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Glossary Psych 41
 

Glossary Psych 41

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    Glossary Psych 41 Glossary Psych 41 Document Transcript

    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide for THE DEVELOPING PERSON THROUGH THE LIFE SPAN Seventh Edition Kathleen Berger Bronx Community College City University of New York © 2008 by Worth Publishers WORTH PUBLISHERS Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 2 Glossary Pronunciation Guide A adrenal glands (uh-DREE-null) Two glands, located above the kidneys, that produce AARP A U.S. organization of people aged 50 and hormones (including the “stress hormones” older, which advocates for the elderly. It was epinephrine [adrenaline] and norepinephrine). affordance (ah-FORE-dense) An opportunity originally called the American Association of Retired Persons, but now only the initials AARP are used, to reflect the fact that the organization’s for perception and interaction that is offered by members do not have to be retired. a person, place, or object in the environment. absent grief A situation in which overly private age in place Refers to a preference of elderly people cut themselves off from the community people to remain in the same home and and customs of expected grief; can lead to social community, adjusting but not leaving when isolation. health fades. achievement tests Measures of mastery or age of viability (vye-uh-BILL-it-ee) The age proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, or (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a any other subject. fetus can survive outside the mother’s uterus if active euthanasia (you-thenn-AY-zha) A specialized medical care is available. situation in which someone takes action to bring ageism A prejudice in which people are cate- about another person’s death, with the intention of gorized and judged solely on the basis of their ending that person’s suffering. chronological age. activities of daily life (ADLs) Actions that aggressive-rejected Rejected by peers are important to independent living, typically because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior. consisting of five tasks of self-care: eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring from allele (ah-LEEL) A slight, normal variation of a a bed to a chair. The inability to perform any of particular gene. these tasks is a sign of frailty. allostatic load (al-oh-STAT-ick) The total, com- activity theory The view that elderly people bined burden of stress and disease that an want and need to remain active in a variety of individual must cope with. social spheres—with relatives, friends, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (AHLTZ- [or ALTZ-] community groups—and become withdrawn only unwillingly, as a result of ageism. hy-merz) The most common cause of dementia, additive gene A gene that has several alleles, characterized by gradual deterioration of memory each of which contributes to the final phenotype and personality and marked by the formation of (such as skin color or height). plaques of beta-amyloid protein and tangles in the brain. adolescence-limited offender A person whose criminal activity stops by age 21. amygdala (ah-MIG-dull-uh) A tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear adolescent egocentrism A characteristic of and anxiety. adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10 to 13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion analytic intelligence (ann-uh-LIT-ick) A form of others. A young person might believe, for of intelligence that involves such mental example, that his or her thoughts, feelings, and processes as abstract planning, strategy experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful selection, focused attention, and information than anyone else’s. processing, as well as verbal and logical skills. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 3 analytic thought (ann-uh-LIT-ick) Thought that apprentice in thinking Vygotsky’s term for results from analysis, such as a systematic rank- a person whose cognition is stimulated and ing of pros and cons, risks and consequences, directed by older and more skilled members of possibilities and facts. Analytic thought depends society. on logic and rationality. aptitude The potential to master a particular androgyny (ann-DROJ-in-ee) A balance, within skill or to learn a particular body of knowledge. a person, of traditionally male and female psychological characteristics. Asperger syndrome A specific type of autistic spectrum disorder characterized by extreme andropause (ANN-dro-pozz) A term coined to attention to details and deficient social signify a drop in testosterone levels in older men, understanding. which normally results in reduced sexual desire, erections, and muscle mass. Also known as male assisted living A living arrangement for elderly menopause. people that combines privacy and independence with medical supervision. anorexia nervosa (ann-oh-REX-ee-uh ner- VOSE-uh) A serious eating disorder in which a assisted reproductive technology (ART) person restricts eating to the point of emaciation A general term for the techniques designed to and possible starvation. Most victims are high- help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a achieving females in early puberty or early pregnancy. adulthood. asthma (AZZ-muh) A chronic disease of the anoxia (ann-OX-ee-uh) A lack of oxygen that, if respiratory system in which inflammation narrows prolonged during birth, can cause brain damage the airways from the lungs to the nose and mouth, or death to the baby. causing difficulty in breathing. Signs and symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, antioxidants (ann-tie- [or ann-tee-] OX-ih- chest tightness, and coughing. dents) Chemical compounds that nullify the effects of oxygen free radicals by forming a bond attachment According to Ainsworth, “an with their unattached oxygen electron. affectional tie” that an infant forms with the caregiver—a tie that binds them together in antipathy (ann-TIP-uh-thee) Feelings of anger, space and endures over time. distrust, dislike, or even hatred toward another person. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A condition in which a person not only antisocial behavior Feeling and acting in has great difficulty concentrating for more than a ways that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to few moments but also is inattentive, impulsive, another person. and overactive. antithesis (ann-TITH-uh-sis) A proposition or authoritarian parenting Child rearing with statement of belief that opposes the thesis; the high behavioral standards, punishment of second stage of the process of dialectical misconduct, and low communication. thinking. authoritative parenting Child rearing in Apgar scale A quick assessment of a which the parents set limits but listen to the child newborn’s body functioning. The baby’s color, and are flexible. heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone, and respiratory effort are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice—at one autism A developmental disorder marked by minute and five minutes after birth—and the total an inability to relate to other people normally, of all the scores is compared with the ideal score extreme self-absorption, and an inability to of 10. acquire normal speech. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 4 Glossary Pronunciation Guide autistic spectrum disorder Any of several bickering Petty, peevish arguing, usually disorders characterized by inadequate social repeated and ongoing. Big Five The five basic clusters of personality skills, unusual communication, and abnormal play. automatization A process in which repetition traits that remain quite stable throughout of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the adulthood: openness, conscientiousness, sequence routine, so that it no longer requires extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. bilingual education A strategy in which conscious thought. autonomy versus shame and doubt (aw- school subjects are taught in both the learner’s TONN-uh-mee) Erikson’s second crisis of psycho- original language and the second (majority) social development. Toddlers either succeed or language. binocular vision (bye-NOCK-you-ler)The fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their own actions and bodies. ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated average life expectancy The number of manner in order to see one image. blastocyst A cell mass that develops from the years the average newborn in a particular population group is likely to live. zygote in the first few days after conception, axon A nerve fiber that extends from a neuron during the germinal period, and forms a hollow sphere in preparation for implantation. and transmits electrical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons. blended family A family that consists of two B adults and the children of the prior relationships of one or both parents and/or the new partnership. B cells Immune cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and body image A person’s idea of how his or her destroying bacteria and viruses that are invading body looks. body mass index (BMI) The ratio of a the body. babbling The extended repetition of certain person’s weight in kilograms divided by his or her syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins between height in meters squared. bulimia nervosa (boo- [or byoo-] LEE-mee-uh 6 and 9 months of age. balanced bilingual A person who is fluent in ner-VOSE-uh) An eating disorder in which the person, usually female, engages repeatedly in two languages, not favoring one or the other. episodes of binge eating followed by purging behavioral teratogens (tuh-RAT-oh-jens) through induced vomiting or use of laxatives. Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal bully-victim Someone who attacks others, and brain, impairing the future child’s intellectual and who is attacked as well. (Also called provocative emotional functioning. victims because they do things that elicit bullying, behaviorism A grand theory of human develop- such as taking a bully’s pencil.) ment that studies observable behavior. Behavior- bullying aggression Unprovoked, repeated ism is also called learning theory because it physical or verbal attack, especially on victims describes the laws and processes by which who are unlikely to defend themselves. behavior is learned. bullying Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict bereavement The sense of loss following a harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on death. a weaker person. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 5 butterfly effect The idea that a small effect or abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be thing can have a large impact if it happens to tip removed quickly, instead of being delivered the balance, causing other changes that create a through the vagina. (Also called c-section or major event. simply section.) C child abuse Deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well-being. calorie restriction The practice of limiting dietary energy intake (while consuming sufficient child maltreatment Intentional harm to or quantities of vitamins, minerals, and other avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 important nutrients) for the purpose of improving years of age. health and slowing down the aging process. child neglect Failure to meet a child’s basic cardiovascular disease Disease that physical, educational, or emotional needs. involves the heart and the circulatory system. child sexual abuse Any erotic activity that carrier A person whose genotype includes a arouses an adult and excites, shames, or gene that is not expressed in the phenotype. confuses a child, whether or not the victim Such an unexpressed gene occurs in half of the protests and whether or not genital contact is carrier’s gametes and thus is passed on to half of involved. the carrier’s children, who will most likely be carriers, too. Generally, only when the gene is child-directed speech The high-pitched, inherited from both parents does the characteristic simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to appear in the phenotype. infants. (Also called baby talk or motherese.) case study A research method in which one children with special needs Children who, individual is studied intensively. because of a physical or mental disability, require extra help in order to learn. centenarian (sen-ten-AIR-ee-un) A person who has lived 100 years or more. chromosome (KROME-oh-sohm) One of the 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that each cell center day care Child care in a place of the human body contains and that, together, especially designed for the purpose, where contain all the genes. Other species have more or several paid providers care for many children. fewer chromosomes. Usually the children are grouped by age, the day- care center is licensed, and providers are trained classical conditioning The learning process and certified in child development. that connects a meaningful stimulus (such as the smell of food to a hungry animal) with a neutral centration A characteristic of preoperational stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) that had no thought in which a young child focuses (centers) special meaning before conditioning. Also called on one idea, excluding all others. respondent conditioning. cerebral palsy (sair-uh-brul or ser-EE-brul) A classification The logical principle that things disorder that results from damage to the brain’s can be organized into groups (or categories or motor centers. People with cerebral palsy have classes) according to some characteristic they difficulty with muscle control, so their speech and have in common. body movements are impaired. clinical depression Feelings of hopelessness, cesarean section (see-ZAIR-ee-en) A surgical lethargy, and worthlessness that last two weeks or birth, in which incisions through the mother’s more. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 6 Glossary Pronunciation Guide clique (click or cleek) A group of adolescents to the experimental group in all relevant ways but made up of close friends who are loyal to one who do not experience the experimental condition another while excluding outsiders. (the independent variable). clone An organism that is produced from compression of morbidity A lessening of another organism through artificial replication of the time a person spends ill or infirm, cells and is genetically identical to that organism. accomplished by postponing illness. cluster suicides Several suicides committed concrete operational thought Piaget’s term by members of a group within a brief period of for the ability to reason logically about direct time. experiences and perceptions. co-sleeping A custom in which parents and conditioning According to behaviorism, the their children (usually infants) sleep together. processes by which reponses become linked to (Also called bed-sharing.) particular stimuli and learning takes place. The code of ethics A set of moral principles that word conditioning is used to emphasize the importance of repeated practice, as when an members of a profession or group are expected athlete gets into physical condition by training for to follow. a long time. cognitive equilibrium In cognitive theory, a conservation The idea that the amount of a state of mental balance in which people are not substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) confused because they can use their existing when its appearance changes. thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas. continuity theory The theory that each cognitive theory A grand theory of human person experiences the changes of late adulthood and behaves toward others in much the same development that focuses on changes in how way he or she did in earlier periods of life. people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and control processes Mechanisms (including behaviors. selective attention, metacognition, and emotional cohabitation An arrangement in which a man regulation) that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis and a woman live together in a committed sexual and flow of information within the information- relationship but are not formally married. processing system. cohort A group of people who were born at conventional moral reasoning Kohlberg’s about the same time and thus move through life together, experiencing the same historical events second level of moral reasoning, emphasizing and cultural shifts. social rules. common couple violence A form of abuse in corpus callosum A long band of nerve fibers which one or both partners of a couple engage in that connect the left and right hemispheres of the outbursts of verbal and physical attack. (Also brain. correlation A number indicating the degree of called situational couple violence.) comorbidity The presence of two or more relationship between two variables, expressed in unrelated disease conditions at the same time in terms of the likelihood that one variable will (or the same person. will not) occur when the other variable does (or does not). A correlation is not an indication that comparison group/control group A group one variable causes the other, only that the two of participants in a research study who are similar variables are related to the indicated degree. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 7 cortex The outer layers of the brain in humans quality of life. DALYs are the reciprocal of quality- and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling, and adjusted life years: A reduction in QALYs means sensing involve the cortex. (Sometimes called the an increase in DALYs. neocortex.) deductive reasoning Reasoning from a creative intelligence A form of intelligence general statement, premise, or principle, through that involves the capacity to be intellectually logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics. flexible and innovative. (Sometimes called top-down thinking.) critical period In prenatal development, the deferred imitation A sequence in which an time when a particular organ or other body part of infant first perceives something that someone else the embryo or fetus is most susceptible to does and then performs the same action a few damage by teratogens. Also, a time when a hours or even days later. certain development must happen if it is ever to happen. For example, the embryonic period is Defining Issues Test (DIT) A series of critical for the development of arms and legs. questions developed by James Rest and designed to assess respondents’ level of moral cross-sectional research A research design development by having them rank possible that compares groups of people who differ in solutions to moral dilemmas. age but are similar in other important charac- teristics. delay discounting The tendency to undervalue, or downright ignore, future cross-sequential research (cross-see- consequences and rewards in favor of more KWEN-shull) A hybrid research method in which immediate gratification. researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) delirium (deh-LEER-ee-um) A temporary loss of and then follow those groups over the years memory, often accompanied by emotions of fear (a longitudinal approach). (Also called cohort- or grandiosity and irrational actions. sequential research or time-sequential research.) dementia (dee-MEN-shah) Irreversible loss of crowd A larger group of adolescents who have intellectual functioning caused by organic brain something in common but who are not damage or disease. Dementia becomes more necessarily friends. common with age, but it is abnormal and pathological even in the very old. crystallized intelligence Those types of intellectual ability that reflect accumulated demography (dee-MOG-ruff-ee) The study of learning. Vocabulary and general information are the characteristics of human populations, examples. Some developmental psychologists including size, birth and death rates, density, and think crystallized intelligence increases with age, distribution. while fluid intelligence declines. dendrite A nerve fiber that extends from a culture of children The particular habits, neuron and receives electrical impulses styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and transmitted from other neurons via their axons. rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society. dependency ratio The ratio of self-sufficient, D productive adults to dependents (children and the elderly) in a given population. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) A dependent variable In an experiment, the measure of the impact that disability has on variable that may change as a result of whatever Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 8 Glossary Pronunciation Guide new condition or situation the experimenter adds. makes a person’s social sphere increasingly In other words, the dependent variable depends narrow, resulting in role relinquishment, on the independent variable. withdrawal, and passivity. developmental psychopathology The field disorganized attachment A type of that uses insights into typical development to attachment that is marked by an infant’s study and treat developmental disorders, and vice inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure versa. and return. developmental theory A group of ideas, distal parenting Parenting practices that focus assumptions, and generalizations that interpret on the intellect more than the body, such as and illuminate the thousands of observations that talking with the baby and playing with an object. have been made about human growth. In this way, developmental theories provide a framework diversity For developmentalists, diversity for explaining the patterns and problems of involves differences among groups of people development. based on such characteristics as race, gender, culture, age, family income, and sexuality. deviancy training The process whereby children are taught by their peers how to rebel dizygotic (DZ) twins (dye-zye-GOT-ick)Twins against authority or social norms. who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of same time. (Also called fraternal twins.) Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R) The American Psychiatric Association’s official guide to the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) (dee-ox-ee- diagnosis (not treatment) of mental disorders. (IV- rye-boh-noo-CLAY-ick) The molecule that R means “fourth edition, revised.”) contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins. dialectical thought (dye-uh-LECK-tick-ull)The most advanced cognitive process, characterized DNR (do not resuscitate) (ree-SUSS-it-ate) by the ability to consider a thesis and its A written order from a physician (sometimes antithesis simultaneously and thus to arrive at a initiated by a patient’s advance directive or by a synthesis. Dialectical thought makes possible an health care proxy’s request) that no attempt ongoing awareness of pros and cons, advantages should be made to revive a patient if he or she and disadvantages, possibilities and limitations. suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest. diathesis-stress model (dye-uh-THEE-sis) dominant–recessive pattern The interaction The view that mental disorders, such as schizo- of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phrenia, are produced by the interaction of a phenotype reveals the influence of one allele (the genetic vulnerability (the diathesis) with stressful dominant gene) more than that of the other (the environmental factors and life events. recessive gene). disability Long-term difficulty in performing double effect An ethical situation in which a normal activities of daily life because of some person performs an action that is good or morally physical, mental, or emotional condition. neutral but has ill effects that are foreseen, though not desired. disenfranchised grief A situation in which certain people, although they are bereaved, are doula (DOO-lah) A woman who helps with the not allowed to mourn publicly. birth process. Traditionally in Latin America, a doula was like a midwife, the only professional disengagement theory The view that aging who attended childbirths. Now doulas are likely to Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 9 work alongside a hospital’s medical staff to help dyslexia (diss-LEX-ee-ah) Unusual difficulty with mothers through labor and delivery. reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment. Down syndrome A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, E with three rather than two chromosomes at the 21st position. People with Down syndrome eclectic perspective (eh-CLECK-tick) The typically have distinctive characteristics, including approach taken by most developmentalists, in unusual facial features, heart abnormalities, and which they apply aspects of each of the various language difficulties. (Also called trisomy-21.) theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory. drug abuse The ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user’s biological or ecological niche (eh- [or ee-] co-LOJ-ick-ull) psychological well-being. The particular lifestyle and social context adults settle into that are compatible with their individual drug addiction A condition of drug personality needs and interests. dependence in which the absence of the given drug in the individual’s system produces a drive— ecological-systems approach (eh- [or ee-] physiological, psychological, or both—to ingest co-LOJ-ick-ull) A vision of how human more of the drug. development should be studied, with the person considered in all the contexts and interactions that dual-process model The notion that two constitute a life. networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of edgework Occupations or recreational activities stimuli. that require a degree of risk or danger; it is this prospect of “living on the edge” that makes dual-task deficit A situation in which a edgework compelling to some individuals. person’s performance of one task is impeded by interference from the simultaneous performance effortful control The ability to regulate one’s of another task. emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination. dynamic perception Perception that is primed to focus on movement and change. egocentrism Piaget’s term for children’s tendency to think about the world entirely from dynamic theories Theories of psychosocial their own personal perspective. development that emphasize change and readjustment rather than either the ongoing self elderspeak A condescending way of speaking or the impact of stratification. Each person’s life is to older adults that resembles baby talk, with seen as an active, ever-changing, largely self- simple and short sentence, exaggerated propelled process, occurring within specific social emphasis, repetition, and a slower rate and a contexts that are also constantly changing. higher pitch than normal speech. dynamic-systems theory A view of human Electra complex The unconscious desire of development as always changing. Life is the girls to replace their mother and win their father’s product of ongoing interaction between the exclusive love. embryo (EM-bree-oh) The name for a physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environ- ment, including the family and society. Flux is developing organism from about the third through constant, and each change affects all the others. the eighth week after conception. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 10 Glossary Pronunciation Guide embryonic period (em-bree-ON-ick) The estradiol (ess-trah-DYE-ull [or –ole]) A sex stage of prenatal development from approxi- hormone, considered the chief estrogen. Females mately the third through the eighth week after produce more estradiol than males do. conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, ethnic group People whose ancestors were develop. born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion. emergent theories Theories that bring together information from many disciplines in ethnotheory A theory that underlies the values addition to psychology and that are becoming and practices of a culture and that becomes comprehensive and systematic in their apparent through analysis and comparison of interpretations of development but are not yet those practices, although it is not usually apparent established and detailed enough to be considered to the people within the culture. grand theories. exclusion criteria A person’s reasons for emotional regulation The ability to control omitting certain people from consideration as when and how emotions are expressed. This is close friends or romantic partners. Exclusion the most important psychosocial development to criteria vary from one individual to another, but occur between the ages of 2 and 6, though it they are strong filters. continues throughout life. experience-dependent Refers to brain empathy (EM-puh-thee) The ability to functions that depend on particular, variable understand the emotions of another person, experiences and that therefore may or may not especially when those emotions differ from one’s develop in a particular infant. own. experience-expectant Refers to brain empirical (em-PEER-ick-ull) Based on functions that require certain basic common observation, experience, or experiment; not experiences (which an infant can be expected to theoretical. have) in order to develop normally. empty nest A time in the lives of parents when experiment A research method in which the their grown children leave the family home to researcher tries to determine the cause-and-effect pursue their own lives. relationship between two variables by manipu- lating one variable (called the independent English-language learner (ELL) A child who variable) and then observing and recording the is learning English as a second language. resulting changes in the other variable (called the dependent variable). epigenetic theory (ep-ih-jen-ET-ick) An emergent theory of development that considers experimental group A group of participants in both the genetic origins of behavior (within each a research study who experience some special person and within each species) and the direct, treatment or condition (the independent variable). systematic influence that environmental forces have, over time, on genes. explicit memory Memory that is easy to retrieve on demand (as in a specific test), ESL (English as a second language) An usually with words. Most explicit memory approach to teaching English in which all children involves consciously learned words, data, and who do not speak English are placed together concepts. and given an intensive course in basic English so that they can be educated in the same classroom extended family A family of three or more as native English speakers. generations living in one household. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 11 externalizing problems Difficulty with by mentally charting them into categories emotional regulation that involves outwardly according to their meaning. expressing emotions in uncontrolled ways, such as by lashing out in impulsive anger or attacking fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (FEE-tull) A other people or things. cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and extreme sports Forms of recreation that retarded mental development, caused by the include apparent risk of injury or death and that mother’s drinking alcohol while pregnant. are attractive and thrilling as a result. Motocross is one example. fetal period (FEE-tull) The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after after extremely low birthweight (ELBW) A body conception until birth, during which the organs weight at birth of less than 3 pounds (1,360 grow in size and mature in functioning. grams). fetus (FEE-tuss) The name for a developing extrinsic motivation The need for rewards organism from the ninth week after conception from outside, such as material possessions or until birth. someone else’s esteem. fictive kin (FICK-tiv) A term used to describe extrinsic rewards of work The tangible someone who becomes accepted as part of a rewards, usually in the form of compensation, that family to whom he or she has no blood relation. one receives for a job (e.g., salary, benefits, pension). filial responsibility (FILL-ee-ull) The idea that F adult children are obligated to care for their aging parents. familism (FAMM-ill-iz-um) The idea that family fine motor skills Physical abilities involving members should support one another because small body movements, especially of the hands family unity is more important than individual and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a freedom and success or failure. coin. (The word fine here means “small.”) family day care Child care that occurs in fluid intelligence Those types of basic another caregiver’s home. Usually the caregiver is intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick paid at a lower rate than in center care, and and thorough. Abilities such as short-term usually one person cares for several children of memory, abstract thought, and speed of thinking various ages. are all usually considered part of fluid intelligence. family function The way a family works to Flynn Effect The rise in average IQ scores that meet the needs of its members. Children need has occurred over the decades in developed families to provide basic material necessities, nations. encourage learning, develop self-respect, nurture friendships, and foster harmony and fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imaging, a stability. measuring technique in which the brain’s electrical excitement indicates activation family structure The legal and genetic anywhere in the brain; fMRI helps researchers relationships (e.g., nuclear, extended, step) locate neurological responses to stimuli. among relatives in the same home. focus on appearance A characteristic of fast-mapping The speedy and sometimes preoperational thought in which a young child imprecise way in which children learn new words ignores all attributes that are not apparent. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 12 Glossary Pronunciation Guide foreclosure Erikson’s term for premature general intelligence (g) The idea that identity formation, which occurs when an adoles- intelligence is one basic trait, underlying all cent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values cognitive abilities. According to this concept, wholesale, without questioning and analysis. people have varying levels of this general ability. formal operational thought In Piaget’s generational forgetting The idea that each theory, the fourth and final stage of cognitive new generation forgets what the previous development, characterized by more systematic generation learned about harmful drugs. logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas. foster care A legal, publicly supported plan in genetic clock A purported mechanism in the which a maltreated child is removed from the DNA of cells that regulates the aging process by parents’ custody and entrusted to another adult, triggering hormonal changes and controlling who is paid to be the child’s caregiver. cellular reproduction and repair. fragile X syndrome A genetic disorder in genetic counseling Consultation and testing which part of the X chromosome seems to be by trained experts that enable individuals to learn attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of about their genetic heritage, including harmful molecules. The actual cause is too many conditions that they might pass along to any repetitions of a particular part of a gene’s code. children they may conceive. frail elderly People over age 65 who are genome (JEE-nome) The full set of genes that physically infirm, very ill, or cognitively impaired. are the instructions to make an individual member G of a certain species. genotype (JEE-no-type) An organism’s entire gamete (GAMM-eet) A reproductive cell; that is, genetic inheritance, or genetic potential. a sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the geriatrics (jair-ee-AT-ricks) The medical other sex to make a zygote. specialty devoted to aging. gateways to attraction The various qualities, germinal period (JER-minn-ull) The first two such as appearance and proximity, that are weeks of prenatal development after conception, prerequisites for the formation of close characterized by rapid cell division and the friendships and intimate relationships. beginning of cell differentiation. gender convergence A tendency for men and gerontology (jair-on-TAHL-uh-jee) The women to become more similar as they move multidisciplinary study of old age. through middle age. gonads The paired sex glands (ovaries in gender differences Differences in the roles females, testicles in males). The gonads produce and behavior of males and females that originate hormones and gametes. in the culture. good death A death that is peaceful, quick, and gender identity A person’s acceptance of the painless and that occurs at the end of a long life, roles and behaviors that society associates with in the company of family and friends, and in the biological categories of male and female. familiar surroundings. gene A section of a chromosome and the basic goodness of fit A similarity of temperament unit for the transmission of heredity, consisting of and values that produces a smooth interaction a string of chemicals that code for the manu- between an individual and his or her social facture of certain proteins. context, including family, school, and community. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 13 grammar All the methods—word order, verb individuals who tend to be dissimilar with repect to forms, and so on—that languages use to such variables as attitudes, interests, goals, communicate meaning, apart from the words socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic themselves. background, and local origin. grand theories Comprehensive theories of hidden curriculum The unofficial, unstated, or psychology, which have traditionally inspired and implicit rules and priorities that influence the directed psychologists’ thinking about child academic curriculum and every other aspect of development. Psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism, learning in school. and cognitive theory are all grand theories. high-stakes test An evaluation that is critical grief An individual’s emotional response to the in determining success or failure. If a single test death of another. determines whether a student will graduate or be gross motor skills Physical abilities involving promoted, that is a high-stakes test. large body movements, such as walking and hikikomori A Japanese word meaning “pull jumping. (The word gross here means “big.”) away,” a common anxiety disorder in Japan in growth spurt The relatively sudden and rapid which emerging adults refuse to leave their rooms. physical growth that occurs during puberty. Each body part increases in size on a schedule. Weight hippocampus A brain structure that is a central usually precedes height, and the limbs precede processor of memory, especially the memory of the torso. locations. guided participation In sociocultural theory, a holophrase (HOLL-oh-fraze) A single word that technique in which skilled mentors help novices is used to express a complete, meaningful learn not only by providing instruction but also by thought. allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity. homeostasis (home-ee-oh-STASS-iss) The Also called apprenticeship in thinking. H adjustment of the body’s systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium. habituation The process of getting used to an As the body ages, it takes longer for these object or event through repeated exposure to it. homeostatic adjustments to occur, so it becomes harder for older bodies to adapt to stress. Hayflick limit The number of times a human cell is capable of dividing into two new cells. The homogamy (hoe-MOG-uh-mee) Defined by limit for most human cells is approximately 50 developmentalists as marriage between divisions, an indication that the life span is limited individuals who tend to be similar with respect to by our genetic program. such variables as attitudes, interests, goals, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic head-sparing The biological protection of the background, and local origin. hormone An organic chemical substance that is brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition. produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some health care proxy A person chosen by physiological function. Various hormones another person to make medical decisions if the influence thoughts, urges, emotions, and behavior. second person becomes unable to do so. hormone replacement therapy (HRT) heterogamy (hett-er-OG-uh-mee) Defined by Treatment to compensate for hormone reduction developmentalists as marriage between at menopause or following surgical removal of the Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 14 Glossary Pronunciation Guide ovaries. Such treatment, which usually involves individual, in accord with past experiences and estrogen and progesterone, minimizes meno- future plans. pausal symptoms and diminishes the risk of osteoporosis in later adulthood. identity diffusion A situation in which an hospice (HAH-spiss) An institution in which adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is. terminally ill patients receive palliative care. household A group of people who live together identity versus diffusion Erikson’s term for in one dwelling and share its common spaces, the fifth stage of development, in which the such as kitchen and living room. person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is HPA axis The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt. axis, a route followed by many kinds of hormones to trigger the changes of puberty and to regulate imaginary audience The other people who, in stress, growth, sleep, appetite, sexual excitement, an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching, and various other bodily changes. and taking note of, his or her appearance, ideas, Human Genome Project An international and behavior. This belief makes many teenagers very self-conscious. effort to map the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, immunization (im-you-nye-ZAY-shun) A though analysis is ongoing. process that stimulates the body’s immune hypothalamus (high-poe-THAL-uh-muss) A system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease. A person may acquire brain area that responds to the amygdala and the immunization either naturally (by having the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate disease) or through vaccination (by having an other parts of the brain and body. injection, wearing a patch, swallowing, or hypothesis (high-POTH-uh-sis) A specific inhaling). prediction that is stated in such a way that it can implantation The process, beginning about 10 be tested and either confirmed or refuted. days after conception, in which the developing hypothetical thought (high-poe-THET-ick-ull) organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected Reasoning that includes propositions and as it continues to develop. possibilities that may not reflect reality. implicit memory Unconscious or automatic I memory that is usually stored via habits, emotional responses, routine procedures, and identification An attempt to defend one’s self- various sensations. concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else. in vitro fertilization (IVF) (in VEE-troe fer-till- ih-ZAY-shun) Fertilization that takes place outside identity The logical principle that certain a woman’s body (as in a glass laboratory dish). characteristics of an object remain the same even Sperm are mixed with ova that have been if other characteristics change. Also, a consistent surgically removed from the woman’s ovary. If the definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in combination produces a zygote, it is inserted into terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations. the woman’s uterus, where it may implant and develop into a baby. identity achievement Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a incidence How often a particular behavior or person understands who he or she is as a unique circumstance occurs. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 15 inclusion An approach to educating children and that injuries can be made less harmful if with special needs in which they are included in proper controls are in place. regular classrooms, with “appropriate aids and services,” as required by law. insecure-avoidant attachment A pattern of incomplete grief A situation in which attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not circumstances, such as a police investigation to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or an autopsy, interfere with the process of or return. grieving. insecure-resistant/ambivalent attach- independent variable In an experiment, the ment A pattern of attachment in which anxiety variable that is introduced to see what effect it and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant is has on the dependent variable. (Also called very upset at separation from the caregiver and experimental variable.) both resists and seeks contact on reunion. individual education plan (IEP) A instrumental activities of daily life document that specifies educational goals and (IADLs) Actions that are important to plans for a child with special needs. independent living and that require some induced abortion The intentional termination intellectual competence and forethought. The ability to perform these tasks may be even more of a pregnancy. critical to self-sufficiency than ADL ability. inductive reasoning Reasoning from one or instrumental aggression Hurtful behavior more specific experiences or facts to a general that is intended to get or keep something that conclusion; may be less cognitively advanced another person has. than deduction. (Sometimes called bottom-up reasoning.) integrity versus despair The final stage industry versus inferiority The fourth of of Erik Erikson’s developmental sequence, in which older adults seek to integrate their unique Erikson’s eight psychosexual development crises, experiences with their vision of community. during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either interaction effect The result of a combination industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent. of teratogens. Sometimes risk is greatly magni- fied when an embryo or fetus is exposed to more infertility The inability to produce a baby after than one teratogen at the same time. internalizing problems Difficulty with at least a year of trying to conceive via sexual intercourse. emotional regulation that involves turning one’s information-processing theory A emotional distress inward, as by feeling perspective that compares human thinking excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless. intimacy versus isolation The sixth of processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output. Erikson’s eight stages of development. Adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in initiative versus guilt (ih-NISH-uh-tiv) an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment. Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis. Children begin Without such commitment, they risk profound new activities and feel guilty when they fail. aloneness and isolation. injury control/harm reduction Practices intimate terrorism Spouse abuse in which, that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and most often, the husband uses violent methods of preventing dangerous activities; these practices accelerating intensity to isolate, degrade, and reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random punish the wife. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 16 Glossary Pronunciation Guide intrinsic motivation Goals or drives that kinship care A form of foster care in which a come from inside a person, such as the need to relative of a maltreated child becomes the feel smart or competent. This contrasts with approved caregiver. external motivation, the need for rewards from outside, such as material possessions or knowledge base A body of knowledge in a someone else’s esteem. particular area that makes it easier to master new intrinsic rewards of work The intangible information in that area. benefits one receives from a job (e.g., job kwashiorkor (kwah-shee-ORE-core) A disease satisfaction, self-esteem, pride) that come from of chronic malnutrition during childhood, in which within oneself. a protein deficiency makes the child more intuitive thought (in-TOO-ih-tiv) Thought that vulnerable to other diseases, such as measles, diarrhea, and influenza. arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation. Past experiences, cultural L assumptions, and sudden impulses are the precursors of intuitive thought. (Also called language acquisition device (LAD) contextualized or experiential thought.) Chomsky’s term for a hypothesized mental invincibility fable (in-vince-uh-BILL-ih-tee) An structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she vocabulary, and intonation. cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as latency (LAY-ten-see) Freud’s term for middle unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high-speed childhood, during which children’s emotional driving. drives and psychosocial needs are quiet (latent). IQ tests Tests designed to measure intellectual Freud thought that sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, to burst aptitude, or ability to learn in school. Originally, forth again at puberty. intelligence was defined as mental age divided by chronological age, times 100—hence the term lateralization (latt-er-ull-ih-ZAY-shun) Literally, intelligence quotient, or IQ. sidedness. The specialization in certain functions irreversibility (ear-ee-verse-uh-BILL-ih-tee) by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls The idea that nothing can be undone; the inability the right side of the body, and vice versa. to recognize that something can sometimes be restored to the way it was before a change learning disability A marked delay in a occurred. particular area of learning that is not caused by K an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home kangaroo care A form of child care in which environment. least restrictive environment (LRE) A the mother of a low-birthweight infant spends at least an hour a day holding the baby between her legal requirement that children with special needs breasts, like a kangaroo that carries her immature be assigned to the most general educational newborn in a pouch on her abdomen. If the infant context in which they can be expected to learn. life review An examination of one’s own part in is capable, he or she can easily breast-feed in this position. life, engaged in by many elderly people. kinkeeper The person who takes primary responsibility for celebrating family achievements, life-course-persistent offender A person gathering the family together, and keeping in whose criminal activity typically begins in early touch with family members who do not live adolescence and continues throughout life; a nearby. career criminal. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 17 linked lives The notion that family members mental retardation Literally, slow, or late, tend to share all aspects of each other’s lives, thinking. In practice, people are considered from triumph to tragedy. mentally retarded if they score below 70 on an IQ test and if they are markedly behind their peers in “little scientist” Piaget’s term for the stage- adaptation to daily life. five toddler (age 12 to 18 months) who experiments without anticipating the results. metacognition (MET-uh-cog-NISH-un) “Thinking about thinking,” or the ability to evaluate living will A document that indicates what a cognitive task to determine how best to medical intervention an individual wants if he or accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust she becomes incapable of expressing those one’s performance on that task. wishes. middle childhood The period between early long-term memory The component of the childhood and early adolescence, approximately information-processing system in which virtually from age 7 to 11. limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely. middle school A school for the grades longitudinal research (lon-jih-TOO-din-ull) A between elementary and high school. Middle school can begin with grade 5 or 6 and usually research design in which the same individuals are ends with grade 8. followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed. midlife crisis A period of unusual anxiety, low birthweight (LBW) A body weight at birth radical reexamination, and sudden transformation that is widely associated with middle age but of less than 51?2 pounds (2,500 grams). which actually has more to do with developmental M history than with chronological age. mirror neurons Brain cells that respond to marasmus (muh-RAZZ-muss) A disease of actions performed by someone else, as if the severe protein-calorie malnutrition during early observer had done that action. For example, the infancy, in which growth stops, body tissues waste brains of dancers who witness another dancer away, and the infant eventually dies. moving onstage are activated in the same maximum life span The oldest possible age movement areas as would be activated if they that members of a species can live, under ideal themselves did that dance step, because their circumstances. For humans, that age is mirror neurons reflect the activity. modeling The central process of social approximately 122 years. menarche (MEN-ar-kee) A girl’s first menstrual learning, by which a person observes the actions period, signaling that she has begun ovulation. of others and then copies them. monozygotic (MZ) twins (mon-oh-zye-GOT- Pregnancy is biologically possible, but ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche. ick) Twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development. (Also menopause (MEN-oh-pozz) The time in middle called identical twins.) Other monozygotic multiple age, usually around age 50, when a woman’s births (for example, quadruplets) can occur as menstrual periods cease completely and the pro- well. duction of estrogen, progesterone, and testos- terone drops considerably. Strictly speaking, morality of care In Gilligan’s view, the menopause is dated one year after a woman’s tendency of females to be reluctant to judge right last menstrual period. and wrong in absolute terms because they are Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 18 Glossary Pronunciation Guide socialized to be more nurturant, compassionate, National Assessment of Educational and nonjudgmental. Progress (NAEP) An ongoing and nationally morality of justice In Gilligan’s view, the representative measure of children’s achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects over tendency of males to emphasize justice over time; nicknamed “the Nation’s Report Card.” compassion, judging right and wrong in absolute terms. nature A general term for the traits, capacities, moratorium (more-uh-TORE-ee-um) A way for and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment adolescents to postpone making identity of conception. achievement choices by finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement. Going to college is near-death experience An episode in which the most common example. a person comes close to dying but survives and morbidity Disease. As a measure of health, reports having left his or her body and having moved toward a bright, white light while feeling morbidity refers to the rate of diseases of all peacefulness and joy. kinds in a given population—physical and emotional, acute (sudden) and chronic (ongoing). neuron One of the billions of nerve cells in the mortality Death. As a measure of health, central nervous system, especially the brain. mortality usually refers to the number of deaths No Child Left Behind Act A U.S. law passed each year per 1,000 members of a given by Congress in 2001 that was intended to in- population. crease accountability in education by requiring mosaic (moe-ZAY-ick) Having a condition standardized tests to measure school achieve- ment. Many critics, especially teachers, say the (mosaicism) that involves having a mixture of law undercuts learning and fails to take local cells, some normal and some with an odd number needs into consideration. of chromosomes or a series of missing genes. norm An average, or standard, measurement, motor skill The learned ability to move some calculated from the measurements of many part of the body, from a large leap to a flicker of individuals within a specific group or population. the eyelid. (The word motor here refers to movement of muscles.) nuclear family (NOO-klee-er) A family that mourning The ceremonies and behaviors that a consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18. religion or culture prescribes for bereaved people. nurture (NER-cher) A general term for all the multifactorial Referring to a trait that is environmental influences that affect development affected by many factors, both genetic and after an individual is conceived. environmental. myelination (my-ell-ih-NAY-shun) The process O obesity (oh-BEE-sit-ee) In an adult, having a by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron. BMI (body mass index) of 30 or more. In a child, N being above the 95th percentile, based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s 1980 standards for his or her age and sex. naming explosion A sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number object permanence The realization that of nouns, that begins at about 18 months of objects (including people) still exist when they age. cannot be seen, touched, or heard. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 19 objective thought Thinking that is not the pain and suffering of the patient and his or influenced by personal qualities, such as facts her family. and numbers that are considered true and valid by every observer. parasuicide Any potentially lethal action against the self that does not result in death. Oedipus complex (ED-ih-pus) The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their parental alliance Cooperation between a father and win their mother’s exclusive love. mother and a father based on their mutual commitment to their children. In a parental old-old Older adults (generally, those over age alliance, the parents agree to support each other 75) who suffer from physical, mental, or social in their shared parental roles. deficits. parental monitoring Parents’ ongoing oldest-old Elderly adults (generally, those over awareness of what their children are doing, age 85) who are dependent on others for almost where, and with whom. everything, requiring supportive services such as nursing homes and hospital stays. parent–infant bond The strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold their operant conditioning The learning process newborn. by which a particular action is followed by something desired (which makes the person or Parkinson’s disease A chronic, progressive animal more likely to repeat the action) or by disease that is characterized by muscle tremor something unwanted (which makes the action and rigidity, and sometimes dementia, caused less likely to be repeated). Also called by a reduction of dopamine production in the instrumental conditioning. brain. organ reserve The capacity of young adults’ passive euthanasia (you-thenn-AY-zha) A organs to allow the body to cope with stress. situation in which a seriously ill person is allowed to die naturally, through the cessation of medical overregularization The application of rules of interventions. grammar even when exceptions occur, so that the language is made to seem more “regular” than it peer facilitation (fuh-sill-ih-TAY-shun) The actually is. encouragement adolescent peers give one another to partake in activities or behaviors they overweight In an adult, having a BMI (body would not otherwise do alone, whether mass index) of 25 to 29. In a child, being above constructive or destructive. the 85th percentile, based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s 1980 standards for his or her peer pressure Encouragement to conform with age and sex. one’s friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude; usually considered a negative oxygen free radicals Atoms of oxygen that, force, as when adolescent peers encourage one as a result of metabolic processes, have an another to defy adult authority. unpaired electron. These atoms scramble DNA molecules or mitochondria, producing errors in peer selection An ongoing, active process cell maintenance and repair that, over time, may whereby adolescents select friends based on cause cancer, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis. shared interests and values. P people preference A universal principle of infant perception, consisting of an innate palliative care (pal-ee-AY- tiv or PAL-ee-uh-tiv) attraction to other humans, which is evident in Care designed not to treat an illness but to relieve visual, auditory, tactile, and other preferences. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 20 Glossary Pronunciation Guide percentile A point on a ranking scale of 1 to those that regulate growth and control other 99. The 50th percentile is the midpoint; half the glands, among them the adrenal and sex people in the population rank higher and half rank glands. lower. placenta (plah-SEN-tah) The organ that sur- perception The mental processing of sensory rounds the developing embryo and fetus, sustain- information, when the brain interprets a ing life via the umbilical cord. The placenta is sensation. attached to the wall of the uterus. permanency planning An effort by authorities polygenic (pol-ee-JEN-ick) Referring to a trait to find a long-term living situation that will provide that is influenced by many genes. stability and support for a maltreated child. A goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or positivity effect The tendency for elderly school, which can be particularly harmful for the people to perceive, prefer, and remember positive child. images and experiences more than negative permissive parenting Child rearing with high ones. nurturance and communication but rare punish- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ment, guidance, or control. (post-traw-MAT-ick) A delayed reaction to a perseveration The tendency to persevere in, or trauma or shock, which may include hyperactivity and hypervigilance, displaced anger, sleepless- stick to, one thought or action for a long time. ness, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion phallic stage Freud’s third stage of between fantasy and reality. postconventional moral reasoning development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure. Kohlberg’s third level of moral reasoning, phenotype (FEEN-oh-type) The observable emphasizing moral principles. postformal thought A proposed adult stage of characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits. cognitive development, following Piaget’s four phenylketonuria (PKU) (FEEN-ull-kee-tun- stages, that goes beyond adolescent thinking by YER-ee-ah) A genetic disorder in which a child’s being more practical, more flexible, and more body is unable to metabolize an amino acid called dialectical (that is, more capable of combining phenylalanine. Unless phenylalanine is eliminated contradictory elements into a comprehensive from the child’s diet, the resulting buildup of that whole). postpartum depression A new mother’s substance in body fluids causes brain damage, progressive mental retardation, and other symptoms. feelings of inadequacy and sadness in the days and weeks after giving birth. phonics approach Teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various practical intelligence The intellectual skills letter combinations. used in everyday problem solving. physician-assisted suicide A form of active preconventional moral reasoning euthanasia in which a doctor provides the means Kohlberg’s first level of moral reasoning, for someone to end his or her own life. emphasizing rewards and punishments. pituitary gland (pih-TOO-ih-tair-ee) A gland prefrontal cortex The area of cortex at the that, in response to a signal from the hypo- front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, thalamus, produces many hormones, including planning, and impulse control. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 21 preoperational intelligence Piaget’s term Progress in International Reading for cognitive development between the ages of Literacy Study (PIRLS) Inaugurated in 2001, about 2 and 6; it includes language and imagina- a planned five-year cycle of international trend tion (in addition to the senses and motor skills of studies in the reading ability of fourth-graders. infancy), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible. prosocial behavior Feeling and acting in ways that are helpful and kind, without obvious benefit presbycusis (prez-bih-KYOO-sis) The loss of to oneself. hearing associated with senescence. Presbycusis often does not become apparent until after age protein-calorie malnutrition A condition in 60. which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind. This deprivation can result in several preterm birth A birth that occurs three or more illnesses, severe weight loss, and sometimes weeks before the full 38 weeks of the typical death. pregnancy has elapsed—that is, at 35 or fewer weeks after conception. proximal parenting Parenting practices that involve close physical contact with the child’s prevalence (PREV-uh-lents) How widespread entire body, such as cradling and swinging. psychoanalytic theory (sy-ko-ann-uh-LIT-ick) within a population a particular behavior or circumstance is. A grand theory of human development that holds primary aging The universal and irreversible that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, physical changes that occur to all living creatures often originating in childhood, underlie human as they grow older. behavior. primary circular reactions The first of psychological control A disciplinary three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor technique that involves threatening to withdraw intelligence, this one involving the infant’s own love and support and that relies on a child’s body. The infant senses motion, sucking, noise, feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents. puberty (PYOO-ber-tee) The time between the and so on, and tries to understand them. primary prevention Actions that change first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. Puberty usually lasts three to five overall background conditions to prevent some years. Many more years are required to achieve unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, psychosocial maturity. disease, or abuse. Q primary sex characteristics The parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, QALYs (quality-adjusted life years) A way including the vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, of comparing mere survival without vitality to and penis. survival with good health. QALYs indicate how priming Preparation that makes it easier to many years of full vitality are lost to a particular physical disease or disability. They are expressed perform some action. For example, it is easier to in terms of life expectancy as adjusted for quality retrieve an item from memory if we are given a of life. clue about it beforehand. qualitative research Research that considers private speech The internal dialogue that qualities instead of quantities. Descriptions of occurs when people talk to themselves (either particular conditions and participants’ expressed silently or out loud). ideas are often part of qualitative studies. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 22 Glossary Pronunciation Guide quantitative research Research that or refine, or dispute the original study’s provides data that can be expressed with conclusions. numbers, such as ranks or scales. reported maltreatment Harm or endanger- R ment about which someone has notified the authorities. race A group of people who are regarded (by themselves or by others) as genetically distinct resilience (reh-ZILL-yense) The capacity to from other groups on the basis of physical develop optimally by adapting positively to appearance. significant adversity. reaction time The time it takes to respond to a resource room A room in which trained stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive teachers help children with special needs, using movement such as an eye blink) or cognitively specialized curricula and equipment. (with a thought). respite care (RESS-pit) An arrangement in reactive aggression An impulsive retaliation which a professional caregiver relieves a frail for another person’s intentional or accidental elderly person’s usual family caregiver for a few actions, verbal or physical. hours each day or for an occasional weekend. Reading First A federal program that was reversibility (ree-verse-uh-BILL-ih-tee) The established by the No Child Left Behind Act and logical principle that a thing that has been that provides states with funding for early reading changed can sometimes be returned to its original instruction in public schools, aimed at ensuring state by reversing the process by which it was that all children learn to read well by the end of changed. the third grade. risk analysis The science of weighing the reflex A responsive movement that seems potential effects of a particular event, substance, automatic because it almost always occurs in or experience to determine the likelihood of harm. reaction to a particular stimulus. Newborns have In teratology, risk analysis attempts to evaluate many reflexes, some of which disappear with everything that affects the chances that a maturation. particular agent or condition will cause damage to an embryo or fetus. reinforcement A technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by rumination (roo-mih-NAY-shun) Repeatedly something desired, such as food for a hungry thinking and talking about past experiences that animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person. can contribute to depression. REM sleep Rapid eye movement sleep, a stage S of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves. sandwich generation A term for the generation of middle-aged people who are reminder session A perceptual experience supposedly “squeezed” by the needs of the that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, younger and older generations. Some adults do a thing, or an experience, without testing whether feel pressured by these obligations, but most are the person remembers it at the moment. not burdened by them, either because they enjoy fulfilling them or because they choose to take on replication The repetition of a scientific study, only some of them, or none. using the same procedures on a similar (but not identical) group of participants, in order to verify, scaffolding Temporary support that is tailored Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 23 to a learner’s needs and abilities and aimed at secular trend A term that refers to the earlier helping the learner master the next task in a given and greater growth of children due to improved learning process. nutrition and medical care over the last two centuries. science of human development The science that seeks to understand how and why secure attachment A relationship in which an people change or remain the same over time. infant obtains both comfort and confidence from Developmentalists study people of all ages and the presence of his or her caregiver. circumstances. selective adaptation The process by which scientific method A way to answer questions humans and other organisms gradually adjust to that requires empirical research and data-based their environment. Specifically, the frequency of a conclusions. particular genetic trait in a population increases or decreases over generations, depending on scientific observation A method of testing whether or not the trait contributes to the survival hypotheses by unobtrusively watching and and reproductive ability of members of that recording participants’ behavior in a systematic population. and objective manner, either in a laboratory or in a natural setting. selective attention The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others. Seattle Longitudinal Study The first cross- sequential study of adult intelligence. This study selective expert Someone who is notably began in 1956; the most recent testing was more skilled and knowledgeable than the average conducted in 2005. person about whichever activities are personally meaningful. secondary aging The specific physical illnesses or conditions that become more selective optimization with compensa- common with aging but are caused by health tion The theory, developed by Paul and Margaret habits, genes, and other influences that vary from Baltes, that people try to maintain a balance in person to person. their lives by looking for the best way to compen- sate for physical and cognitive losses and to secondary circular reactions The second become more proficient in activities they can of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor already do well. intelligence, this one involving people and objects. The infant is responsive to other people and to self theories Theories of late adulthood that toys and other objects the infant can touch and emphasize the core self, or the search to maintain move. one’s integrity and identity. secondary education Literally the period after self-awareness A person’s realization that he primary education and before tertiary education. It or she is a distinct individual, with body, mind, and usually occurs from about age 12 to 18, although actions that are separate from those of other there is some variation by school and by nation. people. secondary prevention Actions that avert self-concept A person’s understanding of who harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a he or she is. Self-concept includes appearance, car before it hits a pedestrian. personality, and various traits. secondary sex characteristics Physical self-efficacy (self-EFF-ih-kuh-see) In social traits that are not directly involved in reproduction learning theory, the belief that some people have but that indicate sexual maturity, such as a man’s that they are able to change themselves and beard and a woman’s breasts. effectively alter the social context. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 24 Glossary Pronunciation Guide self-esteem How a person evaluates his or her sexually transmitted infection (STI) A own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, disease spread by sexual contact, including attractiveness) or overall. syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, chlamydia, and HIV. self-righting The inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit. shaken baby syndrome A life-threatening condition that occurs when an infant is forcefully senescence (sen-ESS-ense) The process of shaken back and forth, rupturing blood vessels in aging, whereby the body becomes less strong the brain and breaking neural connections. single-parent family A family that consists of and efficient. sensation The response of a sensory system only one parent and his or her biological children (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a under age 18. slippery slope The argument that a given stimulus. sensitive period A time when a certain type of action will start a chain of events that will development is most likely to happen and culminate in an undesirable outcome. small for gestational age (SGA) (jess-TAY- happens most easily. For example, early childhood is considered a sensitive period for language learning. shun-ull) A term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time sensorimotor intelligence Piaget’s term for since conception. For example, a 5-pound (2,200- gram) newborn is considered SGA if born on time the way infants think—by using their senses and but not SGA if born two months early. (Also called motor skills during the first period of cognitive small for dates.) development. social clock Refers to the idea that the stages sensory memory The component of the of life, and the behaviors “appropriate” to them, information-processing system in which incoming are set by social standards rather than by stimulus information is stored for a split second to biological maturation. For instance, “middle age” allow it to be processed. (Also called the sensory begins when the culture believes it does, rather register.) than at a particular age in all cultures. separation anxiety An infant’s distress when social cognition The ability to understand a familiar caregiver leaves; most obvious between social interactions, including the causes and 9 and 14 months. consequences of human behavior. set point A particular body weight that an social comparison The tendency to assess individual’s homeostatic processes strive to one’s abilities, achievements, social status, and maintain. other attributes by measuring them against those sex differences Biological differences between of other people, especially one’s peers. males and females, in organs, hormones, and social construction An idea that is built more body type. on shared perceptions than on objective reality. sexual orientation A person’s impulses and Many age-related terms, such as childhood, adolescents, yuppies, and senior citizens are internal direction regarding sexual interest. A social constructions. person may be oriented to people of the same sex, of the other sex, or of both sexes. Sexual social convoy Collectively, the family members, orientation may differ from sexual expression, friends, acquaintances, and even strangers who appearance, identity, or lifestyle. move through life with an individual. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 25 social exchange theory The view that social wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, behavior is a process of exchange aimed at and other factors. maximizing the benefits one receives and minimizing the costs one pays. spermarche (SPERM-ar-kee) A boy’s first social homogamy (hoe-MOG-uh-mee) The ejaculation of sperm. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm similarity of a couple’s leisure interests and role production. Spermarche occurs during sleep (in a preferences. “wet dream”) or via direct stimulation. social learning Learning by observing others. spontaneous abortion The naturally social learning theory An extension of occurring termination of a pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is fully developed. (Also called behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that miscarriage.) other people have over a person’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual static reasoning Thinking that nothing learns many things via observation and imitation changes: Whatever is now has always been and of other people. always will be. social mediation A function of speech by stereotype threat (STAIR-ee-oh-tipe) The which a person’s cognitive skills are refined and possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will extended through both formal instruction and be misread to confirm another person’s over- casual conversation. simplified, prejudiced attitudes. social norms The standards of behavior within still-face technique An experimental practice a given society or culture. in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving social norms approach A method of and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant. reducing risky behavior that uses emerging adults’ Strange Situation A laboratory procedure for desire to follow social norms by making them aware, measuring attachment by evoking infants’ through the use of surveys, of the prevalence of reactions to stress. various behaviors within their peer group. stranger wariness An infant’s expression of social referencing Seeking information about concern—a quiet stare, clinging to a familiar how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object person, or sadness—when a stranger appears. or event by observing someone else’s expres- stratification theories Theories that sions and reactions. That other person becomes a social reference. emphasize that social forces, particularly those social smile A smile evoked by a human face, related to a person’s social stratum or social normally evident in infants about 6 weeks after category, limit individual choices and affect the birth. ability to function in late adulthood as past stratification continues to limit life in various ways. sociocultural theory (so-see-oh-KUL-cher- ull) An emergent theory that holds that develop- subcortical dementias (sub-KOR-tick-ull ment results from the dynamic interaction dee-MEN-shahs) Forms of dementia that begin between each person and the surrounding social with impairments in motor ability (which is and cultural forces. governed by the subcortex) and produce cognitive impairment in later stages. Parkinson’s disease, socioeconomic status (SES) A person’s Huntington’s disease, and multiple sclerosis are position in society as determined by income, subcortical dementias. Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 26 Glossary Pronunciation Guide subjective thought Thinking that is strongly T influenced by personal qualities of the individual thinker, such as past experiences, cultural T cells Immune cells manufactured in the assumptions, and goals for the future. thymus gland that produce substances that attack substantiated maltreatment (sub-STAN- infected cells in the body. chee-ate-ed) Harm or endangerment that has telomeres (TELL-oh-meers) The ends of been reported, investigated, and verified. chromosomes in the cells, whose length sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) A decreases with each cell duplication and seems to correlate with longevity. situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months of age, suddenly stops breathing temperament Inborn differences between one and dies unexpectedly while asleep. The cause is person and another in emotions, activity, and self- unknown, but it is correlated with sleeping on the control. Temperament is epigenetic, originating in stomach and having parents who smoke. genes but affected by child-rearing practices. suicidal ideation (soo-ih-SIDE-ull eye-dee-AY- teratogens (tuh-RAT-oh-jens) Agents and shun) Thinking about suicide, usually with some conditions, including viruses, drugs, and serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive chemicals, that can impair prenatal development overtones. and result in birth defects or even death. sunk cost fallacy The belief that if time or terminal decline An overall slowdown of money has already been invested in something, cognitive abilities in the weeks and months before then more time or money should be invested. death. (Also called terminal drop.) Because of this fallacy, people spend money trying to fix a “lemon” of a car or sending more tertiary circular reactions (TER-shee-air-ee troops to win a losing war. Ample amounts of SERK-yoo-ler) The third of three types of these expenditure have already been made. It is feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this an error made by people of all ages. one involving active exploration and superego In psychoanalytic theory, the experimentation. The infant explores a range of new activities, varying his or her responses as a judgmental part of the personality that way of learning about the world. internalizes moral standards of the parents. tertiary prevention (TER-shee-air-ee) survey A research method in which information Actions, such as immediate and effective medical is collected from a large number of people by treatment, that are taken after an adverse event interviews, written questionnaires, or some other such as illness or injury occurs, and are aimed at means. reducing the harm or preventing disability. synapse (SIN-apps) The intersection between testosterone (tess-TOSS-ter-own) A sex the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of hormone, the best known of the androgens (male other neurons. hormones); secreted in far greater amounts by synchrony (SINK-run-ee) A coordinated, rapid, males than by females. and smooth exchange of responses between a thanatology (thann-uh-TOL-uh-jee) The study caregiver and an infant. synthesis (SIN-thuh-sis) A new idea that of death and dying, especially in their social and emotional aspects. integrates the thesis and its antithesis, thus representing a new and more comprehensive theory of mind A person’s theory of what level of truth; the third stage of the process of other people might be thinking. In order to have a dialectical thinking. theory of mind, children must realize that other Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • Glossary Pronunciation Guide 27 people are not necessarily thinking the same carbohydrates (glucose). It was once called adult- thoughts that they themselves are. That onset diabetes because it typically developed in realization is seldom possible before age 4. people aged 50 to 60; today, however, it often appears in younger people. theory-theory The idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by V constructing theories. vascular dementia (VaD)/multi-infarct thesis A proposition or statement of belief; the dementia (MID) (VASK-yoo-ler dee-MEN-shah) first stage of the process of dialectical thinking. A form of dementia characterized by sporadic, and progressive, loss of intellectual functioning threshold effect A situation in which a certain caused by repeated infarcts, or temporary teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but obstructions of blood vessels, which prevent becomes harmful once exposure reaches a sufficient blood from reaching the brain. certain level (the threshold). very low birthweight (VLBW) A body weight time-out A disciplinary technique in which a at birth of less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces (1,500 child is separated from other people for a grams). specified time. visual cliff (VIZH-yoo-ull) An experimental TIMSS (Trends in Math and Science apparatus that gives an illusion of a sudden drop Study) An international assessment of the math between one horizontal surface and another. and science skills of fourth- and eighth-graders. Although the TIMSS is very useful, scores are not vitality A measure of health that refers to how always comparable, because sample selection, healthy and energetic—physically, intellectually, test administration, and content validity are hard and socially—an individual actually feels. W to keep uniform. total immersion A strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second wear-and-tear theory A view of aging as a (majority) language that a child is learning. process by which the human body wears out because of the passage of time and exposure to transient exuberance (TRAN-zhent ex-OO- environmental stressors. ber-ents) The great increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infant’s brain during Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children the first two years of life. (WISC) An IQ test designed for school-age children. The test assesses potential in many trust versus mistrust Erikson’s first areas, including vocabulary, general knowledge, psychosocial crisis. Infants learn basic trust if the memory, and spatial comprehension. world is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, etc.) are met. whole-language approach Teaching reading by encouraging early use of all language skills— 23rd pair The chromosome pair that, in talking and listening, reading and writing. humans, determines the zygote’s (and hence the person’s) sex. The other 22 pairs are autosomes, wisdom A cognitive perspective characterized the same whether the 23rd pair is for a male or a by a broad, practical, comprehensive approach to female. life’s problems, reflecting timeless truths rather than immediate expediency; said to be more type 2 diabetes (dye-uh-BEE-tez) A chronic common in the elderly than in the young. disease in which the body does not produce enough insulin to adequately metabolize withdrawn-rejected Rejected by peers Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers
    • 28 Glossary Pronunciation Guide because of timid, withdrawn, and anxious and the father. XX zygotes become female behavior. embryos, female fetuses, and girls. working memory The component of the XY A 23rd chromosome pair consisting of an X- information-processing system in which current shaped chromosome from the mother and a Y- conscious mental activity occurs. (Also called shaped chromosome from the father. XY zygotes short-term memory.) become male embryos, male fetuses, and boys. working model In cognitive theory, a set of Y assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. For example, a young-old Healthy, vigorous, financially secure person might assume that other people are older adults (generally, those aged 60 to 75) who trustworthy, and be surprised when this model of are well integrated into the lives of their families human behavior seems in error. and communities. X Z X-linked Referring to a gene carried on the X zone of proximal development (ZPD) In chromosome. If a boy inherits an X-linked sociocultural theory, a metaphorical area, or recessive trait from his mother, he expresses that “zone,” surrounding a learner that includes all the trait, since the Y from his father has no skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is counteracting gene. Girls are more likely to be close (“proximal”) to acquiring but cannot yet carriers of X-linked traits but are less likely to master without help. express them. zygote (ZYE-goat) The single cell formed from XX A 23rd chromosome pair consisting of two X- the fusing of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum. shaped chromosomes, one each from the mother Copyright © 2008 Worth Publishers