Mike behavior analysis2 4 13


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  • Particularly in Developmental Disabilities, Behavior Analysis is best practice across the nation.However, behavior Analysis has gone through a significant evolution since 1913, and I want to provide a brief overview of what behavior analysis was and currently is to make sure we’re all on the same pageThis is a varied audience including psychiatrists, psychologists, behavior analysts, physicians, nurses and administrators. I expect that most or all of you some will view some of what I have to say as very simple (behavior analysis 101), and will view other parts as very complex.As you listen I’d like all of you to think about how behavior analysis interfaces with the services you provide.
  • I loved this stuff!However, most of this is comprised of metaphor and hypothetical constructs and is no longer part of behavior analysis.
  • The behavioral view is that choices are ultimately determined by environmental events.We’ll get back to that.
  • Talking is a part of behavior analysis strategies, but the focus is on teaching and skill building.Also, behavior analysis works “from the outside,” focused on how environmental events interact with behavior. We’ll get back to this later also.
  • Behaviors (thoughts, feelings and actions) *are determined by environmental events Bill Baum: “The more we attribute causation to environmental events, the more compassionate and effective we are.”Identify causal, environmental events (FBA)Identify and implement behavior change strategies comprised of environmental events (provide new experiences)Return to FBA as necessary* Will get back to this
  • Behavior stream on leftOrder for presentation on right
  • Operationally, precisely describedDurationMagnitudeTopographyLatencyAnd so on
  • Intermittent: Greater resistance to extinctionFixed ratio[e.g., Continuous (every response)]: Acquisition(e.g., every 100th response): Post RFM pausesVariable ratio (e.g., every 1 to 5 responses): Fade strengtheningFixed interval (e.g., 1st response after a set time): ScallopsVariable interval (e.g., 1st response after 10 to 12 seconds)Effects of drugs on behavior are altered by schedules
  • Mike behavior analysis2 4 13

    1. 1. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS in 2010 <br />Behavior analysis processes and strategies, complementing medical and psychiatric services for people with Developmental Disabilities and Dual Diagnoses.<br />
    2. 2. CURRENT STATUS OF BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS<br />Born of Psychology<br />Evolved into a different paradigm<br /><ul><li>Significantly different philosophy, theoretical framework, research and strategies</li></li></ul><li>PSYCHOLOGY<br />Mind<br /><ul><li>The seat of perceptions, self consciousness, thinking, behaving, remembering, hoping, desiring, judging, analyzing, evaluating, reasoning, conation* or volition/will.
    3. 3. Existence as a conscious, perceiving, independent entity. Mind/body (or brain) are separate entities.
    4. 4. Mind may apprehend some truths directly, without requiring the medium of the senses.
    5. 5. Overrides reflex response and frees behavior from sense dominance.
    6. 6. Focus on thoughts/feelings as causes of behavior</li></ul>*The aspect of mental processes directed toward action or change and including impulse, desire, volition, and striving.<br />
    7. 7. PSYCHOLOGY<br />Philosophy:<br />Freedom of choice<br /><ul><li>Individuals are responsible
    8. 8. Blamed for bad choices
    9. 9. Credited for good</li></li></ul><li>PSYCHOLOGY<br />Strategies:<br />Talk therapy<br /><ul><li>Psychotherapy
    10. 10. Counseling</li></ul>Emphasis<br /><ul><li>Feelings: Being in touch with, controlling them
    11. 11. Thoughts: Changing them</li></ul>The ultimate intent is to change behavior “from the inside.”<br />
    12. 12. EVOLUTION OF THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR<br />1913 to 1930 Classical S-R Behaviorism<br />1938 Classical and Operant Behaviorism<br />Radical Behaviorism 1953 to present<br /><ul><li>Operant and Respondent behavior
    13. 13. Growing behavioral processes
    14. 14. Verbal behavior: Operant, socially mediated behavior
    15. 15. Private events
    16. 16. An in depth, data based, effective natural science</li></li></ul><li>RADICAL BEHAVIORISMA Natural Science<br />Philosophical assumptions:<br />Empiricism<br /><ul><li>All knowledge is derived from sense experience
    17. 17. The method of observation and experiment used in natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology)
    18. 18. Behavior, and behavior processes (the repeated effects of environmental events) are identified and described by scientific observations
    19. 19. No hypothetical constructs
    20. 20. No Mind, ID, EGO, SUPER EGO and so on</li></li></ul><li>RADICAL BEHAVIORISMA Natural Science<br />Philosophical assumptions:<br />Determinism<br /><ul><li>Phylogenic Selection: Genetic/Darwinian
    21. 21. Ontogenetic Selection: Event/Behavior Interactions/Experiences
    22. 22. Contingencies strengthening and building behaviors
    23. 23. No blame
    24. 24. Credit (practically not theoretically)</li></li></ul><li>RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Selected behavioral/acquisition functions:<br />Behaviors are signaled, motivated and selected by environmental events<br />Elicited respondent behavior is modified by classical conditioning<br />Evoked operant behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences<br />Verbal behavior as socially mediated operant behavior<br />Verbal behavior encompassing private events or “mental processes”<br />Analyses of these primary behavioral processes identify behavior change strategies<br />
    25. 25. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Primary Behavioral Processes/Functions Leading to Strategies:<br />All procedures, processes and effects are observable and measurable. They are comprised of environmental events and these events can have multiple functions.<br />
    26. 26. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Primary Behavioral Processes/Functions Leading to Strategies:<br />Motivating Operations .3<br /><ul><li>Establishing Operations .4
    27. 27. Abolishing Operations .5</li></ul>Discriminative stimuli .6<br />Behaviors/Skills .1<br />Reinforcement .2<br />Schedules of reinforcement .7<br />
    28. 28. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Behavior:<br />Observable, measureable interactions with the environment<br /><ul><li>Actions, feelings, thoughts</li></ul>Johnston and Pennypacker(1993) defined behavior as “…that portion of an organism’s interaction with its environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism and that results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment.”<br />
    29. 29. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Behavior examples:<br />OK<br />Kicked out a window<br />Rode a bike<br />Hit and broke a nose<br />Read out loud<br />Screamed 10 seconds<br />Said “Thank you.”<br />Repeated the Gettysburg Address privately<br />BAD<br />Aggressive<br />Passive<br />Tantrum<br />Responsible<br />Non compliant<br />Rude<br />Hallucinated<br />
    30. 30. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Reinforcement:<br />Stimulus change following behavior that results in an increased frequency of the behavior.<br /><ul><li>In a similar situation the strength, frequency or probability of that behavior increases in the future</li></ul>Positive reinforcement: stimulus presented<br />Negative reinforcement: stimulus removed<br />Both are reinforcing (aka, “good”)<br />
    31. 31. RADICAL BEHAVIORISMREINFORCEMENT EXAMPLE:<br />B > Client Ema bangs head<br />--------------------------------------<br />Mary Staff’s Behavior changes<br />(Mary expression becomes VERY concerned; her voice rises.)<br />----------------------------------------<br />Head banging frequency rises<br />REINFORCEMENT (SR)<br />B > Client Ema bangs head<br />------------------------------------<br />No change in George Staff’s Behavior<br />(George remains calm and caring.)<br />-------------------------------<br />No change in head banging<br />No REINFORCEMENT (SR)<br />
    32. 32. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM <br />Primary Behavioral Processes/Leading to Strategies:<br />Motivating Operations<br />Alters the value of a stimulus as reinforcement<br />Alters the frequency of all behaviors that have been reinforced by that stimulus<br /><ul><li>Establishing Operations
    33. 33. Increases reinforcement value
    34. 34. Evokes behaviors that have been reinforced by that stimulus
    35. 35. Abolishing Operations
    36. 36. Decreases reinforcement value
    37. 37. Abates behaviors that have been reinforced by that stimulus</li></li></ul><li>RADICAL BEHAVIORISMEstablishing Operation Examples: <br />Food/Sex Deprivation<br /><ul><li>Food/Sex SR value</li></ul>Evokes behaviors previously reinforced by food/sex<br />Aggression by others’<br /><ul><li>SR value of signs of others’ pain</li></ul>Evokes behaviors previously reinforced by signs of other’s pain<br />
    38. 38. RADICAL BEHAVIORISMAbolishing Operation Examples:<br />Food/Sex Satiation<br />< Food/Sex SR value<br />Abates behaviors previously reinforced by food/sex<br />Aggression De-escalation Skills:<br />Empathy statements<br />< SR value of reinforcement for aggression (e.g., signs of pain, fear)<br />Abates behaviors previously reinforced by signs of pain, fear<br />
    39. 39. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Primary Behavioral Processes/Leading to Strategies:<br /><ul><li>Discriminative Stimuli (S-d)
    40. 40. Correlated with (i.e., signals) the availability of reinforcement
    41. 41. Evokes behavior reinforced in the past</li></li></ul><li>RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Primary Behavioral Processes/Leading to Strategies:<br /><ul><li>Discriminative Stimuli (S-delta)
    42. 42. Correlated with (i.e., signals) the unavailability of reinforcement
    43. 43. Abates behavior reinforced in the past</li></li></ul><li>RADICAL BEHAVIORISMDiscriminative Stimulus example:<br />SD > Mary Staff present<br />--------------------------------------<br />B > Client Ema bangs head<br />--------------------------------------<br />REF > Mary Staff’s Behavior changes<br />(Mary expression becomes VERY concerned; her voice rises.)<br />----------------------------------------<br />Head banging evoked<br />S Delta > George Staff present<br />------------------------------------<br />B > Ema sewing<br />------------------------------------<br />No REF > George is still calm and caring.)<br />-------------------------------<br />Head banging is NOT evoked<br />
    44. 44. RADICAL BEHAVIORISMDiscriminative Stimulus example:<br />SD> Mary Staff present<br />--------------------------------------<br />B > Client Ema bangs head<br />--------------------------------------<br />REF > No change in Mary Staff’s Behavior<br />(Mary remains calm and caring.)<br />----------------------------------------<br />If Mary Staff is consistent, her presence will become an SD<br />
    45. 45. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM<br />Primary Behavioral Processes/Leading to Strategies:<br /><ul><li>Schedules of reinforcement
    46. 46. Intermittent
    47. 47. Fixed ratio
    48. 48. [e.g., Continuous (every response)]
    49. 49. (e.g., every 10th response)
    50. 50. Variable ratio (e.g., every 1 to 5 responses)
    51. 51. Random ratio
    52. 52. Fixed interval (e.g., 1st response after a set time)
    53. 53. Variable interval (e.g., 1st response after 10 to 12 seconds)</li></li></ul><li>PRIMARY BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS STRATEGIES<br />Strategies:<br />FBA<br />MO<br />SD<br />Skills<br /><ul><li>Crowd out
    54. 54. Prevent
    55. 55. Replace
    56. 56. (e.g., Select, Model, Practice Problem solving, Fade in Establishing Operations for desirable behavior)
    57. 57. Reinforcing desirable behavior
    58. 58. Shaping desirable behavior
    59. 59. Scheduling reinforcement
    60. 60. Establishing discriminative stimuli for desirable behavior</li></ul>Collect Data<br />Adjust the FBA as necessary<br />Repeat<br />
    61. 61. TERRI DOES FBA<br />
    62. 62. FBA and Psychiatric Diagnoses<br />“A person is first of all an organism, a member of a species and a subspecies, possessing a genetic endowment of anatomical, physiological and chemical characteristics, which are the products of the contingencies of survival to which the species and each organism has been exposed in the process of evolution.<br />Each person acquires a repertoire of behavior and becomes an individual as it contacts unique contingencies, grounded by consequences, to which it is exposed in its lifetime. Each individual is able to acquire such a repertoire because of its evolved susceptibility to the processes of conditioning. The behavior an individual exhibits at any moment is under the unique control her/his genetic endowment, learning history and the current setting.”<br />
    63. 63. Diagnosis or No Diagnosis<br />Different categories of behavior result from different biological, neurological chemical makeup, and different experiences (environmental interactions).<br />
    64. 64. The FBA Process is the Same<br />All individuals have environmental, biological, neurological and chemical differences, and they are often changing.<br />Our eyesight, hearing, pain thresholds, hormones, chemistry, self induced chemicals, diets, learning history (via parents, siblings, friends, experiences)<br />All of us are affected by environmental events (behavioral processes)<br />Because of all of the above each of us are affected somewhat differently.<br />
    65. 65. The FBA Process is the Same<br />There are Sd’s but their effects are slightly different<br />There are MO’s but their effects are slightly different <br />There are Reinforcers, but their effects are slightly different<br />Therefore, our Behaviors are slightly different<br />Whether or not there is a psychiatric diagnosis, empirical observations and systematic recording of the effects of these processes lead to the most effective environmental interventions (i.e., BSP’s)<br />