
    • Locard’s Exchange Principle
      • The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come in contact with one another
        • Take away something
        • Deposit something
  • 6. The Basic Crime Laboratory
    • Physical Science Unit
    • Biology Unit
    • Firearms Unit
    • Document Examination Unit
    • Photography Unit
    • Toxicology Unit (Optional)
    • Latent Fingerprint Unit (Optional)
    • Polygraph Unit (Optional)
    • Voiceprint Analysis Unit (Optional)
    • Evidence Collection Unit (Optional)
  • 7. Forensic Science Judicial Concerns
    • Frye v. United States
      • Admissibility in court
        • To meet the Frye Standard, the court must decide if the questioned procedure, technique, or principles are “generally accepted” by a meaningful segment of the relevant scientific community.
    • Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals
      • Trial judges act as a “gatekeeper” to determine admissibility
  • 8. Other Forensic Science Services
    • Forensic Pathology
      • Who is the victim?
      • What injuries are present?
      • When did the injuries occur?
      • Why and how were the injuries produced?
    • Primary role of medical examiner is to determine cause of death
      • If undeterminable through observation, then an autopsy is performed
    • Manner of Death
      • Natural -- Suicide
      • Homicide -- Undetermined
      • Accident
  • 9. Forensic Anthropology
    • Primarily deals with the identification and examination of human skeletal remains
    • Exams can reveal
      • Origin, sex, approximate age, race, and skeletal injury
    • Other Skills
      • Facial reconstruction
      • Mass disaster identification
  • 10. Forensic Entomology
    • Forensic Entomology
      • The study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation
    • Uses
      • Estimate time of death
    • Forensic entomologists determine time of death by taking the life cycle of certain insects along with environmental characteristics into consideration
    • Insects can arrive at a dead body in as little as 20 minutes from the time of death
  • 11. Forensic Odontology
    • Identification of victims left in an unrecognizable state through:
      • Dental records
      • Smiling photographs
      • X-rays
    • Abuse/assault cases, etc
      • Bite marks can link victims with assailant
  • 12. Forensic Engineering
    • Failure analysis
    • Accident reconstruction
    • Fire analysis
    • Explosion analysis