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LS4 3.3

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  • 1. Unit 3: Using the Dictionary Phrasal Verbs Sentence Stress LET’S GET STARTED
  • 2. Using the Dictionary – p.53  Even though two words may have the same basic meaning, we often use them differently (look at adolescence and youth in your student book).  Many times the difference between how we use words can be for specific or in a more general way.  If you have problems trying to figure out the difference in usage between two words with the same meaning, you can usually go to google and type “vs”, for example: economic vs financial  The online dictionary at tw.yahoo.com is also pretty good at giving examples of how words are used, but not always.
  • 3. economic vs. financial  Look at the definitions given in the book. If the definition gives examples of the words being used, you should use those examples to help you understand which word you should use.  You can see that economic is used for a whole country or society (“social, economic and political issues”).  The word financial is used in a more personal way in the examples, (“to give financial advice” and “to be in financial difficulties”).
  • 4. ceremony vs. rite  Look at the definitions in your book.  The main difference between ceremony and rite is public and formal for ceremony, and particular and often religious for rite.  Ceremonies are usually commonly known events that many people can attend, such as weddings, graduations, and giving awards.  Rites are usually smaller events (fewer people attending), usually with some sort of religious theme, and they are often more serious, such as a funeral.
  • 5. Here’s what you can do  Check the example sentences for the words  Try googling “word 1 vs. word 2” and see if other people are asking the same question.  Try tw.yahoo.com dictionary for more example sentences, but be careful – sometimes they don’t give the best examples.  If you’re still not sure, you can usually use the more general word in conversation, and the more specific one if you are writing or giving a presentation.
  • 6. age vs. mature  age: the length of time that a person has lived or a thing has existed: he died from a heart attack at the age of 51 his wife is the same age as Carla he must be nearly 40 years of age young people between the ages of 11 and 18  mature: fully developed physically; full-grown: she was now a mature woman owls are sexually mature at one year mature trees a young man mature beyond his years
  • 7. order vs. instruct order: give an authoritative direction or instruction to do something: she ordered me to leave “Stop frowning,” he ordered instruct: teach (someone) a subject or skill: he instructed them in the use of firearms
  • 8. cover vs. hide cover: put something such as a cloth or lid on top of or in front of (something) in order to protect or conceal it: the table had been covered with a checked tablecloth she covered her face with a pillow hide: put or keep out of sight; conceal from the view or notice of others: he hid the money in the house Hal could hardly hide his dislike
  • 9. Let’s try some:  Some of my classmates have _____ a lot since we     started college together. (aged, matured) The _____ situation in Taiwan has become worse. (financial, economic) My mother _____ all of us how to be polite and hardworking. (ordered, instructed) Some people think you should ______ your head from the rain so that you won’t catch a cold. (cover, hide) Prince William had a very public wedding ______ last year. (celebration, rite)
  • 10. Phrasal verbs  Phrasal verbs are usually two-word phrases consisting of verb + adverb or verb + preposition.  Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. Study them as you come across them, rather than trying to memorize many at once.  Look at p. 55 in your book.
  • 11. Transitive  A transitive phrasal verb requires a direct object.    Did you turn on the radio? We will have to put off the wedding. I had to look up the word to understand its meaning.  Most transitive phrasal verbs are separable – you can put the direct object between the words, such as:    Did you turn the radio on? We will have to put the wedding off. I had to look the word up to understand its meaning.  If the direct object is a pronoun (he, she, it, etc.), it must go between the verb and the particle.   The TV is too loud! You need to turn it down. That dress is nice. You should try it on.  Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. You can’t put a direct object inside.   I have been looking for my homework all morning. I have to hand in the report tomorrow.
  • 12. Intransitive  Intransitive phrasal verbs don’t need an object, and they can’t be separated.     My scooter is going to break down any day now. Are you hungry? Let’s eat out tonight. I never want to go back to that restaurant. I told him to get out.
  • 13. Let’s try some:  ___ He came back after two hours.  ___ Take off your smelly socks.  ___ Make sure to write down the answer.  ___ I believe in ghosts, don't you?  ___ I have to put down my cellphone for a minute.  (__) We will have to wait the bus for at the corner.  (__) I threw it away.  (__) I hope you get your broken heart over quickly.
  • 14. Let’s try some:  _I_ He came back after two hours.  _T_ Take off your smelly socks.  _T_ Make sure to write down the answer.  _I_ I believe in ghosts, don't you?  _T_ I have to put down my cellphone for a minute.  (NO) We will have to wait the bus for at the corner.  (OK) I threw it away.  (NO) I hope you get your broken heart over quickly.
  • 15. Sentence Stress  Stressing different words can completely change the         meaning of what we are saying: I don't think he should get the job. Somebody else thinks he should get the job. I don't think he should get the job. It's not true that I think he should get the job. I don't think he should get that job. I'm not sure he'll get that job. I don't think he should get that job. Somebody else should get that job. I don't think he should get that job. In my opinion it's wrong that he's going to get that job. I don't think he should get that job. He should have to work hard for that job. I don't think he should get that job. He should get another job. I don't think he should get that job. Maybe he should get something else instead.

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