Pragmatics utterance meaning language in context interaction of sentence meaning, speakerintentions, discourse context,common ground, world knowledge
Grice (1967):1. sentence meaning (what issaid) vs. speaker meaning(what is meant)2. speaker meaning consists ofconversational implicaturesin addition to sentence meaning
(1) Al: What time is it?Trixie: Some of the guests arealready leaving. Its late.(2) Al: Is the party fun?Trixie: Some of the guests arealready leaving. The party is boring.(3) John: Do you want to go skiing?Mary: Its snowing!a. No. (because Mary only skis whenits sunny)b. Yes. (because the snow is betterand there are less peopleon the slopes)
How do we infer what the speaker meant?(4) a. John: Do you want to go skiing?Mary: Its snowing ( no): : : but I didnt mean to saythat I dont want to go skiing. In fact, I love skiingwhen it snows.b. John: Theres a red cube on the table (! there is acube onthe table): : : but there is no cube on the table.strange
“Pragmatics is an important area of study for yourcourse. A simplified way of thinking aboutpragmatics is to recognise, for example, thatlanguage needs to be kept interesting - a speakeror writer does not want to bore a listener orreader, for example, by being over-long ortedious. So, humans strive to find linguistic meansto make a text, perhaps, shorter, more interesting,more relevant, more purposeful or more personal.Pragmatics allows this. ” Steve Campsall
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