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Chapter 8 (Psych 41)Pdf


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  • 1. Kathleen Stassen Berger Part III Chapter Eight The Play Years: Biosocial Development Body Changes Brain Development Injuries and Abuse Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield 1 Tattoon, M.A.
  • 2. The Play Years: Biosocial Development Children grow bigger and stronger… become more skilled at tasks… by age 6, they can skip, write, and much more, as long as they have had enough practice. 2
  • 3. Body Changes – 1-year-olds are cute and chubby, while 6 year olds are “grown up” – …the body and brain develop according to powerful epigenetic forces, biologically driven as well as socially guided, experience-expectant and experience-dependent… 3
  • 4. Body Changes • Growth Patterns – during the play years: • children become slimmer • the lower body lengthens • baby fat turns to muscle – at age 5 the body mass index is lower than at any other age in the entire life span 4
  • 5. Body Changes • Growth Patterns – during the play years: • gone is the protruding belly • round face • short limbs • large head (that characterize the toddler) 5
  • 6. Body Changes • Growth Patterns – children increase in height and weight • Each year from age 2–6, well-nourished children add almost 3 inches and gain about 4 ½ pounds • 6-year-olds weigh about 46 pounds 6
  • 7. Body Changes • Growth Patterns – A typical 6-year-old: • is at least 3 ½ feet tall • weighs between 40 and 50 pounds • looks lean, not chubby • has adult-like body proportions 7
  • 8. Body Changes • Growth Patterns – ethnic groups living together in the same developed nation, children of: • African descent tend to be the tallest, then • European descent • Asian descent • Latino descent 8
  • 9. Body Changes • Growth Patterns – “Over the centuries, low-income families encourage their children to eat, so that they would have a reserve of fat to protect themselves in times of famine.” – by 2020 it is predicted that more than 228 million adults worldwide will have diabetes as a result of unhealthy eating habits acquired in childhood 9
  • 10. Body Changes • Eating Habits – Infants and young children today play outside less than their parents or grandparents did 10
  • 11. Body Changes • Eating Habits – Nutritional deficiencies • children in developed nations consume enough calories but lack iron, zinc, and calcium • most cultures encourage their children to eat sweets 11
  • 12. Body Changes • Eating Habits – Just right • “just right” or “just so” phenomenon is normal and widespread among children • most young children’s food preferences and rituals are far from ideal 12
  • 13. Body Changes • Eating Habits – Just right • 75% of 1500 parents reported that their children’s just-right phase peaked at about age 3... – have things done in a particular order or in a certain way – strong preference to wear or not wear cerain clothes – prepare for bedtime by engaging in a special activity, routine, or ritual – strong preference for certain foods 13
  • 14. Body Changes • Eating Habits – Just right • by age 6 the “just right” fades • parents should be patient until the “just right” obsession fades 14
  • 15. Brain Development “Brains grow rapidly even before birth.” • by age 2 the brains increase in size – a great deal of pruning of dendrites has already occurred – brain growth after infancy is a crucial difference between humans and other animals 15
  • 16. Brain Development • Speed of Thought – after infancy, continued proliferation of the communication pathways (dendrites and axons) results in some brain growth – the effects of myelination are most noticeable in early childhood • Myelination is the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron – parent must be patient when listening to young children talk or when helping them get dressed 16
  • 17. Brain Development • Connecting the Brain’s Hemispheres – corpus callosum • a long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain – lateralization • literally, sidedness; the specialization of certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity – the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa 17
  • 18. Brain Development • The Left-Handed Child – infants and toddlers usually prefer one hand over the other – For centuries, parents who saw a preference for the left-hand forced their children to be right-handed • since most people are right-handed the assumption was that right-handedness was best 18
  • 19. Brain Development • The Left-Handed Child – developmentalist advise against trying to switch a child’s handedness… not only because of parent-child conflict but because it might interfere with the natural and necessary process of lateralization 19
  • 20. Brain Development • The Whole Brain – The left half controls the right side of the body and contains the areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language. – The right half controls the left side of the body and contains the area dedicated to generalized emotion and creative impules, including appreciation of most music, art, and poetry. 20
  • 21. Brain Development • The Whole Brain – The left side notices details and the right side grasps the big picture 21
  • 22. Brain Development • The Whole Brain – severely brain-damaged people are exclusively left-brained or right-brained – every cognitive skill requires both sides of the brain – Because older children have more myelinared fibers in the corpus callosum, they have better thinking and less clumsy actions are possible for them 22
  • 23. Brain Development • Planning and Analyzing – the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex is an area in the front part of the brain’s outer layer under the forehead. • this area underlies higher-order cognition – planning and complex forms of goal-directed behavior • the prefrontal cortex is the executive part of the brain… ruling all the other areas 23
  • 24. Brain Development • Planning and Analyzing 24
  • 25. Brain Development • Planning and Analyzing – Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex • Notable benefits of maturation of the prefrontal cortex occur from age 2 – 6 – sleep becomes more regular – emotions become more nuanced and responsive to specific stimuli – temper tantrums subside – uncontrollable laughter or tears become less common 25
  • 26. Brain Development • Planning and Analyzing – Attention • a major function of the prefrontal cortex is to focus attention and thus curb impulsiveness – perseveration is the tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time 26
  • 27. Brain Development • Emotions and the Brain – amygdala • a tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety – hippocampus • a brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially the memory of location – hypothalamus • a brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body 27
  • 28. Brain Development • Emotions and the Brain 28
  • 29. Brain Development • Emotions and the Brain – stressful experiences… can foster growth if the child has someone or something to moderate the stress – prolonged physiological responses to stress and challenge put children at risk for a variety of problems in childhood including: • physical and mental disorders • poor emotional regulation • cognitive impairments 29
  • 30. Brain Development • Motor Skills – maturation of the prefrontal cortex improves impulse control – myelinaton of the corpus callosum and lateralization of the brain permits better coordination 30
  • 31. Brain Development • Motor Skills – Gross Motor Skills • involves large body movement – Fine Motor Skills • involve small body movement (are harder to master) – hands and fingers • many fine motor skills involve two hands… both sides of the brain 31
  • 32. Brain Development • Artistic Expression – during the play years children are imaginative, creative, and not yet very self-critical – all forms of artistic expression blossom during early childhood – in every artistic domain, maturation of brain and body is gradual and comes with practice 32
  • 33. Brain Development 33
  • 34. Brain Development • Artistic Expression 34
  • 35. Injuries and Abuse • more children die of violence, either accidental or deliberate than from any other cause • in the U.S. out of every 100,000: – 1 to 4-year-olds, 10.9 died accidentally – 2.5 died of cancer (the leading fatal disease at this age) – 2.4 were murdered 35
  • 36. Injuries and Abuse • young children are more vulnerable to injuries and abuse than older children – they are impulsive, yet depend on others 36
  • 37. Injuries and Abuse • Avoidable injury – worldwide injuries cause millions of premature deaths among young adults as well as children 37
  • 38. Injuries and Abuse • Avoidable injury – injury control/harm reduction • practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities; – these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place 38
  • 39. Injuries and Abuse • Avoidable injury – three levels of prevention • primary prevention – actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstances, such as injury, disease, or abuse 39
  • 40. Injuries and Abuse • Avoidable injury – three levels of prevention • secondary prevention – actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian 40
  • 41. Injuries and Abuse • Avoidable injury – three levels of prevention • tertiary prevention – actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event such as illness or injury occurs, and are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability 41
  • 42. Injuries and Abuse • Avoidable injury 42
  • 43. Child Maltreatment • Maltreatment Noticed and Defined – child maltreatment • intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, anyone under 18 years of age – child abuse • deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well-being – child neglect • failure to meet a child’s basic physical, educational, or emotional needs 43
  • 44. Child Maltreatment • Maltreatment Noticed and Defined – reported maltreatment • harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities – substantiated maltreatment • harm or endangerment that been reported, investigated, and verified 44
  • 45. Child Maltreatment • Warning Signs of Maltreatment – The first signs of maltreatment are: – delayed development – slow grow – immature communication – lack of curiosity – unusual social interaction 45
  • 46. Child Maltreatment • Warning Signs of Maltreatment • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – is a delayed reaction to a trauma or shock, which may include hyperactivity and hyper- vigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality 46
  • 47. Child Maltreatment • Consequences of Maltreatment – is effected by cultural context • customs – maltreatment compromises basic health • abused and neglected children are often injured, sick, hospitalized – maltreated children and adolescents are often bullies or victims or both – these perspectives can last for a life span 47