Some Key Questions• What are some common assumptions about the roles of the media in society? ▫ What were the assumed relationship between Media and Communication?• What role did Media play in early development thinking? ▫ Media mirror development? ▫ Media drive development?• Did change in Media Production change the way we think about Development? ▫ From “main stream” to “new” media
What is Development?• Economic growth?• Good governance?• Equality?• Social Justice?• Happiness?• Sustainability?
What are the functions of Media?• Public Service?• To inform?• To educate?• To propagandize?• To entertain?• Social control?• Culture?
“The 20th century has been characterized by threedevelopments of great political importance: the growthof democracy, the growth of corporate power, andthe growth of corporate propaganda as a means ofprotecting corporate power against democracy.”Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of theMass Media, Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky,1988
• Media Concentration – Global Oligopology ▫ Transnational ownership ▫ Acquisition of local outlets
Why media concentration?• Media Logic and the Free Market Capitalism• Media ownership and funding sources• Government policies and citizens roles
Media and Development:Paradigms and Assumptions
Paradigms of DevelopmentModernization Dependences ▫ Western societies as a model World systems perspective – – emphasis on economic development defined in terms of growth center and periphery ▫ Causes of Underdevelopment ascribed to the underdevelopment inherent industrialized capitalist powers of the in the countries themselves West Information gaps – underdevelopment ▫ Focus on the nation-state in the periphery is prerequisite to development in the center ▫ Emphasis on individual freedoms A country in the periphery must strive for self-reliance and liberation from ▫ Vertical pattern of the world system communication – from the elite to the people. Emphasis on social equality.
Paradigms of DevelopmentModernization Dependences ▫ Western societies as a model World systems perspective – – emphasis on economic development defined in terms of growth center and periphery ▫ Causes of Underdevelopment ascribed to the underdevelopment inherent The mass media industrialized capitalist powers of the in the countries themselves West reinforce the Information gaps – underdevelopment ▫ Focus on the nation-state dominance of the Mass media in the periphery is prerequisite to accorded a ▫ Emphasis on individual metropole over its development in the center freedoms central role in satellites A country in the periphery must strive the development ▫ Vertical pattern of for self-reliance and liberation from the world system communication – from the process elite to the people. Emphasis on social equality.
Criticisms of media and development• Growing media concentration, ownership and content• the hypodermic-needle model of media effects• the need for social-structural changes• shortcomings of the classical diffusion-of- innovations model• Limited effects of mass media• Lack of study or methodologies
• "American communication research has grown up in an atmosphere of behaviorism and operationalism, which has made it correct in technical methodology but poor in conceptual productivity.” Nordenstreng (1968)
Media as…• Tool for development• “Mobility multipliers” (Mass Media and National Development, Schramm 1964)• “diffusers of innovations” (E M Rogers, 1962, 1976, 1983)• “Network”
• Early warnings on the limits of growth and environmental consequences • Attributions of “underdevelopment”First published in 1972
• "It is capitalism, world and national, which produced under- development in the past and still generates underdevelopment in the present" (Andre Gunder Frank, 1971:1).• Multiple pathways to development
Everett Rogers• “development as a widely participatory process of social change in a society, intended to bring about both social and material advancement (including greater equality, freedom, and other valued qualities) for the majority of the people through their gaining greater control over their environment” (Rogers, 1975)Refer to assigned reading
Everett Rogers• Diffusion of Innovations and Development• field experiments and network analysis• communication effects gaps and audience participation• Diffusion is uneven• Local innovation and local problem solving
• “what is really new about communication technology is not the technology per se as much as the social technology of how the new communication devices are organized and used.” (1976: 34)• Importance of interpersonal network in knowledge transmission (not through “opinion leaders”)
• 4 main elements that influence the spread of a new idea: ▫ the innovation, communication channels, time, and a social system.• Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.• Innovations progress through 5 stages: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation."
Post-war paradigm• “free flow of information” – meanings and assumptions• But how is this different from the “participatory” approach?
• Development assistance, technology and skills transfer• Research, fact finding and dissemination• Norm setting, principles and declarations
The McBride Commission Report (1985)• Self-reliance and cultural identity• international character of the media, their structures, world-views and markets• Globalization: concentration of media ownership, monopolization of markets, and a decline in diversity• Emergence of the information society
The New World InformationCommunication Order (NWICO) • The Four “Ds” ▫ Democratization ▫ Decolonization ▫ Demonopolization ▫ Development