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Phrase Structure
Phrase Structure
Phrase Structure
Phrase Structure
Phrase Structure
Phrase Structure
Phrase Structure
Phrase Structure
Phrase Structure
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Phrase Structure

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  • 1. So far… • General Approach – Universal Grammar (UG) / Language Instinct Phrase Structure • Data – native speakers’ i t iti ti k ’ intuitions ( (acceptability j d t bilit judgments) t ) • Resulting Theory of Grammar – words, phrases, categories for words and phrases (e.g., Nouns, Verbs; Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases) (basic concepts any theory of grammar must have in order to capture the data) 1 2 Next: Phrase Structure • The internal structure of phrases and how My very funny friend in Russia will go to we can represent it. Det Adv A N P N Aux V P • H How phrases are put t h t together to create th t t a concert tomorrow. t t sentences. Det N Adv My very funny friend in Russia NP → Det AP N PP NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) 3 4 Phrase Internal Structure Phrase Internal Structure very funny • why (AP*): – My talented handsome funny friend AP→ Mod A A A A AP→ (Mod) A (PP) – My friend • why (PP*): • why (PP): – My friend in Russia with a convertible – proud (of himself) PP PP – My friend 5 6 1
  • 2. Phrase Internal Structure Phrase Internal Structure [in Russia] [go to a concert tomorrow] PP P NP VP→ V PP AdvP PP (Mod) P (NP) VP→ (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) [tomorrow] why NP* : give Mary the book AdvP Adv NP NP why PP*: go to a concert in his convertible AdvP (Mod) Adv PP PP (very) infrequently why AdvP*: go to a concert briefly tomorrow AdvP AdvP 7 8 Phrase Internal Structure Phrase Structure Rules for English [My very funny friend in Russia will go to S → NP (Aux) VP a concert tomorrow] NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) VP → (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) S NP (Aux) VP PP → (Mod) P (NP) AP → (Mod) A (PP) [S [NP My very funny friend in Russia] will [VP go to a concert tomorrow]] AdvP → (Mod) Adv (PP) 9 10 Embedding 1 Embedding 2 • Bill saw Mary • A mouse • A mouse in a house • Harry said that Bill saw Mary • A mouse in a house on a street • Rita heard that Harry said that Bill saw Mary • A mouse in a house on a street with a lamp p • Marvin whispered that Rita heard that Harry said • A mouse in a house on a street with a lamp that Bill saw Mary without a switch • What’s embedded in what? • What’s embedded in what? • Sentences can be embedded inside bigger • Prepositional Phrases can be embedded inside sentences. Noun Phrases, to make bigger and bigger NPs. 11 12 2
  • 3. Embedding 3 We can mix and match ALL of these Relative Clauses various embedding mechanisms • The cat • The cat that ate the rat • If Bill distinctly heard that a mouse in the house • The cat that ate the rat that lived in the barn that sits on the edge of the forest will most likely • The cat that ate the rat that lived in the barn that eat a frog from Moline and if Taras Bulba sat near the house that Jack built believes that this will threaten the stability of the Western empire, then pink panthers with shining • What is embedded in what? eyes and split lips may decide that it is time that • Relative Clauses inside Noun Phrases; to make they took matters into their own limp paws! bigger and bigger Noun Phrases. 13 14 Phrase Structure Rules for English Recursion S → NP (Aux) VP [NP The cat [PP on [NP the mat [PP in [NP the NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) bedroom [PP next to [NP the VP → (AdvP) V (NP*) (PP*) (AdvP*) bathroom…]]]]]]] PP → (Mod) P (NP) AP → (Mod) A (PP) NP → (Det) (AP*) N (PP*) AdvP → (Mod) Adv (PP) PP → (Adv) P NP 15 16 Two key ideas Phrase Structure • Recursive Rules: – rules that can apply again and again to their own outputs • Hierarchical structure: – recursive rules can yield bigger and bigger phrases Beads on a string Hierarchical structure 17 18 3
  • 4. Phrase Structure Tree Phrase Structure Tree S • Branch: a line connecting two parts of a tree NP Aux VP • Node: D AP N PP V PP AdvP the terminal point (the beginning or the end) of a branch A P NP P NP Adv D N • Label: the name given to a node (e.g., N, VP, S, etc.) My good friend in Russia will go to a concert tomorrow. 19 20 The Internal Structure of a Noun Phrase Phrase Structure Tree NP nodes A label Specifier B branch the a Head C every N Complement this my in my class student Bill’s who is a liar friend that took my wallet he Mary 21 22 Types of NPs Types of NPs NP NP NP NP N N Pro Det N dogs dogs I, me, the dog toothbrushes toothbrushes you, he, him, a mouse quiche quiche she, her, we, most cats sheep sheep us, they, these people Oswald Oswald them, it every guy Ruby Ruby 23 24 4
  • 5. Types of NPs Types of NPs NP NP NP (Det) AdjP N (Det) AdjP N (Det) AdjP AdjP N happy dogs happy dogs, the big bad wolf, the big one the big one, a small yellow ball a raw deal a raw deal, a mad mad world rainy days rainy days longer strings of AdjPs are possible 25 26 Types of VPs Types of VPs VP VP VP V V V NP h chase slept slept, left, arrived arrived, smiled smiled, coughed coughed waved waved ate ate 27 28 NP NP Types of VPs Types of VPs Det N Det N the dog, VP VP VP VP the dog, a boy, a boy, those cats, V V those cats, V NP these people, V NP these people, chase h that guy that th t guy slept, left, slept, left, chased the dog, arrived, arrived, saw a boy, smiled, smiled, love these people, coughed coughed hate that guy waved waved ate ate 29 30 5
  • 6. Types of VPs Types of VPs VP VP VP VP V NP V NP V NP V NP h chase Pro Pro slept, left, slept, left, chased me, arrived, I, me, my arrived, saw you, I, me, my smiled, you, your smiled, love them, you, your coughed he, him, coughed hate her he, him, waved his, she, waved his, she, ate her, we, us, ate her, we, us, our, their, our, their, them, it 31 them, it 32 So you plug these little trees together like So you plug these little trees together like puzzle pieces puzzle pieces to get more and more complex structures to get more and more complex structures S S VP NP VP NP VP V NP 33 34 So you plug these little trees together like So you plug these little trees together like puzzle pieces puzzle pieces to get more and more complex structures to get more and more complex structures S S subject predicate subject predicate VP VP NP VP NP V NP V NP 35 36 6
  • 7. So you plug these little trees together like S puzzle pieces to get more and more complex structures NP VP S Mary V NP likes subject predicate Bill. NP VP object V NP 37 38 Phrase Structure Trees S S mother NP VP NP VP sisters Mary V NP Mary V NP likes likes Bill. Bill. Phrase Structure Rules: S NP VP PS rules relate mothers to sisters A sentence is divided into phrases produced by Phrase Structure Rules 39 40 S S NP VP S NP Det N NP VP VP V NP NP VP Det N V NP NP Det N Det N V NP The girl The girl likes likes Det N Det N the boy the boy. Phrase Structure Trees and Rules S NP VP 41 42 7
  • 8. S NP NP VP Det N PP Det N V NP The girl The girl likes in the bluedress Det N the boy. NP Det N PP NP Det N 43 44 S S NP VP NP VP NP NP Det N PP Det N PP The girl Det N PP PP P NP V NP P NP in The girl likes P NP NP D AP N Det N Det AdjP N in the boy. the bluedress Det AdjP N PP P NP the bluedress NP Det AdjP N 45 46 NP NP NP Det N PP Det N PP Det N PP PP P NP The boy The boy P NP NP Det N in her class in D N her class 47 48 8
  • 9. S S NP VP NP VP VP V NP Det N PP V NP The girl g likes P NP Det N PP in the boy Det AdjP N P NP the blue dress in Det N NP Det N PP PP P NP her class NP Det AdjP N NP Det N 49 9

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