# Fundamentals of music

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### Fundamentals of music

1. 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF MUSIC
2. 2. RHYTHMfrom the Greek word ―rhythmos‖meaning any regular recurring motionMovement marked by theregulated succession of strongand weak elements, or ofopposite or different conditions.
3. 3. PARTS OF RHYTHM BEAT is a unit of time that is felt andsensed is a pulse of a time
4. 4. EXAMPLE OF BEAT
5. 5. THREE PRINCIPLES OF BEAT ACTIVITIESKeep the keeping the keeping thebeat even beat takes beat that considerable physicaland steady coordination movement be a part of the activity
6. 6. PARTS OF RHYTHM ACCENT is an emphasis placed on aparticular note they can be strong and weak
7. 7. METER> taken from the Greek word“metron” which means measure meter is natural grouping of beats It is indicated by bar lines whichdivide the measure into successiveunits of two(duple), three(triple),four(quadruple), and so forth.
8. 8. SIMPLE METER- is a division of time where fundamental pulsessubdivide into groups of two, four, eight, etc..
9. 9. COMPOUND METERIs a subdivision in which the fundamentalpulses subdivide into groups of three, six,twelve, etc.
10. 10. COMPOUND METER
11. 11. POLYMETER- Isa double meter to indicatethe two meters are combinedor there is constant changefrom one meter to the otherback and both
12. 12. POLYMETER
13. 13. TIME SIGNATURE- two numbers at the beginning of everycomposition
14. 14. Indicate the value or duration of each kind of notein each of the different time signatures NOTES 2 3 4 2 6 4 4 4 2 8
15. 15. Indicate the value or duration of each kind of notein each of the different time signatures NOTES 2 3 4 2 6 4 4 4 2 8 4 2 3 3 1½ 6 2 2 2 1 4 1½ 1½ 1½ ¾ 3 1 1 1 ½ 2 ¾ ¾ ¾ 3/8 1½ ½ ½ ½ ¼ 1
16. 16. RHYTHMIC PATTERN-isthe division of beats into patterns ofsound.
17. 17. ACTIVITYA. CREATE A RAP/ SHORT POEM AND PERFORM WITH A SIMPLE BEAT.B. SING A FOLK SONG AND MAKE SIMPLE DANCE STEPS.C. PERFORM AN ETHNIC DANCE USING MATERIALS FROM THE NATURE AS INSTRUMENT.
18. 18. MELODY> Is a succession of related single tonesexpressing an idea. PITCH DURATIONIs the highness or The length of timelowness of tone the tone lastwhich is determinedby the number ofvibration per second
19. 19. PARTS OF MELODYA. DIRECTION OR MOVEMENT
20. 20. B. SCALES A succession of consecutive tones in a certain arrangement of whole and half steps generally embracing eight degreesCHROMATIC SCALE DIATONIC SCALE Has twelve steps  Has eight stepsand is formed and is composed ofentirely of half whole steps and halfsteps. steps
21. 21. THE C MAJOR SCALES
22. 22. Identify the steps of the following tones.1. C – D2. E – F3. F#- G4. B – C5. Eb – D6. G# -A#7. C# -D8. Gb –Ab9. F –G10. D-E
23. 23. ANSWER1. C – D DIATONIC2. E – F CHROMATIC3. F#- G CHROMATIC4. B – C CHROMATIC5. Eb – D CHROMATIC6. G# -A# DIATONIC7. C# -D CHROMATIC8. Gb –Ab DIATONIC9. F –G DIATONIC10. D-E DIATONIC
24. 24. ENHARMONIC TONES> notes that have the same pitch butdifferent names
25. 25. Find the enharmonic tones of thefollowing:1. D# 6. E#2. F 7. Ab3. Gb 8. G4. C 9. A5. B 10. C#
26. 26. ANSWER:1. D#- Eb 6. E# - F2. F - E# 7. Ab – G#3. Gb – F# 8. G – F#4. C - B# 9. A – G#5. B - Cb 10. C# - Db
27. 27. KEY SIGNATURESis a series of sharpor flat symbols placed atthe beginning ofthe staff
28. 28. THE MAJOR KEY (SHARPS)
29. 29. MAJOR KEY (SHARPS)KEY NO. OF SHARPS SHARP NOTESC 0G 1 F#D 2 F#, C#A 3 F#, C#, G# E 4 F#, C#, G#, D# B 5 F#, C#, G#, D#, A#F# 6 F#, C#, G#, D#, A#, E#C# 7 F#, C#, G#, D#, A#, E#, B#
30. 30. THE MAJOR KEY (FLATS)
31. 31. THE MAJOR KEY (FLATS)KEY NO.OF FLATS FLAT NOTESC 0 F 1 BbBb 2 Bb, EbEb 3 Bb, Eb, AbAb 4 Bb, Eb, Ab, DbDb 5 Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, GbGb 6 Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, CbCb 7 Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, Cb, Fb
32. 32. Identify the key signatures.
33. 33. THE MINOR KEYS KEY ADDED MAJOR KEYS MINOR KEYSSIGNATURE SHARPS F# G Major E minor C# D Major B minor D# A Major F# minor G# E Major C# minor A# B Major G# minor E# F# Major D# minor B# C# Major A# minor
34. 34. THE MINOR KEYS KEY ADDED MAJOR KEY MINOR KEYSIGNATURE FLATS Bb F D Eb B G Ab E C Db A F Gb D Bb Cb G Eb Fb C Ab
35. 35. Identify the key signatures of thefollowing
36. 36. ANSWERAb A DbC D Gb
37. 37. TEMPO Is the speed of the compositionCommonly used terms to indicate tempo1. Largo – very slow2. Adagio – slow3. Andante – walking pace4. Allegro – fast5. Allegretto – not so fast and lively6. Presto – very fast
38. 38. 7.Accelerando – gradually becoming faster8.Ritardando – gradually becoming slower9.Meno Mosso – lessen the speed10. Moderato – slower than allegretto butfaster than andante.11. Vivace – lively and vivid
39. 39. DYNAMICS Degree of loudness or softnessDYNAMIC MARKS TERMS MEANING p Piano Soft pp Pianissimo Very soft mp Mezzo forte Half soft f Forte loud ff Fortissimo Very loud mf Mezzo piano Half loud crescendo Gradually becoming louder decrescendo Gradually becoming softer
40. 40. FORM Structure or framework of a composition1. TONE – smallest unit of a composition2. FIGURE – the smallest characteristic group oftones3. PHRASE – is a succession of tones4. SECTION – combination of periods
41. 41. KINDS OF FORM1. UNITARY/STROPHIC > a short composition containing only one principal idea2. BINARY > has two different melodic ideas. A and B3. TERNARY > has two basic ideas and ends with the repetition of the first idea
42. 42. SITSIRITSITA. Sitsiritsit alibangbang,salaguinto’t salagubangAng babae sa lansangan kung gumiri’y parangtandangB. Mama mama namamangka, pasakayin yaring bataPagdating sa maynila, ipagpalit ng manikaC. Ale ale namamayong, pasukubin yaring sanggolPagdating sa Malabong, ipagpalit ng bagoong
43. 43. LERON-LERON SINTALeron,Leron,sinta buko ng Halika na Neneng at tayo’ypapaya magsimbaDala dala’y buslo sisidlan ng At iyong isuot ang baro mo’tbunga sayaPagdating sa dulo’y nabali ang Ang baro mo’t sayangsanga, pagkaganda-gandaKapos kapalaran humanap ng Kay ganda ng kulay — berde,iba. puti, pula.Halika na Neneng,tayo’y Ako’y ibigin mo, lalakingmanampalok matapangDalhin mo ang buslo,sisidlan Ang baril ko’y pito, angng hinog sundang ko’y siyamPagdating sa dulo’y uunda- Ang lalakarin ko’y parte ngundayog dinulangKumapit ka Neneng, baka ka Isang pinggang pansit angmahulog. aking kalaban.
44. 44. TIMBRE character of the tone producedA. INSTRUMENTS1. Symphony Orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.
45. 45. THE SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
46. 46. RONDALLA> is an ensemble of stringedinstruments played with the plectrum orpick
47. 47. B. VOICECLASSIFICATION OF VOICES FEMALE VOICE MALE VOICES1. SOPRANO – 1. TENOR – highest female highest adult voice male voice2. ALTO – the 2. BASS – the lowest female lowest male voice voice
48. 48. Classify the voice of the followingsingers.
49. 49. TEXTURE Is the relationship of melodies(horizontal) and harmonic (vertical elementsof music A. MONOPHONIC – a single melody without accompaniment or any added part Example: Chant A. HOMOPHONIC – is a melody which has a supporting set of chords for accompaniment.
50. 50. TEXTURE3. POLYPHONIC - has two or moremelodies without supportingchords.Example:Round example: DONA NOBIS PACEM> Partner Song
51. 51. LERON – LERON SINTA Leron, Leron, sinta Buko ng papaya Dala dala’y buslo Sisidlan ng bunga Pagdating sa dulo’y Nabali ang sanga, Kapos kapalaran Humanap ng iba.
52. 52. ACO KINI SI ANGGI VISAYAN ENGLISHAko kini si Angi, Angi is my nameAng opisyo koy panahi; Dressmaking is my tradeAdlaw ug gabii All day long till eveningKanunay ako nagtahi. My poor hands are always sewingBisan nakog unsaon,Walay kuwartang No matter how hard Imatigum, workKayang akong pagpanahi Not a penny can I saveIgoras panginabuhi. Alas, I can earn only Just enough for food and rent
53. 53. HARMONYIs the simultaneous sounding of a group oftones with the tones of a melody based upon the fact that certain degreesof scale sounds good to ear when playedtogether.
54. 54. HARMONYCHORDS –tonal combinations TWO KINDS OF CHORDS1. CONCHORDS – combinations which sounds good2. DISCHORDS OR DISSONANCE - combinations which do not sound pleasing to the ears.
55. 55. TRIADS Consist of three tones: the root,third and a fifth