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Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
Overview History of Forensic Science
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Overview History of Forensic Science

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This is a presentation that was given on a few historical aspects of forensic science.

This is a presentation that was given on a few historical aspects of forensic science.

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  • 1. Introduction to Forensic Science Historical Overview & Underlying Principles
  • 2. What is Forensic Science? <ul><li>Forensic Science in General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The application of science to law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forensic Science Full Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The application of </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. History &amp; Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Who was the person to bring forensic science out of the shadows? </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Arthur Conan Doyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherlock Holmes Series </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holmes series introduced many ideas that are now major parts in forensic science. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firearm identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much more </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. History &amp; Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Hans Gross (1847-1915) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Described the application of science to the field of criminal investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed the use of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralogy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zoology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Botany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropometry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprinting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. History &amp; Development of Forensic Science <ul><li>Edmond Locard (1877-1966) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Father of Modern Forensic Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started the first crime laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded knowledge in the area of forensic science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locard’s Exchange Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come in contact with one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take away something </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deposit something </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. The Basic Crime Laboratory <ul><li>Physical Science Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Biology Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Document Examination Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Photography Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology Unit (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Latent Fingerprint Unit (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Polygraph Unit (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Voiceprint Analysis Unit (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence Collection Unit (Optional) </li></ul>
  • 7. Forensic Science Judicial Concerns <ul><li>Frye v. United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admissibility in court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To meet the Frye Standard, the court must decide if the questioned procedure, technique, or principles are “generally accepted” by a meaningful segment of the relevant scientific community. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial judges act as a “gatekeeper” to determine admissibility </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Other Forensic Science Services <ul><li>Forensic Pathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the victim? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What injuries are present? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When did the injuries occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why and how were the injuries produced? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary role of medical examiner is to determine cause of death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If undeterminable through observation, then an autopsy is performed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manner of Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural -- Suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homicide -- Undetermined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accident </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Forensic Anthropology <ul><li>Primarily deals with the identification and examination of human skeletal remains </li></ul><ul><li>Exams can reveal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin, sex, approximate age, race, and skeletal injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass disaster identification </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Forensic Entomology <ul><li>Forensic Entomology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate time of death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forensic entomologists determine time of death by taking the life cycle of certain insects along with environmental characteristics into consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Insects can arrive at a dead body in as little as 20 minutes from the time of death </li></ul>
  • 11. Forensic Odontology <ul><li>Identification of victims left in an unrecognizable state through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dental records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abuse/assault cases, etc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bite marks can link victims with assailant </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Forensic Engineering <ul><li>Failure analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Accident reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Fire analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion analysis </li></ul>

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