Case Study: a dam and reservoirKielder Water, NorthumberlandPlanned in the late1960s to satisfy anincrease in demandfor water from thethen growingchemical and steelindustries onTeesside.Opened in 1982.
Lesson GoalsTo knowWhy the site for Kielder Water in Northumberlandwas selectedTo understandWhy the reservoir was needed and why this site hadsuitable characteristics.To be able toIdentify the issues resulting from the location of thereservoir and the sustainability of water supplies.
Why this location?Characteristic of the site Benefit of thisA valley with a wide floorand steep sloping sidesHigh annual precipitation(1370mm)Very sparse humanpopulationPoor quality farmland farfrom the marketsRough grazing andconiferous woodlands
In summary... Physical factors were favourable Apparent economic need was strong There were few social, economic and environmentalissues associated with large dam construction
Did it all work out well?In the time between planning the reservoir andopening it many of the industries in North EastEngland had gone into decline. The demand for waterhad therefore fallen significantly and there was noreal need for an extra reservoir.A white elephant project?
Draw a sketchmap to show howrivers are usedfor watertransfers fromKielder Water
The BenefitsNorth East Englandenjoys the most reliablewater supply in EnglandEven in the driestsummers (e.g. 1995)restrictions on water useare unknown in the regionA pipeline has beenconstructed to supplywater for use in YorkOver 250,000 visitors areattracted by outdooractivities each yearKielder Forest, surroundingthe reservoir, is the largestwoodland in EnglandJobs in the water industry,tourism and forestry existwhere there was onlypreviously farmingBiological studies haveshown no adverseeffects on wildlife inconnected river systems
Key word:Does Kielder provide sustainable water supplies?Explain your answer
PlenaryWhy was the Team Valley not chosenas a location for the reservoir duringplanning in the 1960s?