Psychology 41 - Life Span
Take Home Exam
Chapters 18, 19
Summer 2009 (Dr. S. Lee)
Name: __________________________ Date: _____________
This completed exam is due back on Tuesday, July 14, 2009 at the beginning of class at 8:00 am. You should
record your answers on this exam and on a Scantron, and bring both to class completed. You will not have
time to complete your Scantron during class, and no exams will be accepted after the last exam has already
been collected. Therefore, please arrive to class with your Scantron completed.
1. Dr. Marquette is a researcher who studies the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information throughout
life. What approach to cognitive development does she take?
2. The focus of postformal thought, the possible fifth stage of cognition, is:
A) analytic thinking.
B) problem solving.
C) problem finding.
3. Compared to formal operational thinking, postformal thought is characterized by the following:
4. Who would most likely require postformal thinking in order to solve his or her problem?
A) an accountant who must keep track of the many governmental changes from the IRS
B) a full-time student who needs to study while caring for her two small children
C) a man who must memorize information to pass the bar examination
D) a computer hacker who is developing a program that will transmit a virus
5. Does adult thinking utilize both objective and subjective thought?
A) No, it only utilizes objective thought.
B) No, it only utilizes subjective thought.
C) Yes, it uses both objective thought and subjective thought, but only one type at a time.
D) Yes, it combines objective and subjective thought.
6. Jack was reared in a home where men did not help with housework or cooking, since those were deemed
“women's work.” At 18, he does not agree with that view but hides his negative reaction to it when
visiting his parents' home. He is coping with his negative impulses by demonstrating:
A) emotional flexibility.
B) emotional inflexibility.
C) cognitive flexibility.
D) cognitive inflexibility.
7. Matt is on a debate team in college. He observed that the experience differs greatly from that of his high-
school debate team. There is much less argument within the team when planning debate tactics for a topic.
Considering their cognitive development, that is because team members are demonstrating:
A) formal operational thought.
B) intellectual flexibility
C) cognitive team spirit.
D) cognitive control.
8. William arrived at his large, culturally diverse university from his small isolated town, excited to start his
college education. Quickly, though, he became fearful and suspicious of students different than himself.
William needs to:
A) try to befriend students of other cultures to understand them better.
B) go to the counseling center on campus for help.
C) restrict his interactions to students like himself.
D) use cognitive flexibility to counter the stereotypes he has learned.
9. Stereotype threat is a:
A) form of self-prejudice.
B) fixed idea about a group of people.
C) possible hostile action toward a person or a group.
D) cultural bias.
10. The adult thinking process in which every idea implies an opposite idea, and both the idea and its opposite
can be integrated into a synthesis is referred to as:
A) formal operational thought.
B) adaptive logic.
C) dialectical thought.
D) moral reasoning.
11. A dialectical thinker is likely to recognize the:
A) true nature of most relationships.
B) changing nature of human relationships.
C) need to explain human actions logically.
D) insincerity of most human relationships.
12. Marge's marriage is troubled. She and her husband find very little joy in being with each other. If Marge
and her husband are capable of dialectical thinking, they will:
A) adjust their relationship to accommodate the changes in themselves.
B) realize that divorce is the only solution.
C) try to find out which one of them is to blame.
D) try to reinstate their relationship as it was when they were first married.
13. Carol Gilligan would probably say that choices about which of the following are most likely to advance
B) child rearing
C) financial matters
14. Students who agree that some cheating is necessary to get the grades they want are more likely to attend:
A) two-year colleges.
B) four-year colleges.
D) school part-time.
15. According to a survey, about 1 U.S. college student in _____ believes cheating is sometimes necessary to
get better grades.
16. The author of your textbook reported that she used postformal thought in order to determine the best:
A) sequence for presenting the information in the textbook.
B) way to deal with cheating in her classroom.
C) way to convince her students to study more and party less.
D) definitions for the key terms at the end of each chapter.
17. Favoring what feels right over what makes intellectual sense is typical of ______ faith.
18. The type of faith in which people can accept contradictions and incorporate both powerful unconscious
ideas and rational, conscious values is:
A) mythic-literal faith.
B) conjunctive faith.
C) synthetic-conventional faith.
D) individual-reflective faith.
19. According to Fowler, Mother Teresa, Martin Luther King Jr., and Mohandas Gandhi exhibited which
stage of faith?
20. The stage in which faith becomes an active commitment, detached from the expectations of culture and
parents, is referred to as the stage of:
A) individual-reflective faith.
B) intuitive-projective faith.
C) universalizing faith.
D) mythic-literal faith.
21. Which of the following correlates with depth and flexibility of thought in adulthood?
A) college education
22. Genevieve plans to pursue a master's degree in computer science. After she graduates and accepts a job,
her income will ______ that of a high school graduate.
A) reflect a 50% increase over
B) reflect a 75% increase over
C) more than double
D) more than triple
23. Perry found that over the four years of their college careers, students:
A) move from a relativistic to a dualistic approach.
B) change very little.
C) stick to their own views when faced with conflicts.
D) progress through nine levels of complexity in their thinking.
24. In a 2003 study, which of the following objectives was rated as essential or very important by the largest
number of college freshman?
A) being better off financially
B) becoming an authority in their field
C) developing a philosophy of life
D) becoming a community leader
25. Which of the following is a true statement about cohort effects regarding the effect of college on cognitive
A) The increased diversity of the college atmosphere probably helps to enhance cognitive development.
B) A college education may have had positive effects on cognitive development in the past, but it is
unlikely that this is the case today.
C) Since less-able students are more likely to drop out of school, estimating the effect of college
education on cognitive development is complicated.
D) Cohort effects are irrelevant, since college students are all approximately the same age.
26. The dropout rate in the first year of college may often be attributed to:
A) a lack of student support by educational institutions.
B) limited opportunities for student involvement.
C) students' lack of receptivity toward learning and detachment from education.
D) attending a public, rather than a private, college.
27. According to Erikson, young adults first face which of the following crises?
A) generativity vs. stagnation
B) love vs. work
C) identity vs. role confusion
D) intimacy vs. isolation
28. Intimacy is best defined as:
29. Which is one of the four “gateways to attraction” in friendship?
A) infrequent exposure
B) presence of exclusion criteria
C) average yearly income
D) apparent availability
30. Identify the best example of self-disclosure.
A) discussing a game-deciding call in a national championship
B) telling your co-workers how bad weather ruined your vacation
C) telling someone about a recurring health problem that limits your activity
D) explaining the kind of music you enjoy the most
31. When two men converse, they are most likely to discuss:
B) their families.
C) their past.
D) health problems.
32. When a woman talks about her problems with a friend, she usually wants:
A) a solution to her problems.
B) sympathy or understanding.
C) practical advice.
D) someone to tease her about how much she worries.
33. Cross-sex friendships result in problems when:
A) the male and female meet each others' needs.
B) females offer advice to males.
C) males offer sympathy to females.
D) outsiders assume the relationship is sexual.
34. Friendships between men are less intimate than those between women because:
A) men are more hesitant to express their vulnerabilities.
B) from childhood on, boys are more verbal and less active.
C) women have strong fears of homophobia.
D) men never show affection for each other.
35. Which of the following is a true statement about the qualities young adults seek from a romantic partner?
A) Culture greatly affects the qualities sought by individuals.
B) European American men and women differ greatly in the qualities they seek.
C) The qualities sought by men are the same across cultures.
D) Wealth ranks highly for women across cultures.
36. George and Emily are newly engaged to be married. The component of love that is probably most intense
at this time is:
37. According to Sternberg, when commitment, passion, and intimacy are all present, the form of love is:
38. Sternberg refers to love in which couples share passion but lack intimacy or commitment as:
A) empty love.
C) romantic love.
D) companionate love.
39. Jim and Margaret have been married for 35 years. They feel no passion and share few feelings. Sternberg
would say that they have which type of love?
40. Clara and Gus have been married for 55 years. They share deep intimacy and commitment but are no
longer passionate. According to Sternberg, their love is now:
41. Passion is fueled in part by:
A) security and familiarity.
B) the expected and known.
C) boundaries and safety.
D) uncertainty and risk.
42. For which of the following types of couples does the developmental pattern of intimacy, commitment, and
passion differ from that of others?
A) married heterosexual couples
B) unmarried homosexual couples
C) couples with arranged marriages
D) cohabitating young couples
43. Erikson believes that a healthy intimacy in marriage is more likely to emerge when:
A) neither partner has yet established a sense of identity and they can build an identity together.
B) both partners have already established a sense of identity.
C) one partner has established a sense of identity and the other fits in.
D) the couple has already built an identity together.
44. Heterogamy refers to marriage between two people of:
A) different sexes.
B) the same sex.
C) dissimilar ethnicities, interests, attitudes, and religion.
D) similar ethnicities, interests, attitudes, and religion.
45. The view that marriage is an arrangement in which each partner contributes something useful to the other,
is part of the:
A) equity theory.
B) equality theory.
C) complementary theory.
D) social exchange theory.
46. Which of the following is a result of intimate terrorism?
A) common couple violence
B) violence on the part of both spouses
C) battered-wife syndrome
D) deceleration of violence with age
47. A heightened sense of well-being is common between the ages of 18 to 24. Reasons for this increase in
positive emotion include:
A) leaving high school and separating from dysfunctional families.
B) becoming financially independent for the first time and able to purchase desired items such as cars.
C) independence from parental rules and household responsibilities.
D) eligibility to vote and to become more involved in the democratic process.
48. Jacoby's mother was schizophrenic so he was sent to live with his grandparents. Now at age 22, he is
experiencing severe stress due to his grandfather's death and his own search for employment. He is
starting to display some symptoms of schizophrenia. According to developmentalists, Jacoby is exhibiting
A) nature-nurture controversy.
B) diathesis-stress model.
C) thesis-antithesis-synthesis hypothesis.
D) psychopathologic post-adolescent syndrome.
49. Max and Elizabeth are typical of 8 percent of U.S. residents. They are both under thirty years of age and
both suffer from:
A) substance abuse.
B) a mood disorder.
C) an anxiety disorder.
D) an eating disorder.
50. While problems experienced in the earlier years may influence later development, those with childhood
challenges who tended to fare best during emerging adulthood had:
A) childhood externalizing problems.
B) childhood internalizing problems.
C) anxiety disorders that surfaced after the age of 15.
D) mood disorders that surfaced after the age of 15.