Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Español 3 Libro de gramatica<br />LiviaGostin<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Preterite- usage<br />Trigger Words<br />-car,-gar,-zars<br />Spock verbs<br />Cucaracha verbs<br />Snake/snakeys<br />Imperfect-usage<br />Trigger words<br />Irregulars<br />Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />Ser<br />Estar<br />Verbs like gustar<br />Comparatives/superlatives<br />Connecter words<br />Future<br />Trigger words<br />Irregulars<br />Por<br />Por expressions<br />Para<br />Para expressions<br />Conditional + irregulars<br />Perfect Tenses<br />Present<br />Past<br />Present perfect irregulars o Subjunctive perfect<br />tanto y tan<br />Impersonal ‘se’<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />Los Mandatos<br />Informal/Formal<br />Affirmative<br />Negative<br />Irregular<br />OP + IOP placement<br />Nosotros command<br />-mono verbs<br /> Subjunctive + irregulars<br />Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns<br />
  3. 3. Usar el preterito<br />Actions at one time/single events<br />Actions repeated a specific number of times<br />Actions that occurred during a specific period of time<br />Actions as part of a chain of events<br />The beginning or end of an action<br />PEBS<br />eriod of time<br />R.A.C.E.<br />Repeated Action<br />nd of an action<br />Chain of Events<br />eginning of an action<br />ingle events<br />
  4. 4. Trigger words<br />Ayer (yesterday)<br />Anteayer (day before yesterday)<br />Anoche (last night)<br />La semanapasada (last week)<br />El mespasado (last month)<br />El añopasado (last year)<br />El fin de semanapasado (last weekend)<br />El __________ pasado (insert: lunes, martes, miercoles, etc.)<br />
  5. 5. -car, -gar, -zars<br />-car, -gar, -zar<br />-qué, -gué, -cé<br />**ONLY CHANGE IN THE YO FORM!**<br />
  6. 6. Spock Verbs<br />
  7. 7. Cucarachas:<br />Andar<br />Estar<br />Poder<br />Poner<br />Querer<br />Saber<br />Tener<br />Venir<br />Anduv-<br />Estuv-<br />Pud-<br />Pus-<br />Quis-<br />Sup-<br />Tuv-<br />Vin-<br />
  8. 8. -ar s and –er s do NOT change in the preterite.<br />-ir s change e:i and o:u in third person singular and plural<br />For verbs that end in double letters (such as creer or leer), change the third person singular and plural to –yó and –yeron respectively.<br />Snakes/Snakeys<br />leer<br />Leí leímos <br />leíste leísteis <br />Leyó leyeron<br /> creer<br />creí creímos <br />creíste creísteis <br />creyó creyeron<br />preferir<br />preferípreferimospreferistepreferisteisprefirióprefirieron<br />dormirdormídormimosdormistedormisteisdurmiódurmieron<br />
  9. 9. el imperfecto<br />Use for…<br />Habits<br />Telling actions that precede another past action<br />Telling time<br />Age<br />Mental states **<br />Physical sensations **<br />Describe characteristics<br />CAMP<br />haracteristics<br />P.a.TH<br />Past Action<br />ge<br />ime<br />ental condition<br />abits<br />hysical condition<br />** = usually<br />
  10. 10. TRIGGER WORDS<br />Todos Every <br />Veces Some<br />Cada every<br />Mucho much <br />Nunca never<br />Siempre always <br />Frequentemente frequently<br />Generalmente generally<br />
  11. 11. Irregulars:<br />SER<br />era<br />eras<br />era<br />éramos<br />erais<br />eran<br />IR<br />iba<br />ibas<br />iba<br />íbamos<br />ibais<br />iban<br />VER<br />veía<br />veías<br />veía<br />veíamos<br />veíais<br />veían<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. D- descriptions<br />Es unalapiz.<br /> O- origin<br />Es de Guatemala.<br />C- characteristics<br />Es rubia.<br />T- time<br />Es la una.<br />O- occupation<br />Es un doctor.<br />R- relationship<br />Es mi mama.<br />P- possession<br />Estolapizes de Maria.<br />E- events<br />La fiesta es en el parque.<br />D- dates<br />Hoy esdomingo.<br />Ser – DOCTOR PED<br />
  14. 14. H- health<br />Estoyenferma.<br />E- emotion<br />Estoytriste.<br />L- location<br />Esta en la caja.<br />P- present condition<br />La claseestaaburrida.<br />ING- <br />-ando<br />Estoyjugando.<br />-iendo<br />Estascomiendo.<br />-yendo** <br />Estanleyendo.<br />**-- only for 3 vowels in a row (like leer– leiendo = leyendo= )<br />Estar--- HELP-ing<br />
  15. 15. Verbs Like Gustar<br />Endings are the same as whatever tense you are using unless specified… keep in mind the ending signifies what is being verb-ed<br />Aburrir<br />Encantar<br />Faltar<br />Fascinar<br />Importar<br />Interesar<br />Molestar<br />Quedar<br />Caer bien/mal<br />Doler<br />Disgustar<br />Hacer falta<br />Preocupar<br />Sorprender <br />Apetecer <br /><ul><li>To bore
  16. 16. Tolove
  17. 17. Tofail
  18. 18. Tofascinate
  19. 19. Tobeimportant
  20. 20. Tointerest
  21. 21. Tobother
  22. 22. Toremain
  23. 23. Tofallwell/badly
  24. 24. Tohurt
  25. 25. Todisgust
  26. 26. Tolack
  27. 27. Toworry
  28. 28. Tosuprise
  29. 29. Todesire</li></ul>Indirect Objects:<br />Go before the cojugated verb<br />Me Nos<br />Te Os<br />Le Les<br />
  30. 30. The comparison of one thing to another (better/worse/more)<br />Shows:<br />Superiority (Mas… que)<br /> Inferiority (Menos… que)<br />Equality (tan… como)<br /> (tanto… como)<br />Mas +noun/pronoun +que<br />When using mas/menos, use of “que…” is optional.<br />El esmas alto queella = El esmas alto.<br />For tan/tantocomo, you MUST use the noun.<br />El es tan guapocomo el otro. <br />Indicates the best/worst/most of something<br />Shows<br />The most superior (el masque)<br />The most inferior (el menosque)<br />definite article + noun + más or menos + adjective<br />Comparative<br />/<br />Superlative<br />
  31. 31. Connecter Words<br />Aunque<br />También<br />Mientras<br />A pesar de<br />Pero<br />Por lo tanto<br />Sin embargo/no obstante<br />Even though<br />Also<br />While<br />In spite of<br />But<br />Therefore<br />Nevertheless<br />
  32. 32. El Futuro<br />YO--- infinitive+é<br />TU--- infinitive+ás<br />EL--- infinitive+á<br />NOSOTROS--- infinitive+emos<br />VOSOTROS--- infinitive+éis<br />ELLOS--- infinitive+án<br />Doesn’t matter what the verb endings are– it’s always the same.<br />
  33. 33. Mañana<br />_____ queviene<br />Despues de ____, ___<br />Tomorrow<br />____ that comes (next)<br />After ___, _____.<br />Triggers<br />
  34. 34. Irregulars in the Future tense<br />Decir<br />Hacer<br />Poner<br />Salir<br />Tener<br />Valer<br />Venir<br />Poder<br />Querer<br />Saber<br />Caber<br />Haber (auxillary verb)<br />Dir+ending<br />Har+ending<br />Pondr+ending<br />Saldr+ending<br />Tendr+ending<br />Valdr+enging<br />Vendr+ending<br />Podr+ending<br />Querr+ending<br />Sabr+ending<br />Cabr+ending<br />Habr+eding OR he ____<br />
  35. 35. Por<br />Use for<br />Passing through<br />General location<br />How long something lasts<br />Cause of something<br />An exchange<br />Doing something for someone else<br />A means of transportation<br />PORtal<br />PORtugal<br />PORever<br />PORpose<br />imPORt<br />I’m POR, pay for me.<br />transPORtation<br />
  36. 36. poradelantadoin advance<br />porahorafor now<br />porallíaround there; that way<br />poramor de Diosfor the love of God<br />poraquíaround here; this way<br />porcasualidadby chance<br />porcientopercent<br />porciertocertainly<br />porcompletocompletely<br />pordentroinside<br />pordesgraciaunfortunately<br />porejemplofor example<br />poresotherefore<br />por favorplease<br />por finfinally<br />por lo generalgenerally<br />por lo vistoapparently<br />pormedio deby means of<br />por lo menosat least<br />por lo tantoconsequently<br />por mi parteas for me<br />porningúnladonowhere<br />porotra parteon the other hand<br />palabraporpalabraword for word<br />porprimeravezfor the first time<br />porseparadoseparately<br />porsupuestoof course<br />porsuertefortunately<br />portodasparteseverywhere<br />portodosladoson all sides<br />porúltimofinally<br />Por Expressions<br />
  37. 37. Para<br />For whom something was done<br />Destination<br />Purpose of something that was done <br />To express an opinion<br />To contrast/ compare<br />To express a deadline<br />Surprise PARAty<br />Going to PARAguay<br />In order to prePARA<br />It’s PARAfect!<br />ComPARAson<br />My PARAper is due tomorrow!<br />
  38. 38. estarpara to be about to <br />paraentonces by that time <br />paraesaépoca by that time <br />paraotravez for another occasion <br />paraque so that, in order that <br />¿paraqué? why? for what purpose? <br />¿Para quéechar la sogatras el caldero? Why throw good money after bad? <br />parasiempre forever <br />paravariar just for a change <br />ser talparacual to be two of a kind<br />Para Expressions<br />
  39. 39. Conditional Tense<br />For the conditional tense, expressing probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, use the infinitive and add these endings:<br />Examples:<br />Estaríaen su casa.He must have been at home.<br />Estaríamosocupadoscuandollamaste.We were probably busy when you called.<br />Hablar-<br />HablaríaHablaríamos<br />HablaríasHablaríais<br />HablaríaHablarían<br />
  40. 40. Conditional Tense Irregulars<br />SAME IRREGULARS as in the future tense.<br /><ul><li>Caber
  41. 41. Poner
  42. 42. Decir
  43. 43. Haber
  44. 44. Salir
  45. 45. Hacer
  46. 46. Poder
  47. 47. Tener
  48. 48. Querer
  49. 49. Valer
  50. 50. Saber
  51. 51. Venir
  52. 52. Cabr
  53. 53. Pondr
  54. 54. Dir
  55. 55. Habr
  56. 56. Saldr
  57. 57. Habr
  58. 58. Podr
  59. 59. Tendr
  60. 60. Quer
  61. 61. Valdr
  62. 62. Sabr
  63. 63. Vendr</li></li></ul><li>Present Perfect<br />Use the verb HABER(to have)<br />Compound Tense<br />Requires: Main verb + auxiliary verb<br />Indicates:<br />recently completed action<br />what you have/haven’t done<br />An action true in the past and present<br />-ar verbs end in ado-er and -ir verbs end in ido<br />
  64. 64. Present Perfect<br />IRREGULARS!<br />
  65. 65. Subjunctive Perfect<br />Used when an expression using the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect<br />Conjugation of haber is different, but participle endings are the same<br />
  66. 66. Impersonal Se<br />Someone doing the verb, not specific<br />Conjugate in third person<br />Can be used in all tenses<br />Replace IOP<br />
  67. 67. TO KNOW<br />Saber<br />Conocer<br />
  68. 68. Tan vs. Tanto<br />
  69. 69. Formal Commands<br />-ar<br />Conjugate to yo<br />Drop –o and add –e<br />-er and –ir<br />Conjugate to yo<br />Drop –o and add –a <br />SI SEÑOR!<br />
  70. 70. Formal Commands<br />IRREGULARS!<br />
  71. 71. Informal Commands (Tu)<br />
  72. 72. Informal Commands<br />IRREGULARS!<br />
  73. 73. Nosotros Commands<br />Let’s ____________<br />
  74. 74. Monos<br />Usually a command would be the conjugated verb then the reflexive pronoun<br />When giving a reflexive NOS command, normally it would be “_______mosnos”<br />You can’t say MOSNOS, so you drop the first s, making it “______monos”<br />
  75. 75. DOP & IOPs<br />Estar + ing<br />Put DOPs and IOPs on the end of the ing verb and put an accent on the 3rd to last syllable<br />Commands<br />Affirmative: put them on the end and put the accent on first vowel<br />Negative: not attached to verb (between no and command)<br />Ir +infinitive<br />Put at end of infinitive<br />In front of conjugated verb<br />
  76. 76. Subjunctive<br />
  77. 77. Subjunctives<br />IRREGULARS!<br />Nosotros<br />E -> I<br />O -> U<br />
  78. 78. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns<br />

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