The Iberian Peninsula was within the power of Rome except the Cantabrian people who resisted until the arrival of Augustus in the early Roman Empire The beginning
In 197 BC, the Romans divided the Iberian territory into two zones: the Citerior Hispania and Ulterior Hispania Areas After the end of the Cantabrian Wars, it was divided into three provinces: Andalusia, Tarragona and Lusitania.
Trajan, Hadrian and Theodosius were emperors of Rome, and prominent figures like the philosopher Seneca came from Hispania. Emperors
Hispanian Empire fell due to the weakening of authority in the centuries III, IV and V. The end
Las Cortes de Leon, were held early in the reign of Alfonso IX, in 1188, in the Compostela cloisters of the Archbishop Basilica of San Isidoro.
CONSISTING of: PRIVILEGED: CLERGY AND NOBILITY UNPRIVILEGED
Las Cortes de Leon, were held early in the reign of Alfonso IX, in 1188, in the cloisters of the Basilica of San Isidoro, as maintained in the statement of the monarch in a letter to the Archbishop of Compostela.
<ul><li>The Cortes of León were the first parliamentary body in Western Europe, and took place in 1188. </li></ul><ul><li>Prelates, nobles and commoners remained separated in the three estates within the Cortes. The king had the ability to call and dismiss the Cortes, but, as the lords of the Cortes headed the army and controlled the purse, the King usually signed treaties with them to pass bills for war at the cost of concessions to the lords and the Cortes. A new legislation was enacted to protect citizens and their property against the abuses and arbitrary power of the nobles, the clergy and the King himself. This important set of decrees has been qualified with the name "Leon Magna Carta." It was the beginning of a new policy framework to govern the other countries in Europe. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Curia Regia They gathered in the cloister of San Isidoro de León. This model will be incorporated later in Castile and Catalonia, and then the rest of Europe. </li></ul>
The Reconquista was a period of about 700 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim Al-Andalus Province .
<ul><li>The Reconquista of Al-Andalus began soon after the Islamic conquest and passed through major phases over the centuries before its completion. The formation of the Kindom of Asturias and the Battle of Covadonga in 722 were major formative events. The Kingdom of Asturias was the first Christian political entity to be established in the Iberian peninsula after the collapse of the Visigothic Kingdom. </li></ul>Kingdom of Asturias The kingdom lasted from 723 until 910, when García I became King of León.
Kingdom of León The Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in 910 AD and it lasted from 910 to 1230 AD when it joins to the kingdom of Castilla.
Kingdom of Castilla The Kingdom of Castilla was a part of the Kingdom of León and it became independent at the XII century and it lasted from this century to XVI century.
The Reconquista was largely completed in 1238-1249, when the sole remaining Muslim state on Iberia, the Emirate of Granada, became a vassal state of the Christian Crown of Castile. This arrangement lasted for 250 years until the Castilians launched the Granada War of 1492, which finally expelled all Muslim authority from Spain.
Portugal and Castile (Spain) were very advanced in the exploration of mercantile maritime routes and Seville, a rich and populous Spanish city, was an important mall. We know that the African routes remained closed for Castile in favor of Portugal. In 1479, in the agreement of Alcaçova, Alfonso V of Portugal resigned his aspirations on Castile and recognized the rights of Castile in the Canaries islands, whereas Castile was recognising Portugal and Castile (Spain) SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
In 1492 the unified Spain possesed a powerful machinery of war, a solid economy, an exterior projection, naval experience that included the exploration of mercantile routes, and a relevant scientific and technological potential: mathematicians, geographers, astronomers and naval builders, who had been formed of a mixture of three cultures (Jews, Muslims and Christians). CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS
Spain’s only rival was Portugal which had put an end to the Spanish expansion in Africa Christopher Columbus wanted to go to the West Indies then, but during his voyage to Asia his caravels, unexpectedly, stumbled over the American continent.
The Spanish were specially well prepared by their history to conquer and occupy new lands and assimilated the new people.
America, then, turned into the new land promised for those people used to the adventure and with the military, diplomatic and administrative weapon to his disposition to confront the challenge. In the middle of the 16th century, they had been established in two of the most important viceroyalties, Mexico and Peru.
Miguel is considred the greatest figure in Spanish literature. It is known for writing The ingenious don Quixote de la Mancha , which many critics have described as the first modern novel and one of the best works of literature. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish soldier, novelist, poet and playwright. He was born on 29th September, 1547 in Alcalá de Henares and died in April 1616, in Madrid. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
<ul><li>The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha ,is a novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes. Cervantes created a fictional origin for the story by inventing a Moorish chronicler for Don Quixote named Cide Hamete Benengeli. Published in two volumes a decade apart (in 1605 and 1615), Don Quixote is the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age in the Spanish literary canon. As a founding work of modern Western literature, it regularly appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published. </li></ul>Don Quixote
The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was promulgated 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, the national legislative assembly(Cortes Generales "General Courts") of Spain. This constitution was effectively Spain's first, given that the Bayonne Statute issued in 1808 under Joseph Bonaparte never went into effect. The 1812 Constitution established the principals of universal suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy, freedom of the press, and supported land reform and free enterprise.
The constitution, one of the most liberal of its time, was abolished by Ferdinand VII upon his return to Spain 24 March 1814, but was reinstated during the Trienio Liberal of 1820–1823, and again briefly in 1836 and 1837 while the Progressives prepared the Constitution of 1837. From 1812 to 1814, the Constitution was never really fully in effect: much of Spain was ruled by the French, while the rest was in the hands of interim governments focused on resistance to the Bonapartes rather than on the immediate establishment of a constitutional regime, and the overseas possessions experienced the chaos of a power vacuum.
The Spanish Civil War was a social, political and military conflict that began in Spain after the failure of the coup of July 17, 1936 conducted by the army against the government of the Second Spanish Republic 1936: The tragic death of Calvo Sotelo accelerating a military coup had been under preparation for some time. Indeed, the conspirators were awaiting the decision of General Franco to begin the uprising.
<ul><li>On 18th July, 1936 the most conservative side of the Spanish Army took up arms against the Republic </li></ul>
On 18th July, the rebellion spread to other garrisons in metropolitan Spain and the following day Franco took command of the army in Morocco. Jarama, Brunete, Quinto, Belchite, Fuentes de Ebro, Teruel and the Ebro are the battlefields of the Spanish Civil War in which more than 12 000 Canadian soldiers supporting Republican Spain took part
1937: The year 1937 was characterized by fighting in the north of the country: Guernica was bombed in April, Bilbao was taken in June, Santander in August, and Gijon in October. The reaction from Republicans was to open fronts in Guadalajara (March), Brunete (July) and Belchite (August). The battle of Teruel was launched at the end of the year.
revolution and contrarevolution provoked big disasters in cities
1938: The Nationalists moved their efforts to Aragon, recovered Teruel and divided the Republican zone in two parts after entering Castellon in July of that year. The government responded with the so-called Battle of the Ebro (July-November 1938) which ended with the Republican defeat and 70,000 casualties
1939:Many People from Spain run away to France. Cataluña surrendered on 10th February 1939. The National forces took the capital on 28th March 1939 and Franco declared the war had come to an end in April.
DNA Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms with the exception of some viruses
The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. Like a recipe, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. DNA MOLECULES
He was born in September 24 of 1905, Luarca (Spain) He died in November 1 of 1993(Madrid) biochemist and molecular biologist who received the 1959 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovery of an enzyme in bacteria that enabled him to synthesize ribonucleic acid (RNA) SEVERO OCHOA
Ochoa was educated at the University of Madrid,. then he spent two years studying the biochemistry and physiology of muscle under the German biochemist Otto Meyerhof at the University of Heidelberg. New York City, where he became professor of biochemistry of the department in 1954. Ochoa became a U.S. citizen in 1956. OCHOA´S EDUCATION
The European Community,was founded in the 50's of the twentieth century, and originally had six founding members.
In the Royal Palace of Madrid the minutes were signed on June 12, 1985. The Act of Accession of Spain to the European Community is a treaty by which Spain joined the European Economic Community, now the European Union
The union, which was signed on 12th June, 1985 in the Hall of Columns of the Royal Palace Madrid, took place on 1st January, 1986. This merger was made at the same time as that of Portugal. After the accession, there was a period of economic prosperity in Spain, in which the highest growth rate of all community was achieved for five consecutive years.
This was the most comprehensive and systematic process of liberalization and openness in the Spanish economy after the National Economic Stabilization Plan in 1959.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010. The bidding process for hosting the tournament finals was open only to African nations; in 2004, the international football federation, FIFA, selected South Africa over Egypt and Morocco to become the first African nation to host the finals The Spanush group were the winners of the 2010 World Cup, beating the Netherlands in the final. A goal was enough to make the selection the champion, thanks to the player called Iniesta