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Chapter 6 (Psych 41)Pdf
 

Chapter 6 (Psych 41)Pdf

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    Chapter 6 (Psych 41)Pdf Chapter 6 (Psych 41)Pdf Presentation Transcript

    • Kathleen Stassen Berger Part II Chapter Six The First Two Years: Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Intelligence Information Processing Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield 1 Tattoon, M.A.
    • The First Two Years: Cognitive Development • Infant cognition – cognition = “thinking” • “thinking” in a very broad sense includes… – language – learning – memory – intelligence 2
    • The First Two Years: Cognitive Development • Infants organize by the end of the first year… – sensations and perceptions – sequence and direction – the familiar and the strange – objects and people – events and experiences – permanence and transiency – cause and effect 3
    • Sensorimotor Intelligence • Remember… – Piaget’s first stage (chapter 2) • infants learn through senses and motor actions 4
    • 5
    • Piaget and Research Methods • Piaget’s sensorimotor intelligence actually occurs earlier for most infants than Piaget predicted. – Habituation, the process of getting used to (i.e., bored with) a stimulus after repeated exposure. An infant can show this by looking away. – If a new object appears and the infant reacts (change in heart rate, sucking), it is assumed they recognize the object as something different. • Summing up… – In six stages of sensorimotor, Piaget discovered, described, and then celebrated active infant learning. 6
    • Information Processing Theory • “a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output” 7
    • Information Processing Theory • With the aid of technology this theory has found some impressive intellectual capacities in the infant • Intellectual capacities, concepts, and categories seem to develop in the infant brain by 6 months • Perspective helps tie together various aspects of infant cognition: affordance and memory. 8
    • Information Processing Theory • affordance – “…an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment” • afford = offer • perception is the mental processing of information that arrives at the brain from the sensory organs 9
    • Information Processing Theory • affordance – One puzzle of development is that two people can have discrepant perceptions of the same situation, not only interpreting it differently but actually observing it differently • depending on: – past experiences – current developmental level – sensory awareness of opportunities – immediate needs and motivation 10
    • Information Processing Theory • Research on Early Affordance – Information processing improves over the first year as infants become quicker to remember – Experiences affect which affordances are perceived… 11
    • Information Processing Theory • Sudden Drops – …the visual cliff, an apparatus to measure depth perception – infants become interested in “crossing” the cliff about 8 months (having had experience falling) – the cliff “affords” danger for older infants 12
    • Information Processing Theory • Movement and People – infants have: • dynamic perception – primed to focus on movement and change • a people preference – a universal principle of infant perception, consisting of an innate attraction to other humans, which is evident in visual, auditory, tactile, and other preferences 13
    • Information Processing Theory • Memory – Developmentalists now agree that even very young infants can remember under the following circumstances: • experimental conditions are similar to “real life” • motivation is high • special measures are taken to aid memory retrieval 14
    • Information Processing Theory • Reminders and Repetition – reminder sessions • a perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment 15
    • Information Processing Theory • A Little Older, a Little More Memory – after about 6 months infants can retain information for longer periods of time… with less training or reminding – by the middle of the 2nd year toddlers can remember and reenact more complex sequences 16
    • Information Processing Theory • Aspects of Memory – Memory is not one “thing” • brain-imaging techniques reveal many distinct brain regions devoted to particular aspects of memory – implicit memory is memory for routines and memories that remain hidden until particular stimulus bring them to mind – explicit memory is memory that can be recalled on demand 17
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • “The acquisition of language,… its idiomatic phases, grammar rules, and exceptions, is the most impressive intellectual achievement of the young child.” 18
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • The Universal Sequence – Around the world children follow the same sequence of early language development 19
    • 20
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Listening and Responding • infants begin learning language before birth… • infants prefer speech over other sounds – child-directed speech • the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants 21
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Babbling – repeating certain syllables (e.g., da-da- da). • all babies babble, even deaf babies (although later and less frequently). • babbling is a way to communicate. 22
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • First Words – usually around 1 year the average baby speaks, or signs a few words • they are often familiar nouns – by 13 months spoken language increases very gradually – 6 to 15 month-olds learn meaning rapidly and comprehend about 10 times as many words as they speak 23
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • The Naming Explosion – a sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns begins at about 18 months – vocabulary reaches about 50 expressed words at a rate of 50 to 100 per month, 21 month-olds saying twice as many as 18 month-olds 24
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Cultural Differences – the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives show cultural influences. – one explanation is the language itself (i.e. English, Chinese differ) – another explanation is social context (toys and objects) – every language has some concepts encoded in adult speech 25
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Sentences – “The first words soon take on nuances of tone, loudness, and cadence that are precursors of the first grammar, because a single word can convey many messages by the way it is spoken.” 26
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Sentences “Dada!” “Dada?” and “Dada.” – each is a holophrase, a single word that expresses a complete, meaningful thought. – intonations varying in tone and pitch is extensive in babbling and again in holophrases at about 18 months – grammar--all the methods that languages use to communicate meaning. Word order, prefixes, intonation, verb forms,… are all aspects of grammar. 27
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theories of Language Learning • 2 year olds worldwide use language well • bilingual children keep two languages separate and speak whatever language a listen understands – each theory of language acquisition has implications for parents and educators…all want children to speak fluently…without instruction 28
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theories of Language Learning – There are 3 theories of how infants learn language: • they are taught (view of B. F. Skinner) • they teach themselves (view of Noam Chomsky) • social impulses foster learning 29
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theory One: Infants Need to Be Taught – 50 years ago the dominant learning theory in North America was behaviorism – B. F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced… a grinning mother appears, repeating, praising, giving attention to the infant – Parents are expert teachers, other caregivers help – Frequent repetitions instructive when linked to daily life – Well-taught infants become well-spoken children 30
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves – a contrary theory is that language learning is innate--adults need not teach it – Norm Chomsky (1968,1980) felt that language is too complex to be mastered merely through step-by-step conditioning 31
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves – universal grammar--all young children master basic language at about the same age – Language acquisition device (LAD) • a term used for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary and intonation 32
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • Theory Three: Social Impulses Foster Infant Language – a third theory called social-pragmatic perceives the crucial starting point to be neither vocabulary reinforcement (behaviorism) nor innate connection (epigenetic), but rather the social reason for language; communication – Infants communicate in every way they can because humans are social beings and depend on one another for survival and joy 33
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? 34
    • Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? • A Hybrid Theory – the integration of all three perspectives… notably in a monograph based on 12 experiments designed by 8 researchers – their model an emergentist coalition… combing valid aspects of several theories about the emergence of language during infancy 35