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Globlal Perspective on Open Research: A Bird's Eye View

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Presentation at the University of Cape Town, Aug. 5, 2011. This talk was part of the OpenUCT initiative and the Scholarly Communication in Africa Programme. It provides an overview of the changing …

Presentation at the University of Cape Town, Aug. 5, 2011. This talk was part of the OpenUCT initiative and the Scholarly Communication in Africa Programme. It provides an overview of the changing research landscape and the particular importance of open access and other forms of open collaboration for solving some of the pressing problems of development research. The presentation argues for the importance of policy development in support of research collaboration and the development of enriched metrics for evaluating the development impact of research.

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  • metrics of total publications and citations.Top 15 countries account for 82% of total publicationsAuthor with African institutional affiliation account for less than 1% of global output, and S. Africa has the highest output. The rest are “invisible”Consequence of trying to publish in “International” journal results in neglect of important local problems and solutions that are appropriate for local conditions.
  • Consequences of publishing in “internatioanlly” indexed journals
  • he New Invisible College, Caroline Wagner combines quantitative data and extensive interviews to map the emergence of global science networks and trace the dynamics driving their growth. She argues that the shift from big science to global networks creates unprecedented opportunities for developing countries to tap science's potential. Rather than squander resources in vain efforts to mimic the scientific establishments of the twentieth century, developing country governments can leverage networks by creating incentives for top-notch scientists to focus on research that addresses their concerns and by finding ways to tie knowledge to local problem solving. T
  • Queensland University of Technology (QUT) adopted a whole institution approach in 2004. There is some early evidence that the greater visibility of the research of the institution correlates with other measures of research esteem.In Australia in recent years, several other universities have developed policies, most notably this week, ANU. A number of institutions in Europe — Leige, Salford, University College London, to mention a few — are examples. Perhaps most conspicuous is the mandate adopted at Harvard University Faculty of Art and Sciences.
  • Open access models are proliferating, not only for sharing traditional forms of scholarly production (peer-reviewed papers), but also among new forms of content, especially databases and media archives.Data are increasingly born digital
  • An entire range of economic services has emerged that are enabled by mobile phones: banking and anancial trans- actions, marketing and distribution, employment services, personal ser- vices, and public services. Beyond economic impacts, improvements are being made in other freedoms or dimensions of well-being: personal secu- rity, political participation and accountability, peace, dignity, and opportu- nity.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Global Perspective on Open Research
      A bird’s eye view
      Leslie Chan
      International Development Studies
      Bioline International
      University of Toronto Scarborough
      Presentation at the Scholarly Communication in Africa Programme and OpenUCT,
      University of Cape Town
      August 5, 2011
    • 2. What is research and why
      What is openness and why
      The values of Open Research
      How to enable Open Research
    • 3. Arguments
      Quality filtering based on journal name is disappearing, to be replaced by new forms of “metrics” and reputation proxies
      Innovations are emerging from the “periphery”
      Networks and the return to the Invisible College
      Grass root actions are driving change, but policy framework is key to acceptance and sustainability
    • 4. Why research?
    • 5.
    • 6.
    • 7.
    • 8. The World of Journal Publishing According to Thomson’s ISI Science Citation Index
      Data from 2002
      http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=205
    • 9. http://thomsonreuters.com/
    • 10. $$$
      http://ke.thomsonreuters.com/#/index.html
    • 11.
    • 12. “An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good.”
      Budapest Open Access Initiative
      http://www.soros.org/openaccess/read.shtml
    • 13. Human Development and Access to Knowledge-embedded goods
      Access to learning resources
      Access to journals
      Access to research and outcome data
      Access to health care
      Access to Medicine
      PUBLICGOODS
    • 14. From “Big” science to Networked science
      Knowledge for local problem solving
    • 15. Openness as the building block for the New Invisible College
    • 16. "Like many parts of the knowledge system, the organization of scientific research is changing in fundamental ways. Self-organizing networks that span the globe are the most notable feature of science today. These networks constitute an invisible college of researchers: scientists who collaborate not because they are told to but because they want to, not because they work in the same laboratory or even in the same field but because they have complementary insight, data, or skills. Networks can take on the role of institutions in some parts of the world that do not have a long history of building scientific infrastructure."
      Caroline Wagner (2008), The New Invisible College: Science for Development. The Brookings Institution Press.
    • 17. arXiv began its operations before the World Wide Web, search engines, online commerce and all the rest, but nonetheless anticipated many components of current 'Web 2.0' methodology… It continues to play a leading role at the forefront of new models for scientific communication."
    • 18.
    • 19.
    • 20. http://www.scielo.org/
    • 21.
    • 22. http://www.bioline.org.br
    • 23. 23
      Active Bioline Journals graphed with Google Maps.
      Retrieved April 26, 2010 from: http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&hl=en&msa=0&msid=117328677437228595850.00044ec490b69019e64a3&z=2
    • 24.
    • 25.
    • 26. Institutional mandatory policies              112
      Departmental mandatory policies             28
      Funder mandatory policies                      47
      Total mandatory policies                   187
       
      http://www.openscholarship.org/jcms/c_6226/open-access-policies-for-universities-and-research-institutions
    • 27. But Open Access is only the Substrate of theResearch Life Cycle
    • 28. Scholarly Primitives
      “…basic functions common to scholarly activity across disciplines, over time, and independent of theoretical orientation.”
      John Unsworth. "Scholarly Primitives: What Methods Do Humanities Researchers Have in Common and How Might Our Tools Reflect This?" "Humanities Computing, Formal Methods, Experimental Practice" Symposium, Kings College, London, May 13, 2000.http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/~jmu2m/Kings.5-00/primitives.html
    • 29. “Is the scientific paper a fraud?”
      “I mean the scientific paper may be a fraud because it misrepresents the processes of thought that accompanied or give rise to the work that is described in the paper. That is the question and I will say right away that my answer to it is ‘yes’. The scientific paper in its orthodox form does embody a totally mistaken conception, even a travesty, of the nature of scientific though”.
      Sir Peter Medawar
      (From a BBC talk, 1964)
      http://contanatura-hemeroteca.weblog.com.pt/arquivo/medawar_paper_fraud.pdf
    • 30. Boyer’s Scholarship of
      PUBLIC
      Engagement
    • 31.
    • 32. Traditional Business Models
      Subscription
      Licensing
      Pay-per-view
      Libraries
      Price
      $$
      Permission
      Closed Content
      Publishers
      Value-added
      Services
      BRANDING
      Capital
      Development
    • 33. New Business Models
      Authority Trust Findability
      Personalization Immediacy
      Coherent and structured
      Generative layer
      Overlay
      services
      Open Source Open Access
      Fragmented
      and scattered
      Content layer
      Research
      Capital
      Development
    • 34. “We are slowly, as I’ve written many times before, moving to post-publication peer review where the scientific community judges what matters—not bewigged and gathered in one elegant room as in the 18th century but connected globally through the internet. It’s back to our roots.”
      Richard Smith was the editor of the BMJ until 2004 and is director of the United Health Group’s chronic disease initiative. Competing interest: RS is on the board of the Public Library of Science but is not paid.
    • 35. The JIF is appallingly open to manipulation; mature alt-metrics systems could be more robust, leveraging the diversity of of alt-metrics and statistical power of big data to algorithmically detect and correct for fraudulent activity. This approach already works for online advertisers, social news sites, Wikipedia, and search engines.
      http://altmetrics.org/manifesto/
    • 36. Scholarly Primitives and Reputation?
      “…basic functions common to scholarly activity across disciplines, over time, and independent of theoretical orientation.”
      John Unsworth. "Scholarly Primitives: What Methods Do Humanities Researchers Have in Common and How Might Our Tools Reflect This?" "Humanities Computing, Formal Methods, Experimental Practice" Symposium, Kings College, London, May 13, 2000.http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/~jmu2m/Kings.5-00/primitives.html
    • 37. http://kenya.ushahidi.com/
    • 38. http://www.ushahidi.com/
    • 39. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10569081
    • 40. http://appsfordevelopment.challengepost.com/
    • 41. Conclusions
      Should not take Openness for granted, be vigilant
      Align the values of research with appropriate incentives and recognition
      Also need to align policies that are emerging from the top with initiatives are rising from the bottom

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