Self-Intro Video• Due Jan. 31st ( 5 pm)• A self-introduction, using images, text, and narratives (using a specific image or set of related images as the backdrop for your view of development)• No more than TWO minutes (could be shorter)• Submit video on the wiki – Instructions posted (pay attention to file naming)• Technical assistant – ask early!
Media Imperialism• Key assumptions?• Why is this thesis so dominant in the media and development literature over the last few decades?• Is this popularity justified in terms of its explanatory power and empirical support?• What accounts for the weaning of the thesis popularity in recent years?
• Development assistance, technology and skills transfer• Research, fact finding and dissemination• Norm setting, principles and declarations
The McBride Commission Report (1985)• Self-reliance and cultural identity• international character of the media, their structures, world-views and markets• Globalization: concentration of media ownership, monopolization of markets, and a decline in diversity• Emergence of the information society
The New World InformationCommunication Order (NWICO) • The Four “Ds” – Democratization – Decolonization – Demonopolization – Development
Media Imperialism Key claims:• Negative impact of western media – Lost of identity - homogenization – One way flow of media – Widen the class structure – Profit making through exploitation • Reduce the diversity of programming and content in favour of market logic • “greenwashing”
Media Imperlism• Mass media and reception "Power is the ability – Agencies not just to tell the – Consent story of another• Unequal power person, but to make• “The West and the Rest” it the definitive story• Representation of that person".• Essentialism ChimamandaAdichie: The danger of a single story• Culture as consumption• Mechanism of globalization
A look at Francis Nyamnjoh’s work on Africa’s Media
“A powerful critique ofWestern liberal modelof journalism based onindividual autonomyand freedom thatignores the complicatedpatterns of ‘‘belonging’’in Africa.”
•Liberal democracy and “the autonomousCritique of Western individual”Media •“ideology of hierarchies of culture” •Unequal power relations •Profit motive over “creative diversity and cultural plurality” •Conflation of State and “Market Logic” •Ignore “personhood and agency” • The West theorizing the Rest • Western journalism as model
New Media and Citizen Journalism ‘‘Africa’s creativity simply cannot allow for simple dichotomies or distinctions between old and new technologies, since its peoples are daily modernising the indigenous and indigenising the modern with novel outcomes’’ (Nyamnjoh, 2005, p. 4).
Politics of Scholarly ProductionNew technologies and excluded scholarship “Ordinary people at the margins of focus of technology, use a combination of possibilities to relate and to exchange in ways that can be quite instructive about theory-building.”
“Journalism should be storytelling, but not ina hurry - that is why the ethnographic methodis important.”
But is the Media Imperialism thesis overstated?
Rethinking Media Imperialism• Is the power of the Western mass media overstated?• What are the roles of state and local organizations?• What are the roles of the “audience”?• What about local cultural contexts?