Zhao T, Zou S, Knapp P. 2007. Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates apoptosis genesin primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. Neuroscience Letters 412(1): 34-38. Apoptosis is a cellular suicide mechanism that occurs in mammalian cells duringnormal development and also as a response to situations of injury or disease. Caspases, afamily of cysteine proteases, have been identified as important effectors of the intrinsic celldeath machinery. Astrocytes are star shaped glial cells that provide nourishment to neurons.The purpose of this research was to investigate whether expression of genes related to celldeath pathways are dysregulated (interrupted) in primary cultured neurons and astrocytesby exposure to a working Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) cell phone at afrequency of 1900 MHz. The primary cultures were exposed for 2 hours, and then an arrayanalysis and a real-time PCR was used to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6, andapoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card (Asc) gene expression in neuronsand astrocytes. It was concluded that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phoneradiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived fromthe brain causing their death, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect thanastrocytes.