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Grammar book
 

Grammar book

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    Grammar book Grammar book Presentation Transcript

    • Español 3 Libro de gramatica
      LiviaGostin
    • Table of Contents
      Preterite- usage
      Trigger Words
      -car,-gar,-zars
      Spock verbs
      Cucaracha verbs
      Snake/snakeys
      Imperfect-usage
      Trigger words
      Irregulars
      Preterite vs. Imperfect
      Ser
      Estar
      Verbs like gustar
      Comparatives/superlatives
      Connecter words
      Future
      Trigger words
      Irregulars
      Por
      Por expressions
      Para
      Para expressions
      Conditional + irregulars
      Perfect Tenses
      Present
      Past
      Present perfect irregulars o Subjunctive perfect
      tanto y tan
      Impersonal ‘se’
      Saber vs. Conocer
      Los Mandatos
      Informal/Formal
      Affirmative
      Negative
      Irregular
      OP + IOP placement
      Nosotros command
      -mono verbs
       Subjunctive + irregulars
      Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns
    • Usar el preterito
      Actions at one time/single events
      Actions repeated a specific number of times
      Actions that occurred during a specific period of time
      Actions as part of a chain of events
      The beginning or end of an action
      PEBS
      eriod of time
      R.A.C.E.
      Repeated Action
      nd of an action
      Chain of Events
      eginning of an action
      ingle events
    • Trigger words
      Ayer (yesterday)
      Anteayer (day before yesterday)
      Anoche (last night)
      La semanapasada (last week)
      El mespasado (last month)
      El añopasado (last year)
      El fin de semanapasado (last weekend)
      El __________ pasado (insert: lunes, martes, miercoles, etc.)
    • -car, -gar, -zars
      -car, -gar, -zar
      -qué, -gué, -cé
      **ONLY CHANGE IN THE YO FORM!**
    • Spock Verbs
    • Cucarachas:
      Andar
      Estar
      Poder
      Poner
      Querer
      Saber
      Tener
      Venir
      Anduv-
      Estuv-
      Pud-
      Pus-
      Quis-
      Sup-
      Tuv-
      Vin-
    • -ar s and –er s do NOT change in the preterite.
      -ir s change e:i and o:u in third person singular and plural
      For verbs that end in double letters (such as creer or leer), change the third person singular and plural to –yó and –yeron respectively.
      Snakes/Snakeys
      leer
      Leí leímos
      leíste leísteis
      Leyó leyeron
      creer
      creí creímos
      creíste creísteis
      creyó creyeron
      preferir
      preferípreferimospreferistepreferisteisprefirióprefirieron
      dormirdormídormimosdormistedormisteisdurmiódurmieron
    • el imperfecto
      Use for…
      Habits
      Telling actions that precede another past action
      Telling time
      Age
      Mental states **
      Physical sensations **
      Describe characteristics
      CAMP
      haracteristics
      P.a.TH
      Past Action
      ge
      ime
      ental condition
      abits
      hysical condition
      ** = usually
    • TRIGGER WORDS
      Todos Every
      Veces Some
      Cada every
      Mucho much
      Nunca never
      Siempre always
      Frequentemente frequently
      Generalmente generally
    • Irregulars:
      SER
      era
      eras
      era
      éramos
      erais
      eran
      IR
      iba
      ibas
      iba
      íbamos
      ibais
      iban
      VER
      veía
      veías
      veía
      veíamos
      veíais
      veían
    • D- descriptions
      Es unalapiz.
      O- origin
      Es de Guatemala.
      C- characteristics
      Es rubia.
      T- time
      Es la una.
      O- occupation
      Es un doctor.
      R- relationship
      Es mi mama.
      P- possession
      Estolapizes de Maria.
      E- events
      La fiesta es en el parque.
      D- dates
      Hoy esdomingo.
      Ser – DOCTOR PED
    • H- health
      Estoyenferma.
      E- emotion
      Estoytriste.
      L- location
      Esta en la caja.
      P- present condition
      La claseestaaburrida.
      ING-
      -ando
      Estoyjugando.
      -iendo
      Estascomiendo.
      -yendo**
      Estanleyendo.
      **-- only for 3 vowels in a row (like leer– leiendo = leyendo= )
      Estar--- HELP-ing
    • Verbs Like Gustar
      Endings are the same as whatever tense you are using unless specified… keep in mind the ending signifies what is being verb-ed
      Aburrir
      Encantar
      Faltar
      Fascinar
      Importar
      Interesar
      Molestar
      Quedar
      Caer bien/mal
      Doler
      Disgustar
      Hacer falta
      Preocupar
      Sorprender
      Apetecer
      • To bore
      • Tolove
      • Tofail
      • Tofascinate
      • Tobeimportant
      • Tointerest
      • Tobother
      • Toremain
      • Tofallwell/badly
      • Tohurt
      • Todisgust
      • Tolack
      • Toworry
      • Tosuprise
      • Todesire
      Indirect Objects:
      Go before the cojugated verb
      Me Nos
      Te Os
      Le Les
    • The comparison of one thing to another (better/worse/more)
      Shows:
      Superiority (Mas… que)
      Inferiority (Menos… que)
      Equality (tan… como)
      (tanto… como)
      Mas +noun/pronoun +que
      When using mas/menos, use of “que…” is optional.
      El esmas alto queella = El esmas alto.
      For tan/tantocomo, you MUST use the noun.
      El es tan guapocomo el otro.
      Indicates the best/worst/most of something
      Shows
      The most superior (el masque)
      The most inferior (el menosque)
      definite article + noun + más or menos + adjective
      Comparative
      /
      Superlative
    • Connecter Words
      Aunque
      También
      Mientras
      A pesar de
      Pero
      Por lo tanto
      Sin embargo/no obstante
      Even though
      Also
      While
      In spite of
      But
      Therefore
      Nevertheless
    • El Futuro
      YO--- infinitive+é
      TU--- infinitive+ás
      EL--- infinitive+á
      NOSOTROS--- infinitive+emos
      VOSOTROS--- infinitive+éis
      ELLOS--- infinitive+án
      Doesn’t matter what the verb endings are– it’s always the same.
    • Mañana
      _____ queviene
      Despues de ____, ___
      Tomorrow
      ____ that comes (next)
      After ___, _____.
      Triggers
    • Irregulars in the Future tense
      Decir
      Hacer
      Poner
      Salir
      Tener
      Valer
      Venir
      Poder
      Querer
      Saber
      Caber
      Haber (auxillary verb)
      Dir+ending
      Har+ending
      Pondr+ending
      Saldr+ending
      Tendr+ending
      Valdr+enging
      Vendr+ending
      Podr+ending
      Querr+ending
      Sabr+ending
      Cabr+ending
      Habr+eding OR he ____
    • Por
      Use for
      Passing through
      General location
      How long something lasts
      Cause of something
      An exchange
      Doing something for someone else
      A means of transportation
      PORtal
      PORtugal
      PORever
      PORpose
      imPORt
      I’m POR, pay for me.
      transPORtation
    • poradelantadoin advance
      porahorafor now
      porallíaround there; that way
      poramor de Diosfor the love of God
      poraquíaround here; this way
      porcasualidadby chance
      porcientopercent
      porciertocertainly
      porcompletocompletely
      pordentroinside
      pordesgraciaunfortunately
      porejemplofor example
      poresotherefore
      por favorplease
      por finfinally
      por lo generalgenerally
      por lo vistoapparently
      pormedio deby means of
      por lo menosat least
      por lo tantoconsequently
      por mi parteas for me
      porningúnladonowhere
      porotra parteon the other hand
      palabraporpalabraword for word
      porprimeravezfor the first time
      porseparadoseparately
      porsupuestoof course
      porsuertefortunately
      portodasparteseverywhere
      portodosladoson all sides
      porúltimofinally
      Por Expressions
    • Para
      For whom something was done
      Destination
      Purpose of something that was done
      To express an opinion
      To contrast/ compare
      To express a deadline
      Surprise PARAty
      Going to PARAguay
      In order to prePARA
      It’s PARAfect!
      ComPARAson
      My PARAper is due tomorrow!
    • estarpara to be about to
      paraentonces by that time
      paraesaépoca by that time
      paraotravez for another occasion
      paraque so that, in order that
      ¿paraqué? why? for what purpose?
      ¿Para quéechar la sogatras el caldero? Why throw good money after bad?
      parasiempre forever
      paravariar just for a change
      ser talparacual to be two of a kind
      Para Expressions
    • Conditional Tense
      For the conditional tense, expressing probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, use the infinitive and add these endings:
      Examples:
      Estaríaen su casa.He must have been at home.
      Estaríamosocupadoscuandollamaste.We were probably busy when you called.
      Hablar-
      HablaríaHablaríamos
      HablaríasHablaríais
      HablaríaHablarían
    • Conditional Tense Irregulars
      SAME IRREGULARS as in the future tense.
      • Caber
      • Poner
      • Decir
      • Haber
      • Salir
      • Hacer
      • Poder
      • Tener
      • Querer
      • Valer
      • Saber
      • Venir
      • Cabr
      • Pondr
      • Dir
      • Habr
      • Saldr
      • Habr
      • Podr
      • Tendr
      • Quer
      • Valdr
      • Sabr
      • Vendr
    • Present Perfect
      Use the verb HABER(to have)
      Compound Tense
      Requires: Main verb + auxiliary verb
      Indicates:
      recently completed action
      what you have/haven’t done
      An action true in the past and present
      -ar verbs end in ado-er and -ir verbs end in ido
    • Present Perfect
      IRREGULARS!
    • Subjunctive Perfect
      Used when an expression using the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect
      Conjugation of haber is different, but participle endings are the same
    • Impersonal Se
      Someone doing the verb, not specific
      Conjugate in third person
      Can be used in all tenses
      Replace IOP
    • TO KNOW
      Saber
      Conocer
    • Tan vs. Tanto
    • Formal Commands
      -ar
      Conjugate to yo
      Drop –o and add –e
      -er and –ir
      Conjugate to yo
      Drop –o and add –a
      SI SEÑOR!
    • Formal Commands
      IRREGULARS!
    • Informal Commands (Tu)
    • Informal Commands
      IRREGULARS!
    • Nosotros Commands
      Let’s ____________
    • Monos
      Usually a command would be the conjugated verb then the reflexive pronoun
      When giving a reflexive NOS command, normally it would be “_______mosnos”
      You can’t say MOSNOS, so you drop the first s, making it “______monos”
    • DOP & IOPs
      Estar + ing
      Put DOPs and IOPs on the end of the ing verb and put an accent on the 3rd to last syllable
      Commands
      Affirmative: put them on the end and put the accent on first vowel
      Negative: not attached to verb (between no and command)
      Ir +infinitive
      Put at end of infinitive
      In front of conjugated verb
    • Subjunctive
    • Subjunctives
      IRREGULARS!
      Nosotros
      E -> I
      O -> U
    • Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns